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Life Span Development FINAL EXAM Study Guide

by: Heather Cronin

Life Span Development FINAL EXAM Study Guide HDFS201010

Marketplace > University of Delaware > Human Dev&Family Studies > HDFS201010 > Life Span Development FINAL EXAM Study Guide
Heather Cronin
GPA 4.0

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Comprehensive study guide which covers all the material on the final exam for HDFS 201. Used this material for my final and got an A in the class!
Life Span Development
Palkovitz,Robin J
Study Guide
HDFS, HDFS201, lifespan development, Lifespan, HumanDevelopment, final, Studyguide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Heather Cronin on Friday August 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS201010 at University of Delaware taught by Palkovitz,Robin J in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Life Span Development in Human Dev&Family Studies at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 08/26/16
HDFS201 Final Exam Study Guide  Death systems o Involve Stopp:  People  Places  Times (occasions)  Objects  Symbols o Functions:  Issue warnings & Predictions  Prevent death  Care for dying  Dispose of dead  Social consolidation post-death  Making sense of death  Killing o Most societies have philosophical/religious beliefs about death, and believe it is not the end of existence  Favored view by Americans o United States performs death avoidance and denial  Funeral industry  Polite language  Search for fountain of youth  Rejection/Isolation of the aged  Concept of the Afterlife  Medical community’s dedication to prolonging life  Life/Death Decisions o Options  Euthanasia: painlessly ending lives of suffering individuals  Passive Euthanasia: Withholding treatment  Active Euthanasia: providing dose of lethal drug o Growing acceptance of passive euthanasia o Active euthanasia illegal in all states except Oregon and Washington o Death in America is characteristically lonely, prolonged, and painful  Lack of training of health-care professionals  Developmental Perspectives on Death o “Mature” Understanding of death includes:  Finality  Irreversibility  Universality  Biological causality o Infants  Brief Separation= Total Loss  Cannot comprehend death as cessation of life  May notice changes in their environment due to others’ losses  6-7 months: separation anxiety  If attachment figure dies, infant may express grief  Poor appetite, changes in sleep patterns, clinginess  Loss of parent can have negative effect on health  Can recover and attach to someone new o Early Childhood  Don’t understand death  Confuse it with sleep  Don’t get upset  Believe it can be reversed  Only bad or careless people die  Curious about death  Time frames:  Around 3-5, begin to understand universality but not finality  Preschoolers do not grasp irreversibility  Age 10: Biological causality grasped  Simple, honest answers are more helpful for development than “easy” answers o Middle and Late Childhood  More realistic perceptions  Universality & Irreversibility grasped around age 9  Death of a parent/sibling especially difficult  Decline of school performance and peer relationships  Causes hypersensitivity about death  Require more elaborate explanations of death than younger children  Adults should be sensitive, sympathetic, and encouraging o Adolescence  More abstract conceptions of death  Darkness/light, transition, nothingness  Develop philosophical/religious views about death and make a decision about the afterlife  Believe they are invincible  Death of a parent results in:  Reluctance to express feelings  Acting out  Mental health problems  30% grieved for a year  10% grieved for 3+ years and experienced depression  More likely to suffer from depression, substance abuse, PTSD (after 1 year)  Altered cortisol levels (stress hormone)  Disturbs normal development o Adulthood  Increased consciousness about death  Awareness of their own aging  Middle-agers fear death the most  Older adults more open about death  More direct experience (friends, relatives)  Sense of integrity- positive life view  Dealing with death is a developmental task  Loss of a partner is most traumatic  Causes other stressors (role change, moving, etc.)  Increased risk of physical/mental illness  Average grief period is 1 year  Surviving spouses seek to cope with loss by intensifying their religious/spiritual beliefs and finding meaning in death  Women adjust better  Men more likely to remarry  Younger, dying adults feel cheated  Coping with Death o One’s Own Death  Kubler-Ross’s Stages of dying (DABDA):  Denial and isolation  Anger  Bargaining  Depression  Acceptance  The “stages” are highly criticized:  Experiences are highly varied  Dying people focus on life as well as death  Neglects influence of personality and life experiences  Perceived control helps to remain positive  Most people would prefer to die at home, but fear lack of access to emergency medical care o Others’ Death  They know they are dying  Can die how they please  Can complete plans/arrangements  Can reminisce with others  Better understanding of the medical process  Grief  Includes pining for lost person  Occurs repeatedly after a loss, but loses frequency and intensity over time o Coping around 6 months  80-90% of people experience grief  Disenfranchised grief: grief over a deceased person that is a socially ambiguous loss o Cannot be publicly acknowledged o Reawakened by later deaths  Stimulates people to make sense of their world  Dual-Process Model of coping with bereavement: oscillation between coping with emotional loss and the practical challenges of living  Loss-oriented stressors: focus on deceased individual and an appraisal of loss  Restoration-oriented stressors: indirect outcomes of bereavement  Sudden, untimely, violent, traumatic deaths have more intense and prolonged effects on survivors  Brings people together  Mourning  Volunteering and helping behavior helps to improve well-being  Social support  Burial and cremation processes  Kohlberg’s stages of moral development o Preconventional Reasoning  Good and bad interpreted according to external punishment and reward o Stage 1: Heteronomous mortality  Moral thinking tied to punishment o Stage 2: Individualism, instrumental purpose, exchange  Individuals pursue own interest and let others do the same o Conventional reasoning  Apply standards set by others o Stage 3: Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity  Individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as basis of moral judgment o Stage 4: Social systems morality  Judgments based on understanding of social order, law, justice, and duty o Post-conventional reasoning  Individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores options, then decides on personal moral code  Development of Morals o Social and cognitive factors  Self-control is key  Moral self: adopting standards of right and wrong to use as a guide o Moral personality  Moral Identity  Moral notions and commitments are central to one’s life  Moral Character  Strength of convictions, persistence, overcoming distractions and obstacles  Moral exemplars  People who live exemplary lives o Prosocial Behaviors  Altruism: unselfish interest, voluntarily helping others  Public  Emotional  Dire  Anonymous  Compliant  Marriage trends o Majority of Americans still get married o Married men happier than married women o Increased cohabitation and staying single  Parenting styles o Authoritarian  Punitive restrictive o Authoritative  Encourage independence  Place limits and control  Warm and nurturing o Neglectful  Uninvolved o Indulgent  Highly involved  Little control or limits  Types of Families o Working Parents  Poor working conditions= Poor family life  Children of working mothers are more tolerant of varying gender identities o Divorced Families  40% children  Poorer adjustment  Academic problems  Problematic relationships  Take Sexual & Health risks o Stepfamilies  Better relationships with birth parents than stepparents  Easier adjustment in simple than complex/blended  Adjustment issues o Gay & Lesbian families  33% Lesbians, 23% gays are parents  More equality among both partners in child care o Adoptive Families  The earlier the better  Mostly satisfactory adjustment  Family as a System o Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system: 5 systems  Individual  Microsystem: direct environment (family, peers, work)  Mesosystem: interaction of microsystems  Exosystem: Network (neighbors, friends of friends, media, legal)  Macrosystem: culture, government o Reciprocal Socialization: bidirectional socialization between parents and children o Scaffolding: Adjusting parenting style to suit the child’s needs o Dyadic subsystems: two people o Polydyadic Subsystems: more than two people  Functions of friendship o Companionship o Stimulation o Ego support o Social comparison o Affection and intimacy  Peer Statuses o Popular children: Frequently nominated as best friend, rarely disliked  Good social skills, happy, open, caring, confident o Average children: positive and negative nominations o Neglected children: rarely nominated as best friend, but not disliked  Shy, low interaction o Rejected children: rarely nominated as best friend, disliked  Adjustment problems, sometimes shy, often aggressive o Controversial children: frequently nominated as best friend and disliked  Friendships throughout life o Childhood  Characterized by similarity  Social, supportive, driven friends= developmental advantages o Adolescence  Small, intense, intimate friend groups  Private  Girls are more intimate, boys are more adventurous  Positive friendships: lower rates of delinquency, substance abuse, risky sexual behavior, bullying and victimization  Negative friendships: depression o Emerging Adulthood  Close relationships more integrated  Lower number of friendships  Women have more close friendships than men  Females talk, males engage in activities o Late Adulthood  Friendship networks expand  New Friendships unlikely  Content with few close friends  Approaches to learning o Constructivist approach  Active construction of knowledge and understanding  Teacher supports students  Collaboration o Direct Instruction  Teacher-centered  High expectations, lots of work, maximum learning time o Child-centered kindergarten  Physical, cognitive, socioemotional development  Organized around child’s needs, interest, and learning styles  Emphasis on process of learning rather than what is learned o Montessori Approach  Freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities  Teacher is facilitator  Teaches self-regulation, problem-solving, time management o DAP  Focuses on typical developmental patterns and uniqueness of each child  Active learning  Critical thinking, cooperative work, problem-solving, self- regulation, learning enjoyment  Learning Disabilities o Dyslexia o Dysgraphia o Dyscalculia o 80% have reading problems o 3x more common in boys than girls o ADHD o Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)  Retirement o 10-15% of life o 7 million o Those who best adjust to retirement are:  Healthy  Financially stable  Active  Educated  Social o Flexibility and planning is key  Impact of work on development o Adolescence  Economic benefits  Increased school engagement  Decreased delinquency o Adulthood  Structure and rhythm o Middle Adulthood  Central  Peak careers and earnings


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