HDFS 201 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
HDFS 201 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE HDFS201010
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Heather Cronin on Friday August 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS201010 at University of Delaware taught by Palkovitz,Robin J in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Life Span Development in Human Dev&Family Studies at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
Chapter 1 Development: pattern of movement/change that begins at conception and continues throughout lifespan Aging: how you progress chronologically (years), biologically (health), psychologically (adaptive capacities), and socially (relationships and status) Goals of Life-Span Development: 1. Knowledge about personal development 2. Knowledge about others’ development 3. Application to the rest of your life 4. Impact on others Key Assumptions of Life-Span Perspective. Development is: 1. Lifelong 2. Multidimensional a. Biological b. Cognitive c. Socioemotional 3. Multidirectional: we lose some capabilities and gain others as we age 4. Plastic: capable of change 5. Multidisciplinary: many fields have an interest in development 6. Contextual: all development occurs within a setting a. Normative age-graded influences: people of the same age group have similar experiences b. Normative history-graded influences: people of the same generation have similar experiences c. Nonnormative: dependent on the individual 7. Involves Growth, Maintenance and Regulation of Loss 8. Co-construction of Biology, Culture and the Individual Key Developmental Issues: 1. Nature vs. Nurture: Does genetics or environment have a greater impact? 2. Stability and Change: How does this affect our development? 3. Continuity vs. Discontinuity: Is change step-based, or continuous? Theoretical Perspectives: 1. Psychoanalytic: Describe development as unconscious and heavily impacted by emotion. Behavior is surface characteristic- must study symbolic meanings and inner workings of the mind to understand development. a. Freud’s Theory: Early experiences with parents extensively shape development. Driving force for behavior is sexual. Critical development occurs within the first five years. b. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory: We develop in psychosocial stages, rather than psychosexual. The driving force for human behavior is social interaction. Development occurs throughout the lifetime. 2. Cognitive: Emphasize conscious thoughts. a. Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory: Suggests children’s four stages of cognitive development. Organization and adaptation underlie cognitive construction of the world. b. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory: Social interaction and culture play a heavy role in development. Not stage-like. c. Information-Processing Theory: Individuals manipulate information, monitor it and strategize about it. Not stage-like. 3. Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories: a. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning: The consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior’s occurrence. Rewards and punishment shape development. Deemphasizes role of cognition. b. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory: Behavior, environment and cognition are key factors in development. Focused on observational learning. 4. Ethological Theory: Behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods. a. Bronfenbrenner Scientific Method 1. Conceptualize a Problem 2. Collect Data 3. Analyze Data 4. Draw Conclusions Methods for Collecting Data 1. Observation 2. Survey and Interview 3. Standardized Test 4. Case Study 5. Physiological Measures Research Designs 1. Descriptive: Observes and records behavior. Cannot detect a causal relationship. 2. Correlational: Describes strength of relationship between two variables. The further the correlation coefficient from zero, the stronger the relationship. Cannot prove a causal relationship. 3. Experimental: Regulated procedure which one or more critical factors are studied, while other factors are held constant. Can prove a causal relationship. Time-Span of Research 1. Cross-Sectional Approach: Simultaneously compares individuals of different ages in respect to a variety of dependent variables. Does not represent change, but it is efficient. 2. Longitudinal Approach: Same individuals are studied over a period of time. Provide much information but they are expensive, time-consuming, and participants withdraw. Ethics 1. Informed Consent 2. Confidentiality 3. Debriefing 4. Deception: cannot harm participants Chapter 2 Genetic Code o Chromosomes: threadlike structures made of DNA o Genes: units of hereditary information; short segments of DNA; help cells reproduce and reproduce proteins o Mitosis: cell reproduction; cell’s nucleus duplicates itself and the cell divides o Meiosis: forms eggs and sperm; a cell of the testes or ovaries duplicates its chromosomes and divides twice, creating four cells with half of the parent’s genetic material and 23 unpaired chromosomes o Fertilization: the egg and sperm fuse, linking chromosomes, to create a single cell called a zygote o 23 chromosome determines sex (the male can contribute an X or a Y; the Y makes it male) Polygenic Inheritance: characteristics determined by the interaction of many genes Chromosomal Abnormalities: when a gamete (egg or sperm) does not have normal set of 23 chromosomes o Down Syndrome: extra copy of chromosome 21 o Klinefelter Syndrome: when males are XXY instead of XY, affects puberty (breasts, underdeveloped testes, increased height) o Fragile X Syndrome: abnormality in X chromosome, mentally compromised o Turner Syndrome: missing or damaged X chromosome, infertility and math problems o XYY Syndrome: male has extra Y chromosome Gene-linked abnormalities: produced by abnormal number of chromosomes or harmful genes Behavior Genetics: seeks to discover influence of heredity and environment on human traits and development (nature vs. nurture) o Epigenetic View (Gene-Environment Interaction): Gottlieb proposed that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between genes and environment o Gene-Environment Correlation: potential for one’s genes to influence which environments they are exposed to Passive: when biological parents provide rearing environment for the child If both parents are authors, will expose child to literature, and genetics and environment together will create a propensity to write Evocative: genetic characteristics elicit particular environments A smiley, outgoing child will produce a more social environment Active (Niche-Picking): children seek out niches that reflect their interests (in accordance with genotype) A genetically musical child will spend more time in a record shop o Shared Environmental Experiences: siblings’ common experiences Doesn’t have much influence on personality o Nonshared Environmental Experiences: an individual’s unique experiences Suggests gene-environment correlation (a genetically athletic child will spend more time in a sports-geared environment) Concordance Rate: presence (or lack thereof) of the same trait in both twins Controversy: Although genetics and environment heavily weigh on our development, we are not merely at the mercy of these factors. We are also creators in our development, because our choices today affect later outcomes. Chapter 3 Prenatal Period o Germinal Period: first two weeks after conception Creation of zygote Cell division Attachment of zygote to uterine wall o Embryonic Period: two to eight weeks after conception Cell differentiation intensifies: three layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) Support systems for cells form Organs appear (organogenesis) o Fetal Period: seven months Becomes active Growth spurt Prenatal Brain o Babies have 100 billion neurons at birth o Basic architecture of brain is constructed in first two trimesters o Neural tube develops out of ectoderm (both ends must close) o Neurogenesis o Third trimester-two years is characterized by connectivity and functioning of neurons Hazards to Prenatal Development o Teratogen: agent that could cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive/behavioral outcomes Dose Genetic Susceptibility Time of Exposure o Drugs Prescription: antibiotics, antidepressants, hormones Nonprescription: diet pills, aspirin Psychoactive: caffeine (non-harmful), alcohol (FASD), nicotine, cocaine, meth, marijuana, heroin o Incompatibility of mother and father’s blood types o Maternal Diseases Syphilis, genital herpes, AIDS, diabetes o Maternal Diet and Nutrition o Emotional States and Stress o Maternal Age o Environmental Hazards o Paternal Factors Childbirth Practices o 99% of U.S. births in hospitals o In Africa, men are excluded from birthing process o In Pacific Islands, childbirth is a public affair o Midwives o Doulas: caregivers who provide continuous physical, emotional and education support for the mother before, during and after childbirth o Medication: analgesics, anesthesia, oxytocin o Prepared childbirth: breathing techniques (Lamaze) o Waterbirth: Switzerland, Sweden o Acupuncture: China o Cesarean Neonatal Life o Kangaroo Care: skin-to-skin contact o Massage therapy o Bonding: formation of a close connection between parents and newborn shortly after birth Infants follow a cephalocaudal (top-down) growth o Later on, follow proximodistal (center-out) growth Brain Development o Much of brain development occurs after birth Synaptogenesis: developing new connections between neurons Synaptic pruning: removing unnecessary synapses Plasticity o Childhood Rapid growth Increase in dendrites and myelination Neural pathways increase in prefrontal cortex Lateralization: specialization of functions of two hemispheres Communicate through corpus collosum o Adolescence Fewer, more selective neural connections Corpus callosum, prefrontal cortex and amygdala all have importance growth o Adulthood Function of brain and spinal cord decrease Production of neurotransmitters decreases Eating Behaviors of Children o Poor nutrition result of unhealthy eating habits and obesity o Malnutrition/starvation threatens millions o Insufficient food is not the problem, it’s poor nutrition Puberty: period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes in early adolescence o Male Increase in penis & testicle size Straight pubic hair Minor voice change Curly pubic hair Growth in weight and height Hair in armpits Deep voice change Facial hair Don’t have their growth spurt until 11, peak at 13.5 o Female Breast enlargement/growth of pubic hair Growth in height and widening of hips Menarche (first period) Begin growth spurt 2 years earlier around age 9, peak at 11 Girls start out taller and heavier than boys, but this changes by age 14 o Endocrine Glands Involved in Change Hypothalamus: interacts with pituitary gland to monitor regulation of hormones Pituitary Gland: produces hormones and influences growth Thyroid: influences growth Adrenal Gland: Has a role in puberty, may influence behavior Gonads (Sex Glands): involved in appearance of secondary sex characteristics (facial hair, breast development) Estrogen: female hormone o Estradiol Androgen: male hormone o Testosterone o Psychological Accompaniments Body Image Gender Differences Early/Late Maturation Reproductive System o Climacteric: midlife transition when fertility declines Menopause: late 40s/early 50s involving dramatic decline in production of estrogen by ovaries. Men have decreased sex hormone levels and activity Chapter 5 Gibson’s Ecological View on Perception o Perceptual system is selective of the sensory stimuli provided by the environment o Perception is designed for action o All objects have affordances: opportunities for interaction that are necessary for performing functional activities o Visual Perception Newborns have poor vision, 20/40 by 6 months of age Color vision forms at 4-8 weeks Unknown at what point infants can perceive depth Dynamic Systems View o Motor behaviors are assembled for perceiving and acting Infants motivated to act by what they perceive in environment To achieve goal, must fine-tune movements using perceptions Adulthood Changes in the Senses o Vision Changes in stimulation point and perception Decreased blood supply to eyes Depth perception declines Color vision may deteriorate o Hearing Decline begins around 40 with high-pitched sounds Greater decline begins around 75 o Touch & Pain Less sensitive o Smell Capabilities can decline as early as 20 and each consecutive decade o Taste Begin to decline in the 60s Fetus and Infant Hearing o Fetus can hear during last two months of pregnancy o Infants’ hearing changes in reference to loudness, pitch and localization o Prefer human speech and complex auditory stimuli Chapter 6 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development (Constructivist) o Looks at environmental experience and biology and how we sculpt our development o We create mental schemas that allow for adaptation o Children are active agents in their own cognitive development o Used naturalistic observation and clinical method (question and answer) to explore children’s understanding of the world o Intelligence: life function that helps organism adapt to environment Schemes: actions or mental representations to organize knowledge Infants: behavioral schemes Childhood: mental schemes Adaptation Assimilation: use of old schema for new information or experience Accommodation: adjust or modify scheme to account for new information or experience o Cognitive Conflict: challenging old schemes o Equilibrium-Mental Stability: internal thoughts consistent with evidence from external world o Stages: Sensorimotor Stage (Birth-2 years) Simple reflexes, first habits and primary circular reactions, secondary circular reaction, coordination of secondary circular reactions, tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity, internalization of schemes (object permanence at the end of this stage) Preoperational Stage (2-7 years): stable concepts, reasoning, egocentrism & magical beliefs Symbolic function, intuitive thought Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years): can mentally combine, separate, order and transform concrete objects Formal Operational Stage (11+ years): thinking abstractly, deductive reasoning, adolescent egocentrism, imaginary audience Adolescent egocentrism: heightened self-awareness, think everyone is as interested in them as they are o Personal fable: believing they are “special” Imaginary audience: one is center of everyone’s attention o A-not-B Error: mistaking a familiar hiding place for a new one o Reversibility: allow children to do mentally what they could only do physically (not understood at preoperational stage) o Transitivity: ability to logically combine relations to understand conclusions Centration/Decentration o Centration: Focus on one feature, leads to egocentrism o Decentration: Considering more than one feature at a time Mental distancing: stepping back from immediate sensation to be objective Extending Piaget’s Work o Has been applied to education by using the constructivist approach o Facilitate rather than directly teach o Consider child’s knowledge and level of thinking o Turn classroom into exploratory/discovery setting o Children can be trained to reason at a higher cognitive stage o Culture and education has stronger influence than Piaget thought Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development o Emphasized role of social environment in stimulating cognitive development o Shaped by culture in which we live o Society provides tools to support cognitive development o Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD): Range of tasks too difficult for children to master alone, but can be mastered with guidance and assistance o Scaffolding: When student is learning a new task, direct instruction is used. As competence increases, less guidance is provided. Dialogue is an important tool o Private Speech: language of self-regulation
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