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by: Heather Cronin


Marketplace > University of Delaware > Psychology > PSYC207 > PSYC 207 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
Heather Cronin
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Comprehensive study guide of all class notes for Research Methods Exam #1. Finished with an A on the exam!
Research Methods
Kristen Begosh
Study Guide
PSYC, Psychology, Research Methodologies, research methods, research, psyc207, psych, Studyguide, exam1
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Heather Cronin on Friday August 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC207 at University of Delaware taught by Kristen Begosh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 08/26/16
Research Methods Study Guide #1  Acquiring Knowledge 1. Tradition- repeat often, accept as truth 2. Intuition- no evidence, go off “feelings” 3. Authority- listen and accept as truth 4. Personal Experience- subjective  Usually first step to further research 5. Reasoning- using rules of logic 6. Empiricism- learning through your senses 7. Science- use empiricism and rational thought The Indian-Americans probably realize Europe’s selfishness.  Critical Thinking 1. Ask questions 2. Define the problem with an operational definition  Description of how to measure a construct 3. Examine evidence 4. Analyze assumptions and biases 5. Avoid emotional reasoning 6. Don’t oversimplify/overgeneralize 7. Consider alternative explanations 8. Tolerate uncertainty Ask dates everything and always design cuddle time.  Scientific Method 1. Ask a question based on observation, data or theories 2. Form hypothesis 3. Conduct research 4. Analyze findings 5. Make conclusion about hypothesis 6. Support theory or revise theory  Hypotheses 1. 3 Types  Conceptual: prediction in abstract terms (using constructs)  Research: replace constructs with operational definitions  Statistical: prediction about how means are related 2. Directional vs. Nondirectional  Directional: hypothesizing who will be better and who will be worse  Nondirectional: stating there will be a difference 3. Null vs. Alternative  Null: no difference between groups  Alternative: difference between groups (directional/nondirectional) 4. Hypothesis Testing  State null (H0) and alternative (H A  Collect data and analyze  Make decision  Reject null  Support alternative  Retain null  Make inference  Errors in Hypothesis Testing 1. Type 1 Error: a true null hypothesis is incorrectly rejected  α = probability of type 1 error 2. Type 2 Error: failure to reject a false null hypothesis  β = probability of type 2 error  Power: ability to detect real differences in a research study 1. How to Increase Power  Make α level more favorable  Use interval or ratio measurements  Improve measurement precision  Control extraneous variables  Reduce variability (avoid generalizing)  Increase sample size  Maximize treatment  Extraneous vs. Confounding Variables 1. Extraneous: not part of research question but can affect outcome 2. Confounding: extraneous variable that varies systematically with groups  Ex. Exercise group could have balanced diet and non-exercise group could have junk food diet, and diet is the confounding variable that is producing the results  Controlling Extraneous Variables 1. Eliminate 2. Constancy 3. Include as an additional independent variable 4. Randomization of participants 5. Repeated measures (same participants in both groups) 6. Statistical control  ANCOVA (Analysis of Covariance): control for extraneous variable like it never existed  Effect Size: measurement of treatment effect by the gap between means  Statistical Significance: measurement of the overlap  Scientific Articles 1. Research 2. Review 3. Commentary  APA Research Paper 1. Abstract- summary around 150 words 2. Introduction- what’s being studied, background/past research, hypothesis, brief glimpse of method/procedure 3. Method- participants, materials, procedure 4. Results- statistical analysis, how scores were created/obtained 5. Discussion- interpretation of results, future studies, limitations, rejection or retention of hypothesis  Types of Variability 1. Between-Person: person-to-person 2. Within-Person: per each individual  Plotting Data 1. Normality  Symmetry, lack of skew and kurtosis (sharp rise or flatness) 2. Equal variances (same spread) 3. Check for outliers  Categories of Statistics 1. Descriptive: summarize your data  Measures of Central Tendency  Mean, Median, Mode  Measures of Variability  Range, standard deviation, interquartile range 2. Inferential: make inferences about the population  Nominal data 2  χ (chi-square) test: tells if frequencies are different than what would be expected by chance  Ordinal data  Use descriptive statistics or percentiles  Interval and Ratio Data  Correlation: describes strength and direction of relationship between two continuous variables o Use scatterplot o Direction can be positive or negative o Correlation exists on a scale of -1 to 1 o The closer |r| is to 0, the stronger the correlation  Regression: use information about variables to make a prediction about an outcome o Ex. Using HS GPA to predict college GPA o Univariate: one predictor o Bivariate: two predictors o Multivariate: 3+ predictors o Predictors and outcomes instead of independent and dependent variables  T-Test: detects differences between two groups o Independent (between subjects): different participants in groups o Dependent (within subjects): same participants in each group  ANOVA (Analysis of Variance): comparing 3+ groups o One-way: single independent variable with 3+ levels o Factorial: 2+ independent variables


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