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by: Heather Cronin


Marketplace > University of Delaware > Psychology > PSYC207 > PSYC 207 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
Heather Cronin
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Comprehensive study guide of all class notes for PSYC 207 Exam #2. Finished with an A on the exam!
Research Methods
Kristen Begosh
Study Guide
PSYC, Psychology, psych, psyc207, Research Methodologies, research methods, research, midterm, exam2, Studyguide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Heather Cronin on Friday August 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC207 at University of Delaware taught by Kristen Begosh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 08/26/16
Research Methods Exam #2  Studies with Ethical Issues 1. Stanford Prison Study: officers beating and abusing inmates 2. Little Albert: classical conditioning to fear white objects 3. Wild Child: feral children 4. Nazi experiments: hypothermia, surgery  Nuremburg Code: consent 5. Tuskegee Studies: US government withholds cure for syphilis from African Americans 6. Harlow’s Monkeys: isolated/aggressive when returned to wild  Belmont Report: 1979 in response to Tuskegee studies 1. Respect for Persons  Privacy  Confidentiality: information collected but not shared  Self-determination: decision to participate 2. Beneficence/Nonmaleficence: do good, do no harm 3. Justice: who’s benefitting, who’s incurring the cost -- American Psychological Association (APA) -- 4. Fidelity and Responsibility: putting subjects first 5. Integrity: being truthful, debriefing  Conducting Ethical Research 1. Before  Submit proposal to Ethics Review Board (IRB)  Cost/benefit analysis  Approve, modify or reject  Informed Consent Form  Purpose  Procedure  Risks/benefits  Duration  Compensation  Rights  Alternative options  Contact info for IRB & researchers 2. During  Follow procedures  Report of adverse events  Monitor progress 3. After  Debrief  Report results  Publish erratum if necessary: stating a mistake was made  Cite sources  Follow-up  Process for Creating Your Own Questions 1. Fixed Alternative: multiple choice, yes/no  Scales of severity not included 2. Open Response  Content analysis: categorizing open responses in order to analyze data 3. Rating Scale: indicating degree of magnitude 4. Likert Scale: rating scale from agree  disagree  Avoid:  Factual statements  Multiple interpretations  Irrelevant questions  Likely to be agreed upon by everyone/no one  “All,” “always,” “never,” “none”  Statements referring to the past  Do:  Cover entire potential response range  Use simple, clear language  Include only one complete thought 5. Semantic Differential: Charles Osgood  Respondents generate a list of adjectives and their opposites and then rate them on a scale  Participants use the rating scale  Issues to Consider When Constructing Questions 1. Social desirability 2. Response set: responding to all questions the same way  Control by using reverse phrasing, anonymity, and inclusion of irrelevant items 3. Inclusion of neutral point 4. “I don’t know” or “No response”  Methods for Collecting Data 1. Accuracy 2. Amplitude 3. Choice selection 4. Duration 5. Frequency 6. fMRI 7. Latency 8. Survey 9. Trajectory  Reliability and Validity 1. Reliability: dependable, consistent  Test-retest: reliability over time  Split-halves: internal consistency by comparing 1 half to 2d half or even-odd  Chronbach’s Alpha: internal consistency by comparing average correlation of each item and every other item -- For Observational Research --  Inter-rater Reliability: agreement between observers  Cohen’s Kappa: scale from 0 (no agreement) to 1 (complete agreement) 2. Validity: measuring what’s intended  Internal: if research is well-designed and accounts for extraneous variables/confounds  External: measuring what it’s intending to  Face Validity: how well instrument measures what you’re studying  Construct Validity: how well instrument measures abstract concept (construct)  Content Validity: measuring all aspects of construct  Criterion (Convergent): instrument highly correlated with other instruments designed to measure same construct  Predictive Validity: if you know the score on one instrument, you can predict the score on another  Discriminant (Divergent): you should score differently on tests that measure different constructs  Sampling 1. Probability Sampling: can determine probability that an individual will be included in study  Random  Systematic: selecting every n personh  Stratified: divide population into strata proportionate to population  Cluster: randomly select clusters, in which you study all members  Multi-stage: 2+ characteristics that you cluster on; randomly select clusters under each larger heading 2. Non-probability Sampling  Convenience: select available participants  Quota: hit a particular number of participants with a particular quality through convenience sampling  Referral: when you don’t have sufficient access to the population in study  Experiments: testing effects of independent variable on dependent variable 1. Establish cause and effect 2. Rule out confounding variables 3. Random selection 4. Independent Groups: comparing 2+ groups each containing different individuals 5. Experimental Method  Formulate conceptual hypothesis  Select appropriate IVs and DVs (operationalization)  Limit alternative explanations  Manipulate IVs and measure DVs  Analyze variation of DV  Draw inferences on relationship  Where We Do Experiments 1. Controlled Experiment (Lab)  High internal validity: rule out confounds  Setting environment 2. Field Experiment  External validity: generalizable to larger population  Doesn’t have internal validity  Types of Independent Designs 1. Randomized groups: single independent variable 2. Randomized factorial: 2+ IVs, participants randomly assigned to one level of each IV 3. 2x2 factorial design  Talking About Results 1. Main Effect  For main effect of groups, compare center-point of each line and compare. For main effect of condition, draw an “average” line and measure its slope. 2. Interaction


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