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by: Heather Cronin


Marketplace > University of Delaware > Psychology > PSYC207 > PSYC 207 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
Heather Cronin
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Comprehensive final exam guide of all class notes. Finished the class with an A!
Research Methods
Kristen Begosh
Study Guide
Psychology, psych, PSYC, psyc207, research, Research Methodologies, research methods, Studyguide, final
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Heather Cronin on Friday August 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC207 at University of Delaware taught by Kristen Begosh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology at University of Delaware.




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Date Created: 08/26/16
PSYC 207: Research Methods--Final Exam Study Guide S16  Dependent Groups Experiments: same participants in every level of independent variable  Method  Make hypothesis  Select variables  Limit alternative explanations  Manipulate variables (Run experiment)  Analyze data  Draw conclusions  Two types  Within-Participants Dependent Groups Experiment: Repeated measures (same measurements at different times)  Matched-Groups Dependent Groups Experiment: Match similar individuals to one another; treat as same person  Advantages  Reduced error variance (less variability)  More power than independent groups (detecting real difference)  Limitations  Carryover/Transfer effects  Practice  Fatigue  Controlled through:  Incomplete Design: each participant receives every level of independent variables, but only once  Order of levels is varied across participants to average-out carryover effects  Counterbalancing: present every possible order  Latin Square: each condition is in each ordinal position exactly once, and each condition precedes and follows each other exactly once  Random Start with Rotation: present random order of levels to first participant, then for each subsequent participant, shift up by one  Systematic process can be a confound  Complete Design: each participant gets every level of the independent variable more than once  Carryover effects averaged out within participants  Reverse Counterbalancing: each participant gets a random order and its reverse  Block Randomization: create random blocks and present those blocks randomly to each participant  Mixed Groups Design: at least two independent variables, with at least one being independent groups and at least one being dependent groups  Non-Experiments: independent variable is not manipulated, potentially no control of timing, determining causal relationship is not primary goal  Three conditions to infer causality:  Timing: x must precede y  Covariation: change in x and change in y  Elimination of alternative explanations  Quasi Experiment  True Quasi Experiment: comparing pre-existing groups  Participant variable: individuals assign themselves to a group  Participants may not all be equal at the start  Time-Series Design: participants are measured multiple times before and after an event/treatment but researcher has no control over timing of event/treatment  Interrupted Time Series: one group  Multiple Time Series: include a control  Non-Equivalent Control Groups: comparing groups you expect to be different from the outset  Longitudinal Research: looks at changes over time within the same participants  Disadvantages:  Rates of Attrition: people dropping out  Problem occurs when people from different levels of the independent variable are dropping out at different rates  People of low SES drop out much more frequently  Cross-Sectional Study: studying different people at the same time  Disadvantages:  Cohort effects: differences between generations  Case Study: in-depth look at individuals to generalize to the population  Bad for causality  Can do data analysis  Correlational Study: analyze continuous variables for the strength and direction of their correlation  Look at interval and ratio data  Correlations from -1 to +1  Data Collection Methods  Observational Research  Structured: specific set of questions to investigate  Unstructured: record what you observe  Naturalistic Observation  Time Sampling: record whether an event is present in each time increment  Event Sampling: record how many times each event occurs  Covert or overt  Overt creates reactivity  Benefit: external validity  Disadvantages: internal validity, inconvenient, dangerous  Participant Observation: researcher imbeds themselves in the group  Covert or overt  Benefit: perspective-taking, external validity  Disadvantages: might lose sight of research goals, could create biases if you form relationships with participants  Laboratory Observation: researcher sets up scenario  Disadvantages: limited to studying only observable behaviors  Survey  Can be used in experimental or non-experimental research  Structured or unstructured  Types of Interviews  Face-to-Face  Could get socially desirable responding  Skype/Facetime  Phone  Convenient  Impersonal  Shorter  Questionnaires  Group administration, mailing, internet  Always pilot questions to ensure internal validity  Benefits: easier to be confidential= lower rates of socially desirable responding, can be administered to large numbers quickly  Disadvantages: must be able to read  Focus Group: recording a facilitator-guided discussion  To get general opinions  First step to further research  Benefits: lots of opinion, bring up subjects beyond the set questions  Disadvantages: people could talk too much/not enough, socially desirable responses, may be restricted to geographic area  Program Evaluation/ Evaluation Research  Goal: whether a program is meeting its objectives  What to Look For  Are goals being met?  Is the program needed?  Is it efficient?  Build evaluation into the program from its outset  Steps  Determine the need  Select outcome measures  Types of Program Evaluation:  Needs Assessment  Formative Research: evaluation is part of program design  Summative Research: describe program already in place  Types of Evaluation Research:  Archival Research: pre-existing data  Benefit: don’t need to gather participants, only method for obtaining this data  Disadvantages: could be incomplete (ex. the census & slaves), expensive, time-consuming  Rules:  Need appointment  No flash photography, photo copies, pens, need gloves  Source reliability (is it the original?)  Be exhaustive with search terms  Fees may apply  Meta-Analysis: researcher examines other people’s published research data & pulls from sources to paint a more complete picture of research interest  Analyze effect size: distance between means


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