NTDT 200 FINAL EXAM QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
NTDT 200 FINAL EXAM QUESTIONS & ANSWERS NTDT200
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Heather Cronin on Friday August 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTDT200 at University of Delaware taught by Jennifer Linton in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Nutrition Concepts in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 08/26/16
NTDT200: Nutrition Concepts Final Study Guide S16 AMDR for carbohydrate: 4565% What makes a person eat the foods they do: preference (taste), habit, tradition, interactions, convenience Biggest factor influencing food choice: taste Anthropometric measures: height and weight Macronutrients: carbohydrates, protein and fatyield energy DRI: standards for energy, nutrients, physical activity for healthy people RDA: standards to meet most people’s needs UL (tolerable upper intake): point of toxicity Adequacy: sufficient amount Double blind experiment: researchers and participants don’t know which groups participants belong to Dietary guidelines for calories: 16002000 for women, 20002400 for men Food exchange lists designed for: diabetics Legumes found in: protein group Characteristics of vegetarian diet: need more iron, zinc, vitamin B12 Nutrients provided by fruit: folate, vitamin A, C, potassium, fiber Nutrient in highest amount in most foods: water Calorie control: energy expenditure greater than energy intake Highest fortified food: readytoeat cereal Prevents choking: epiglottis Enrichment vs fortification Fortification add nutrients not naturally found in food Enrichment add nutrients back into food Function of Pyloric sphincter: stomach to small intestine, prevents backflow Function of rectum: stores waste for elimination Function of mucous in stomach: protects stomach lining against gastric juices Organ with highly acidic juices: stomach Function of gallbladder: stores bile Projections on surface of small intestine: villi Most metabolically active organ: liver Function of bicarbonate: neutralizes stomach acid Prebiotics: not found in the diet Definition of chyme: semiliquid mass released into small intestine Why we belch: to release gas Principle carbohydrate of milk: lactose Sweetest simple sugar: fructose Gluconeogenesis: creating glucose from noncarbohydrate substance Primary means of degradation of soluble fiber in large intestine: bacteria Minimum carbohydrate needed daily: 50100g Glycemic index: how quickly carbohydrates are processed in the body Calories in teaspoon of sugar: 20 RDA for carbohydrate: 130 grams Normal blood glucose range: 70100 mg/dl Carbohydrate per serving of grain group: 15g How total carbohydrate listed on food label: includes starch, fiber, and sugar Function of bile: emulsifier on fat Essential nutrient: required in the diet because not made by the body Study of person’s genes and nutrients: nutritional genomics Triglyceride composition: 1 glycerol, 3 fatty acids Lipids liquid at room temperature: oils Foods containing cholesterol: animal products Lecithin: phospholipid used as emulsifier How soluble fiber lowers blood cholesterol: enhances excretion of bile for more bile turnover Ranges for fat intake: 2035% of total calories Advice for someone reducing fat intake: reduce fried foods Fat provides how much of energy at rest: 60% Function of fat in body: protects vital organs against shock Amino acids in diet: essential Denaturation of proteins: protein is uncoiled due to heat and light Calculating RDA for protein: divide body weight in lbs. by 2.2, multiply by 0.8 Transcription: DNA template to make mRNA Substance involving clotting of blood: fibrin 2 products of deamination: ammonia and keto acid Digestibility of animal products: 9099% Independent risk factor for heart disease: homocysteine in blood Limiting amino acid in protein: body can’t function without sufficient amount Pepsin in stomach: digestive enzyme for protein Bioavailability: amount a nutrient is absorbed and used by the body Primary excretory route for watersoluble vitamins: kidney Primary function of Bvitamins: coenzyme participation Deficiency in thiamin: beriberi Deficiency in niacin: pellagra Common drug for TB interferes with absorption of: vitamin B6 How folate is destroyed: heat and oxidation Food substance converted to vitamin A in body: betacarotene Percentage of vitamin A in liver: 90% Transport protein for vitamin A: retinolbinding protein Percentage of population deficient in vitamin D: 10% Bowed legs caused by deficiency in: vitamin D Plant version of vitamin D: ergocalciferol Vitamin E reduces heart disease by: being an antioxidant Deficiency of vitamin E: erythrocyte hemolysis Function of Vitamin K: blood clotting Vitamin synthesized by bacteria in intestines: vitamin K Water between cells: interstitial fluid Nutrient in highest concentration in soft water: sodium Deficiency in blood sodium: hyponatremia Primary function of potassium: electrolyte (intracellular) Percentage of calcium in bones and teeth: 99% Low potassium results in: weak muscles Vitamin D helps to: absorb calcium RDA for iodine: ½ tsp iodized salt Oxygencarrying protein of muscle cells: myoglobin Component of tea affecting iron absorption: tannic acid Total iron provided by heme: 10% Lifespan of red blood cells: 4 months Iron overload: hemochromatosis Ingesting nonnutritive substances: Pica What helps to absorb iron: vitamin C Characteristic of iron transport: performed by transferrin Women’s average consumption of iron: 1213 mg/day (low) Condition by lack of iodine: goiter, cretinism Goiter in infants caused by: excessive iodine intake by mother Contains phytochemicals called lignans: flaxseed Definition of functional foods: nonnutritive substances with potentially beneficial effect on health Definition of Photosynthesis: green plants make carbohydrates from water and sunlight Definition of Glycolysis: glucose splitting to pyruvate Efficiency of converting energy to ATP: 50% efficiency TCA reactions take place in: mitochondria Definition of aerobic reaction: oxygen required, conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coA Fasting primarily uses what nutrient for glucose: protein Metabolism: accumulation of all reactions which take place in the body Typical alcoholic drink contains how much ethanol: 0.5 ounces How to slow alcohol absorption: eat carbohydrates Syndrome with alcoholics: WernickeKorsakoff (deficiency of thiamin) Glucose provides how much ATP: 3032 Definition of Cori cycle: interconversion of glucose and lactate in muscle Definition of anabolic: conversion of simple compounds to more complex ones Powerhouse of the cell: mitochondria Device measuring food energy: bomb calorimeter How often you should eat: every 4 hours Most satiating macronutrient: protein Basal metabolism contributes to what fraction of daily energy expenditure: 2/3 What percentage of calories contribute to the thermic effect of foods: 10% Central obesity pertains to weight gain in what area of the body: trunk Athlete triad: low calorie intake, amenorrhea, osteoporosis Most common eating disorder in US: binge eating disorder Second most common cause of premature death: obesity Definition of bulimia: compensating for binges with purging Hormone signaling satiety: cholecystokinin Percentage of American adults that are overweight/obese: 69% Function of lipoprotein lipase: stores triglycerides Pratowilli syndrome: excessive appetite, obesity, short, mentally disabled Realistic timeframe for losing weight: 510% over 6 months How to gain weight: eat meaty appetizers Characteristic of fad diets: restrict calories Behavior modification technique: record meals in food diary Best approach for weight loss: increase energy expenditure, decrease energy intake Leptin acts on what organ: hypothalamus What happens when you exercise: metabolism remains elevated for hours after Percentage of Americans meeting physical activity guideline: 20% Definition of VO2 max: maximum oxygen consumption How to increase muscle strength: low reps, heavy weights First sign of dehydration: fatigue Increased muscle size due to overuse: hypertrophy Dietary nutrients for raising glycogen concentration: carbohydrates Glucose stored as what in muscles: glycogen What transports oxygen in blood: iron Best beverage choice for physically active people: cool water How many of top 10 causes of death due directly to nutrition: 5 Sports anemia characteristic: no treatment Feature of AIDS: no cure Definition of phagocytosis: neutrophils engulf and destroys bacteria What causes development of cancer: carcinogens Type 2 diabetes typically occurs after which age: 40 Immune system treats bacteria and toxins as: antigens Welldeveloped plaque present by which age: 30 Low blood flow to brain causes: stroke Hypertension causes how many strokes in US each year: 800,000 Proportion of adults with high blood triglycerides: 1/3
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