OCN 109 1st week of notes
CHAPTER 1: INTRO TO PLANET EARTHDon't forget about the age old question of Explain the extension of the racial paradigm today.
•settles cross land bridge from SE Asia during low sea level.
•Settle New Ireland (by 4000 B.C.) then spread to Micronesia, Melanesia (110 B.C.).
•Settled Marquesas (30 B.C.) then spread to polynesia (300 A.D.), then New Zealand (800 A.D.)
then Easter Island (1200 A.D.).
•Where able to navigate oceans because:Don't forget about the age old question of How do you add vectors graphically?
•sturdy and fust outrigger canoes were likely used for early polynesian. Exploration.
•utilized star positions in the sky as directional indicators.If you want to learn more check out What is the Uruk vase?
•used stick charts as navigational tools (shells rep. Island “position” relative to dominant
Waves and currents!).
•Also used wind patterns and the behavior of marine organisms to provide clues to
LocationDon't forget about the age old question of What are the basic geographic concepts?
-Phoenician ExplorersIf you want to learn more check out Which idea refers to the need to make choices because economic wants exceed economic means
•Settlements in modern day Lebanon, Syria.
•Developed maritime trade in the Mediterranean.
•Circumnavigated Africa 590 B.C.If you want to learn more check out Where does science Occup?
•Sailed to Britain from Colonies in NW Africa 450B.C.
-Early belief that Earth was 1 large land mass with inland water bodies and marginal seas.
•Greek maritime exploration was minimal compared to Pheonician.
-Aristotle- used observational and logical approaches to study the natural world including the ocean.
•student that rebelled the early thought.
•Logic and mathematical law (geometry) were combined with natural observation to
Further explore world
•Pythaes used anale of sight between horizon and polaris to determine position.
•He used geometry to determine the circumference of the earth.
•In 225 BC he combined knowledge of land distance between Alexandria and Syene and
The measured “angle” of sun’s rays at noon on solstice
•cane up with remarkably accurate estimates.
-Ptolemy’s Map 150 A.D.
•Ptolemy produced the most “accurate” depiction of the world at the time.
•Included latitude and longitude lines to provide geographic reference.
•misidentified the equator and used an incorrect estimate of circumference.
The Middle Ages
•Period of scientific darkness in Europe arising from…
-Fall of Roman Empire 476 A.D.
-Burning Library at Alexandria 415 A.D.
“Extent” of Ocean in Middle Ages
•Early Western civilizations considered these to be the main seas of the world:
Exploration during Middle Ages
•Many cultures outside Europe conducted extensive exploration of the oceans…
-Arabians in Indian Ocean
-Vikings in North Atlantic
-Chinese in Indian and Pacific
Voyages of “Discovery” Begin”
•Zheng He’s voyages piled the Indian and coastal pacific.
-Chinese flotillas may have resembled small floating cities.
•Possibly sailed into the Atlantic; possibly “discovered” America in 1421?
Voyages of “Discovery” Expand
•European cultures begin epic voyages of their own due to
-Magnetic compass making its way to Europe.
-Prince Henry “The Navigator” started navigation school.
•Characterized by key expeditions
-Portuguese established alternate trade routes
-Columbus “discovers” New World (1492).
-Magellan (1521), Drake (1580) circumnavigated the globe.
•Defeat of Spanish armada in 1588 A.D. secures British maritime dominance.
-Opens the royal crown’s resources for Scientific study of the ocean.
-Capt. James Cook commands HMS endeavour on the first “Scientific” voyage of the
-Navigated using H4 Chronometer.
-Determined outline of the Pacific.
-Mandated diet of Sauerkraut to prevent scurvy.