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PITT / Chemistry / CHEM 0110 / What's a tentative explanation of some regularity of nature?

What's a tentative explanation of some regularity of nature?

What's a tentative explanation of some regularity of nature?

Description

School: University of Pittsburgh
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry 1
Term: Fall 2014
Tags: Chemistry and General Chemistry
Cost: Free
Name: General Chemistry 1 Week One Class Notes
Description: The notes are from Prof. Adrian Michael's General Chemistry class. These notes are a combination of the topics from the textbook and lecture from the first week of class in chapters one and two. Here
Uploaded: 08/27/2016
7 Pages 225 Views 8 Unlocks
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General Chemistry 1  Week One Class NotesIf you want to learn more check out How much should a film earn for it to be considered as a blockbuster?

CHEMISTRY AND MEASUREMENTWe also discuss several other topics like Explain the mechanics of rigid bodies.

CHAPTER 1

We also discuss several other topics like what is an unstated premise

Experiment -an observation carried out in a controlled manner so it can be duplicated If you want to learn more check out How many human genes are there, and what percent of these do all human share in common?

                and conclusions can be made.If you want to learn more check out How to define functions?

iaw -a concise statement or education about a fundamental occurrence in nature.

Hypothesis -a tentative explanation of some regularity of nature.

Theory -a tested explanation of basic natural phenomenaWe also discuss several other topics like What makes peace complex?

        •if a hypothesis passes many tests it becomes a hypothesis

        -these are made from laws.

•experiments and explanations drive scientific advancement

SCIENTIFIC METHOD STEPS

                        EXPERIMENTS

                                ↓

                            RESULTS

                                ↓

                            HYPOTHESIS

                                ↓

                        FURTHER EXPERIMENTS

Obtain                        Obtain

Negative                positive

Results                results

                                            ↓

                                        Theory

                                               ↓

                                Further experiments

Matter -whatever occupies a space and can be perceived by our senses.

Mass - the quantity of matter in a material.

Law of conservation of mass -created by Antcine Lavoiser; mass remains constant

        During a chemical reaction (the mass before the reaction = the mass after).

        Lavoisier applied his law to burning. He noticed that burning mercury dreated

        mercury ( 11) oxide in equal proportion

                Mercury + oxygen → mercury (11) oxide

 MASS VSS. WEIGHT

        Weight is proportional to the force of gravity exerted on it, it changes in different

        gravities (such as the moon) but mass never changes because it is the amount of

        Matter something has.

Known for being

Compressible

Fixed share?

Fixed volume?

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Rigid

An incompressible fluid

An compressible fluid

No

Mo

yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

PHYSICAL + CHEMICAL CHANGES

Physical change -a change in state (liquid to solid)

Chemical change -any change that produces new substances (mercury + oxygen →

        Mercury (ll) oxide).

PHYSICAL + CHEMICAL PROPERTY

Physical Property -a characteristic that can be observed without changing its chemical

         identity (color, melting point, etc.)

Chemical Property -a characteristic involving a chemical change (Fe can react with O2

        To make rust).

Substance -matter that cannot be separated by a physical process.

Element -a substance that cannot be decomposed by any chemical reaction.

Compound -2 or more elements that are chemically combined

        >Law of definite proportions (A.K.A. Law of constant composition) -compounds

        Have consistent elemental proportions (there will always be 2 hydrogen and

        1 oxygen in water).

Mixture -elements that can be physically separated

        >heterogeneous mixture -has physically different parts with different properties

        (stirring salt and sugar together).

                >homogeneous mixture -(A.K.A. a solution) -has uniform properties (sodium

                chloride mixed with H2O until it dissolves.

        Phase -the physical state (solid, liquid, gas)

        PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS

                1. Mass

                2. Volume

                3. Solubility

                4. Time

        Precision -closeness to previous data.

        Accuracy -closeness of a measurement to an actual value

Sig Fig Rules

  1. All digits are significant except zeros @ the beginning of the number or terminal zeros

9.12        .912        .00912                all have 3 Sig Figs

  1. All zeros to the right of the decimal place are significant

All have 3 Sig Figs: 9.00 cm, 9.10 cm, 90.0 cm

  1. All zeros before a decimal point typically aren’t significant (write in scientific notation

        To avoid confusion.

        

✱exact numbers have infinite Sig Figs.

                3.0g x 9 coins = 27g

                   ↑       ↑              ↑

                3sg    ∞sg          3sg

S1 Base Units -units of measurement from the international system of units from which all

        Other units can be derived.

S1 BASE UNIT CHART

        

QUANTITY

UNIT

SYMBOL

length

meter

m

mass

kilogram

Kg

time

second

S

temp.

kelvin

k

amount

mole

mol

Electric current

ampers

A

Luminous intensity

candela

cd

S1 prefix -a prefix used to indicate a power of 10.

PREFIX

MULTIPLE

SYMBOL

mega

106

m

kilo

103

K

deci

10-1

d

centi

10-2

c

milli

10-3

m

micro

10-6

M

nano

10-9

n

pico

10-12

p

✱a common non-s1 unit is the angstrom (Å), which equals 10-10 m.

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