Psych 403 Motivation - Week 1
Psych 403 Motivation - Week 1 psych 403
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stuart Chin on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to psych 403 at University of Washington taught by Ann Culligan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Motivation in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 08/27/16
Week 1 Eccles & Wigfield, 2002 Identify each of the theories described in this article. 1. Expectations for success (self efficacy and self control) 2. Task value (intrinsic motivation, determination, flow, interest, goals) 3. Expectancies and values (attribution, expectancy value models, self worth) 4. Motivation and cognition (social cognitive self regulation, motivation, and volition) Describe each theory in your own words. 1. Self-confidence and competency on achieving goal and expectancy for success. a. Self-efficacy Theory: Albert Bandura defines self-efficacy as an individual’s self-confidence in how they are able to organize and execute an action to achieve a goal. Variable in strength, generality, and level. Efficacy expectations are major detriments of goal setting, activity choice, willingness to expand effort, and persistence. b. Control-theory: Crandall says the extent to which one feels in control of successes and failures affects their expectation to succeed. Not knowing the cause of ones success and failures undermines one motivation to work. Three needs are competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Ellen Skinner with an update of control theory—Three critical beliefs: - Means-ends beliefs: Expectation that specific causes produce specific outcome - Control beliefs: Expectations that individuals have that they can produce desired outcome - Agency beliefs: Expectations that one has access to means needed to produce various outcomes 2. Why there are different behaviors throughout process of achieving goal. a. Intrinsic motivation: Individuals engage in activity because they are interested and enjoy the activity. They are engaged in activity for instrumental reasons or for rewards. b. Self-determination theory: Deci and Ryan proposed extrinsic incentives and pressures could undermine motivation to perform. There are two perspectives, (1) the first, humans are motivated to maintain an optimal level of stimulation, and (2) the second, humans have basic needs for competence and personal causation or self-determination. People will seek out optimal stimulation because they have a basic need for competence. Individual’s intrinsic motivation is maintained through feelings of competence. This in turn can lead individual’s external goals to become internal goals. This focuses on reasons for behavior. c. Flow theory: Csiksxentmihalyi proposed that one experiences flow when (1) they are immersed in, and being carried by, an activity; (2) action and awareness are merged; (3) attention and focus in on specific activity; (4) lack of self-consciousness; (5) feeling in control of actions and environment. Repeated experience of flow is only possible when individuals seek out increasingly challenging tasks and expand their competencies to meet challenges. This focuses on immediate reasons for behavior. Interest Theory: Amibile et al. with an update on interest theory—There is situational interest that is and emotional state aroused by specific features of an activity or task. Feeling related valences vs. value-related valences Individual interest: Goal Theory: Ego-involved goals reinforce questions that are “will I look smart?” and “Can I outperform others.” Where as task-involved goals cause individuals to focus on mastering skills and increasing competence, they beg the questions “How can I do this task?” and “What will I learn?” Ego-involve orientation causes individuals to choose tasks that they know they can do so that they can outperform others. Task-involved (or mastery children) orientation causes individuals to choose more challenging tasks as they are more concerned with their own progress than with outperforming others. 3. What they expect and what it means to them a. Attribution theory: Bernard Weiner found three attributions, (1) locus of control, (2) stability, and (3) controllability. Locus of control has two poles, internal and external. The stability dimension encompasses the change over time or not. The controllability involves causes one can control vs. causes one cannot control. b. Expectancy value model: Eccles et al Achievement performance, persistence, and choice are directly related to expectancy related and task-value beliefs. Expectancies and values are assumed positively related to each other. c. Self worth theory: Covington regarded this as the ability to establish and maintain a positive self-image, or sense of self-worth. Best way to maintain sense of self-worth is to protect one’s sense of academic competence. Most attributed characteristics for success are ability and effort; in retrospect most preferred attribution for failure was not trying. Students will avoid attributing failure to lack of ability. The excuses made to avoid this are procrastination, making excuses, avoiding challenging tasks, and most important, not trying. “Double-edged sword effect” is that trying is important for success, however if student tries and fails, it is difficult to escape conclusion that they lack ability. 4. Connection between motivation and cognitive process a. Social cognitive theory of self-regulation and motivation: Zimmerman described self-regulated students as being meta cognitively, motivationally, and behaviorally active in their own learning processes in achieving their own goals. Self-regulated learners have three important characteristics, they use a variety of self-regulated strategies (active learning processes that involve agency and purpose; they believe that they can perform efficaciously; and they set numerous and varied goals for themselves. Furthermore, self regulated learners engage in three importation processes: self-observation (monitoring ones activities); self-judgment (evaluation of how well ones own performance compares to a standard or to the performance of others); and self- reactions (reactions to performance outcomes). When these reactions are favorable, particularly in response to failure, students are more likely to continue. The social cognitive view of self- regulation emphasizes the importance of self-efficacy beliefs, casual attributions, and goal setting in regulating behavior directed at accomplishing task. Individuals must monitor their behavior, judge its outcomes, and react to those outcomes in order to regulate what they do. b. Motivation and Volition theory: This refers to strength of will and degree of diligence in pursuit. Motivation on serves to lead to the decision to act. Once the action is engaged, the volitional process takes over and determines whether or not the intention is fulfilled. Emotional control strategies will involve keeping inhibiting emotional states like anxiety and depression in check (negative states). How does each theory relate to the others? All are related in the sense that they aim to produce a behavior that elicits a specific outcome. They have derived from studying individuals’ beliefs, values, and goals to whether or not they choose to engage or disengage. There is a theme of competence or efficacy beliefs as crucial influences on self-regulation.
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