⇒ Two zones with which ideas and landscape coincide (image of Yemen) it is a place that is complicated of the shite world and the yemen government. ⇒ Intersection of ideas and place.
∙ 1) There is an intersection bet local grievances and conflicts ∙ 2) A place of sancturary, hiding a operations
⇒ Hesbalah Lebenon movement of the Shites and Iraninan foreign policy. ⇒ Constructivist side of terrorism (words/metaphors)
⇒ Iconography: Hesbalah logo image revolutionary Marxism movement distinction.
∙ Branding of the icon, marketing, name recognition
⇒ I. Actors
⇒ Syrians fleeing and half are in dislocation, some are out of the countrie, others are in a state of internal exile. They are displaced people. (image of Syrians)
∙ Flow of humanity trying to find a place to live (Hungry, Germany, Britian)
∙ US is trying to see how they can make a way for these Syrians ∙ From a governmental perspective what makes it an issue? There background or association of terrorism could be an issue to the country
∙ Intersection of ideas and place involves Transnational actors, governments, militias, and a migration of humanity from one place to another
⇒ Image of the KKK iconography of burning cross
∙ After Civil war and then it emerged again in the 20’s, the KKK was one of those spurs of American anarchism after WWI, and then popped up again in the 50’s it has ebbs and flows and now still has it adherence
∙ It is anti-everything, it has a very violent history from lynches to cross burning against racism
∙ Languages of violence, the framing of discourse has a relations with which actions take. If you want to learn more check out Do the shared electrons in the water molecule spend more time near the oxygen atom or the hydrogen atoms?
⇒ I. Words
⇒ Words, count, words matter they are of salience they have a meaning beyond just sound.
⇒ Robert Kennedy attempting to calm the people through his famous speech after the assassination of MLK
∙ Two iconic people assassinated
⇒ Power of words to shape reality (constructivism) in the academic world ∙ John Searle (image): speech act that language can create this reality that is socially constructed with the names we call it. We create a reality through language
o Words to do great things, but words that shape a reality onto itself
o Terrorism from psychology, sociology, discourse/language words creates a unit of analysis to talk about terrorism
through the movement of words
⇒ II. Status
∙ We are what we hear, and we are also joining that idea to status o A lot has to do with a “downward mobility” words, language that is about loss. The KKK is the most obvious ex white
aristocracy of the South and idea of slavery
o It was an example of “status anxiety”
∙ When Kennedy was talking about this status anxiety in white America in equal oppurity. We also discuss several other topics like What does it mean to be purebred in genetics?
∙ People were afraid that these changes were going to come at their expense, and their backlash was in the form of extremist politics o Seymour Lipset (image)- radical right wing (McCarthyism) the primary issue was the fear of communism.
o He and is colleagues were worried about post-war America which was turning “inward”
o This idea of status politics is about class politics about the right side.
Such movements as fascism, nacism, and Peronism,
have all been interpreted as reactions to disintegration
o America was becoming a more complex, urban society and it made people nervous
o …the appeal of the Nazis to those elements in german society which resented the piwer and culture of the large cities
o Managing the complexity of society as Kennedy say, not for Nazis the don’t want that they want to purify the society We also discuss several other topics like What are the three levels of analysis used to examine the causes of world war i?
o The KKK of the 20’s was a latter-day expression of provincial populism (anti-elitism) they do not like institutions, the federal reserve, and wall street in which they think are controlling their lives. That is why they drive themselves into the woods and have conversation in order to “soothe” themselves away from those things that make them lose their ideology, Don't forget about the age old question of Why are states important in international relations?
If you want to learn more check out What native american tribes used bow and arrows?
Extremist movements have much in common
They appel to..
The disgruntled, the psychologically homeless, the
∙ Status politics refers to political movements whose appeal is to the not uncommon resentments of individuals or groups who desire to maintain or improve their social status
o Prohibition: Banning of booze was less than the amber bottle but more about an anti-immigration movement as these
immigrants would get “out of control”
If we can “cleanse” all of these impurities then
America would be back to the pure state.
⇒ III. Compliant
∙ Image of cartoon developed in Germany story of “Murant” he is moaning and complaining because he cant get a job is a boy of Turkish decent in Germany. Morality punchline “don’t do terrorism”
o The culture of compliant of muslims in Germany is that this is someone that hadn’t any prior tendencies toward terrorism, and he was radicialized through discourse who talked himself through violence. If you want to learn more check out Define society.
o Image of Michael Page: mass shooting in a seek temple and the seeks are not muslims they practice their own religion and he enacted a mass killing. He was part of a far right wing with a particular emphasis of “hate music” and this subculture playing in bands of these right wing racisist hate music.
o This person emerged himself in the music the language, and that process day after day year after year brought him into that mass shooting social psychologist say.
o Words about violence, status compliance, that are not alone but part of a group
o Much of the time groups end up thinking and doing things that group members would never think or do on their own
o 9/11 terrorists were secular people that came into the religion later into their lives image of (Ziad Jarrah and Mohammed Atta)
o Social networks can operate as polarization machines because they help to confirm and this amplify peoples antecedent
∙ 1) A separation of the individual from the larger society into a subculture (gang)
∙ 2) the group dynamic amplifies peoples views
Mark Segeman: political scientist wrote about Al-Qida as an idea a way of thinking that becomes activated that when groups of guys get together “bunch of guys” (young, unattached, males) it is the most dangerous type of people.
∙ His argument is that the unattached male is where you should be looking and what they do is that they talk themselves into this military
o “Conversational tropes”: when males get to together their conversations are easily predictable. Over time that vortex shifts into political language and they turn themselves in this austere judgement and that these militant words inspire
thoguhts that they would have never
o Al-Qida does not require a leader only conversations of these words amoungst these detattched individuals
o Oliver Roy: language that reaches this critical mass
Case of Ahmend Ressem (image) he came to Europe in the mid 1990’s in which there was nothing young men
can do in Algeria he fled to Corsica. His career began
illegally and he landed as a small time criminal in
Quebec and then he got involved with other immigrays
speaking with other terrorist and using the same
terrorist language. His plan was to bring bombs at the
millieum in LAX.
∙ Plot that occurred in 2007 in Umm Fritz Gelowitz that converted from Christian to al-qida and the two other in this group of them were involved in a plot to Pakistan to learn to mix chemicals to set off protest in Germany.
o It was the power of discourse, critical against the Americans and the American personal and women in Germany that
became basis to market themselves to Al-qida
o The issue is that it is a small group “leaderless” one that works through the language that comes into these groups. o Self radicalization it can be virtually
∙ Timothy McVeigh: the downwardly mobile theme, he became fluent in the patriot movements “hard right” American movement (anti world bank, anti-wall street) the american government which is supposed to protect people he thought it was taken over by Zionist occupied government “jewish” and in
o McVeighs view he thought it was these forces that wanted to turn the people against the government, he rationized his cause to attack the government
What they have convinced themselves is that their
world that was once great and the way that you become
aware of the decline of statusism is by talking about it.
⇒ (image) Indonesians to steer people away from terrorism ⇒ Image of Patricia Hearst: from POV of contructivism is the idea of posing for the picture is the idea od terrorism as a theatrical act.
∙ She was part of the Left wing anarchist movement in the 60’s “Symbonize Group”
∙ Stock home syndrome
⇒ The etemology of theather is the “presentation of things” ⇒ I. The Big Screen
⇒ Mauggeridge was writing in the book the “Sun never sets” we seek to find our own way of amplification.
∙ Men aim at projecting their own inward unease onto a large screen as possible
∙ These are individuals that are harboring these inner demons to project on the large screen, to make the whole world aware of what irritates them.
⇒ Norma Desmon: “real psycho” in Sunset Boulevard “Mr. Duville im ready for my closeup”
∙ We relate this to Osma bin laden as he watches himself on tv enmoured in his corners and his fate yet he is still looking at these silent films like Norma Desom.
∙ The media age and terror in what took place in Mumbai language from one of the terrorist
∙ “everything is being recorded by the media, inflict the maximum damge, keep fighting, don’t be taken alive
∙ These terrorists are speaking to one another and the above is the actual language and their references to the media wanting to get their “close up”
∙ The use of the media for the purpose of installating their cause and growing attention to others
⇒ II. Seeming Easy
⇒ The role that dramatics play in the act of violence
∙ Art work on a persons face like in the gangs from central America “MS 13” your branding the gang or cause through these tattoos ∙ “killing and dieing become easier in a theatrical way
⇒ Eric Hoffer “The True Beliver” : his analysis on why people turn to fanaticism
o He captured what made people turn to far right and far left extremism,
o Glory is largely a theatrical concept- costume idea
⇒ Drama: there is a smoke screen of all this stuff behind all this stuff, it tends to get very personal it is not about the process but more of the emotions.
∙ KKK is about Drama
∙ The theather of ISIS, the beaheading business which began with Daniel Pearle in Pakistan, decapitating their hostages, and then filming their decaptitations, and they would have ritual they would costume every from the “gauzi outfits, to how the knife was propsed”
∙ Not only killing them but also the theatre of the act as well. ∙ Why do they drag this?
∙ From the terrorist persecution they are trying to sensualize it to the adversary group
o Intimacy about the beading process, person other person, neck knife that has the quality to go to the central nervous system
o ISIS has found a way of mainline to depict horror
o Our society is based on “sensation seeking” that the terrorist is responding to the ‘spiraling up” of these acts to people
⇒ II. Son et Lumiere (sound and light)
⇒ Hitler and the KK both were master of this idea of sound and light the “performance aspect”
∙ “Birth of a Nation” film it was a shock since it was early in the film industry
∙ Reason why these rallies at night happen at night “the cross burnings” a pageantry aspect and glamorization
⇒ Nuremburg: Adolf Hitler was a “failed artist” he didn’t make it in life, and was more of an artistic/romantic leader.
∙ He was very evocative in his language evocating anger ∙ The point of these sound and light shows was to bring the people into a francized states of killing and violence. The Gestapo would march down these streets and rallies at night with music and lights ∙ Muselli the idea od archicture of terror: Hitlarian Modern architecture break monumental buildings to show compliance of the regime
∙ Wizard of Oz toto pulls the curtain and it’s a little conman swindling people.
∙ Architecture and theatre of servitude and boredom: public housing projects they became warrens of crime and the aestic point it was like lving in jail yet the architects found they were great.
∙ They were meant to do good but then turnt to crime warrens ⇒ Mikail Heller is making the point of creating mass bureaucracy of conformity the artwork is Lenin leading the Russian people into a Utopia, terror if you don’t submit you are punished and you are meant to be radicalized into the regime.
⇒ Soveit artwork: propaganda and commission artists to talk about socialism (image) of a little girl ..youth exposes imperialism; turning the children against their parents they become the informers
∙ Artwork is political and it has the ability to communicate a messgage
IV. Revolting Studies
⇒ The Badder Manholf group was to bring down the US
∙ Alex Danchev: “perhaps the only great and yet made terror and counterterror… is the cycle of fifteen paintings by the Gerald Ricihcer painted these people, Danchev is saying these are painting depicting terror by Richcer
∙ The group was nothing if not conductors of strong feeling (it is during the cold war it is young people that are hostile toward their gov because they believe they were acomplices of “hitler” they wer functionaries of the third right.
∙ It was a children’s protest against their accomplish parents ∙ It had a lot of glamour counter cuture movement
∙ Goya paiting against the insurgence in Spain
o Art depicting terror
o Ulrike Meinholf
∙ Guernica Picasso the bombing of Guernica in Spanish Civil War ⇒ Chris Hitchens: was a man of the left, great debator, he was “fearless” and took “delight in the fight” he is a voice of the left who would become a defender of Bush’s war to remove Sadam Hussain since he thought he was a dictator . He was true to hating all these dictorishios and when he described the Badder Hanholf group he saw neuronics crazy violent movements
∙ Ulkrine Meinholf
∙ Hitchens says they were ‘transfxed into these movements” ∙ There not about ideas more about violence, “resist authority” because their parents failed to do so
∙ His conclusion was that they were not ideological it was “psychosis” ∙ Art is very powerful in great ways but in the hands of bad people it could be used in the wrong way
⇒ Paper: three variations on that one central them. How do those three different elements unify together? One word that best captures your moment, or a phrase. Not a sentence
⇒ Image (Ramzi Yousef) transitional figure in terrorism.
⇒ Look at the idea of struggle (Marxist theory) sees life as a struggle for tension, people believing themselves to be at war with some evil force ∙ Ramzi Yousef believed himself to a warrior locked in a struggle ( he was part of the first conspiracy in the world trade center 1993) ∙ He had associations with Pakistan descent, and he is an important figure because after the World trade center conspiracy and the Bojinca bombing and assassinations of the president of the pope ∙ A pivotal figure in Proto-Al-Qida
∙ Marxism provides the most elegant way to explain struggle (class struggle) this unending war between social economic classes, he saw inequalities and oppression and associated it with capitalism
∙ The world as it is is not good and we must bring about an evolution to change it
⇒ I. Becoming
⇒ Leszek Kolakowski- he orients us with the idea of the “dialectic” (clashing of opposities one idea and its opposites and they struggle with each other which turns into a synthesis)
∙ History is this idea of opposities crashing between the two. ∙ Feautialism that crashes into socialism that turns into capitalism ∙ Marxists would disagree against this
∙ History is about struggle by way at looking at direction ⇒ II. Lost Girls
⇒ Image of Shamina Begum, Amira Abase, and Kadiza Suldana. ∙ 15 and 16 years old they were part of the muslim girls and they had become increasingly alienated from the ambient environment around them
∙ Jihady subculture based on attraction as well their was a positive dimension to their cause
∙ They were recruiters of ISIS through social media and they made arrangements by sending family jewerley to Turkey and they were foing to Syria where they would end up in Raka
∙ Social media trafficking.
o Image of Alex (Sunday school teacher)
She was lonely, and these cases suggest that the
possibility of a greater involvement of young women as
in the new left in the 50’s and 70’s
She found her purpose in life in reading and stopped her travels to Syria because her grandmother intervened
Raqqa heartland of ISIS
∙ In their minds this girls associated themselves with struggle, and discovered themselves to be at WAR their friends at school and at home were unaware that they were part of this struggle
∙ They had identified a better world and a way of wickedness to take out their revenge
∙ Just as marxisit would see the world as a clash of class struggles so did these girls so the thinkning is alike.
⇒ III. Directions
⇒ Interwined his two belief systems, that society is bad and he should rebel against it, and his intense anger at this family for his perceived injustices
∙ An element of social anxiety projecting his personal problems into this big screen onto society
∙ He rebelled against his own world as he conducted his one man campaign to destroy the world
⇒ Ted Kedinsky the uni-bomber he evolved into the POV that science were the things that were going to destroy us, and what was necessary was to take action against it.
∙ A world of “retreatism”
∙ He would send bombs to professors
∙ The real story of Ted is one of the nature of modern evil-evil that results from the corrosive powers of intellect itself, and its arrogant tendency to put ideas above the common humanity (the cause becomes bigger than the human bigger)
o G.K. Chesterton “poets do not go mad…mathematicians go mad.. (the point is that amongst strugglers it would be people that would be recruited from the hard sciences or the
engineering background) it is a cliché
⇒ IV. Sanctified
⇒ The notion of struggle can be scaled down to individual groups like the girls or like the unibomber who is at world with the modern society ⇒ Image of (Gamal Abdul Nasser) a time of secular politics and politics he was advocating a ‘pan-arabism” against imperialist.
∙ He was one of the most charismatic figures, a memorizer ∙ The militant islam movement ideas to which many people have attached themselves to such as the girls talked about early. ∙ Northern exposure (Eygpt, Syria) 2nd arch Southern exposure (kingdom of Saudia Arabia)
∙ After the time of Nassar there was a growing accepting to politics and taking that to mean militancy
∙ Image of (king salman bin abd al aziz and Obama)
Saudia Arabias relationship with faith is very strong
⇒ Rise of Saudia Arabia because of Opaque oil 70’s, a second is a strong Muslim leader would deemphazise secular ideology and refashioned their regimes on religion, third is a global religious revival and reconnection with faith 60’s and 70’s, 4th is sepecfic events 1975 Iranian revolution and brought about an Islamic Republic (image of the two famous ietolahs)
∙ Berard Luis historian wrote an article in 1976 “the Return of Islam) he saw what everyone else would see later a return of Islam in world politics
∙ Image of (Muhammad Hosmi El Sayed and Muhhammed Anwar El Sadat)
o Sadat who was a more traditional man supported this
o The muslim brotherhood was invented in the late 70’s a social movement during the british invasion, had a wide following o It had a social welfare, and military framework for them to ventilate their views, then they fell out with Nassar in their movement
o Most famous theorists of revolution- Sayyid Quth, his concept was the idea of “the jahily society (ignorance) the time of darkeness superstition
o Period of ignorance and superstition, his argument is that guess what we live once again in this superstition, it is not good islam it is tainted islam and he is essensly saying that it is a postate ruler of the land in Islam
o Muslims were blinded to the corruption that was taken place but people interpreted his works as saying “it is war against Egypt”
⇒ Image of Asyut a transition town a “tough town” a place in the countryside where very faced modernization is happening ∙ The socialist were saying that they are the people that are caught in one generation in family rural life, and then ALONE living in the city ∙ This transition lead them to be vulnerable to lead into these movements
∙ From an ideological standpoint it was a mistaken innovation, you have the docile masses going through life not knowing what they are doing, they listen to these corrupt rulers
∙ Docile masses..lax rulers…
⇒ Shukri Mustafa (image) he was the most important leaders in the Takfir wal-Hijra movement “it means ex-communications” that is how they justify the killing of movements. Return the obligation of muslims to flee Mecca and make flight t the sister city of Medina.
∙ The concept here is that this movements will go into retreat and go into hiding and waiting for their moment to make a move
∙ Image (Assasination of President Saddat) 0tober 6, anniversary of military successes of military
∙ “To kill the pharoh”
∙ The peace that he made with Isral made him a mark man against Islamist because of the Camp David decision
o His assassin was image of (Khalid Ahmed Showky) this mural was showcased in Tehran and was taken as a “hero” in the country
⇒ In the 80’s there was a great deal of hope of Arab Sunni convergence ∙ Hesbolah, and Hamas (older Sunni movements)
∙ Saad Eddin Ibrahim philosopher did a lot of field wrote wrote: “The objective is to force the elite either to conform to the precepts and edicts of Islam or to step down…”
o …a rightgeous life and following the correct path… the argument that Saddat was leading the people to the wrong path
∙ Soradari (image) he began to turn away from his society Nassar time and a leader in Islamist movements, he went to afganistan and made friendship with Osama bin laden
⇒ Image of Sheikh Omar Abdel-Rahmen spiritual adivisor of the people to bring down the World trade center and towers and he was in Brooklyn ∙ One of the individuals fleeing from the Mubarak movement in Egypt ∙ He was part of a CIA recruiting methods, they used these individuals to fight against the Russians
∙ Arab Afgans they fought in that war and when it ended they brought that energy to Syria, afgan, and then the US
∙ 1990’s “the lost decade” assinations happening in Eygpt ⇒ Image of (Farag Fada) writer who was gun down by an Islamist as to say that a cultural war was coming, it was a time of terrorism floating around because of religion
∙ The Israli settlist a Zionist who decided he would conduct a one man war against the Palestinines image of (Baruch Goldstein)
o The point here is this was a time of a great deal of militism in the 1990s against religion
⇒ The very success of Mubarek helped to create this generation of “lost boys” these young people leaving Eygpt
⇒ David Rapoport means that religion can be a powerful force to bring people into terrorism because its claims are very transcendental they are “faith claims”
∙ Scripture can cause people to do very scarying things so can government
∙ The terrorist for religious reasons sanctifies its killing for religion and their struggels are sanctified with respect to purpose and with respect to means…
∙ A hot zone is in Sinai Peninsula
⇒ Conclusion it is coming to grips with a movement from the 70’s and not just terrorism
⇒ 1. State terrorism: The violence that a state does against its own people ⇒ 2. State Sponsored terrorism: The terrorism that states underwrite ∙ 60’s, 70’s and 80’s were the state underwriter era
∙ Image of (Muammar Gaddafi) his reign began in 1969 during the famous Arab spring he came to power with a revolutionary agenda, Libia at the forefront, the “rejectionist states” against Israli they had set themselves in favor of the Palestinian cause, they were hostile against the US, they were allied with the Soviet Union
⇒ I. For Hire
⇒ Image of (Abu Nidal “the father of struggle”) a boy of a Palestine ∙ He was born in the British mandate, to a wealthy Palestine family, a wealthy means which was lost
∙ His story is similar to the many other Palestine out of his homeland, he turns himself to terrorism
∙ The Abul Nidal organization it is one of the angry military exile splinder groups. They were ideological Marxist, traudist, etc ∙ His prominence in the world of terrorism will become well known ∙ He was trying to find his way in Iraq because Gaddafi didn’t want him anymore.
∙ The young man of privilege associated like Ricky Manholf loses himself to bullets
⇒ 1967 – The road to Jeruselm leads to Aman- we can liberate Isral but first we have to conquer Jordan
∙ Palestian milias moving into Jordan, the leadership in Jordan is the Hasamite does not reflect their religion
∙ Image of (dawsons field hijackings) hijacked planes from Europe and then flown to Zarca and Palestian factions hijacked these planes and landed them there in this strip, they wanted to ransom the passengers to get the palestianes that were held as prisoners there
∙ It ended without being killed but it was a beginning as a series of events a pattern to conduct terrorist operations
⇒ The group “Black September” the king Hussain of Jordan unleashed his army on the Palestines and they moved from Jordan to Lebenon ⇒ Munich Massacare (image) 1972
∙ Infiltrating the olmpic village killing hostages and then a horrific end game with helicopters resulting in many Olympic deaths
⇒ Uganda 1976 Joint venture between palestian groups and german new left groups, “Operation Entebbe” (image) Israli commando raid, the Netanyahu brother was killed in a shoot out in Entebbe, a number os palestians were killed as well.
∙ Netanyahu has been involved in terrorist groups since 1972 ⇒ Carlos upper middle class kid in Venezula Maxist Lenist leader ∙ Most famous of his exploits was Gabrielle Krocher-Tiedemann was involved in the Badder Manholf group
∙ Very concerned with his image “the jacko” waiting for my closeup era
∙ These are both very globalist people
∙ The struggle against capitalists
∙ The Palestians allgned themselves against the new leftist groups like in Latin American, and Central America
∙ These Europeans watched movies of violence in the Middle east and used the combat methods they learned from them in these training camps
⇒ 1980’s: These were not suicide terrorist they just wanted people to know about their cause, something shifted in the 70’s and 80’s (the intro of Iran, Irans revolution and then Lebenon emerged, Hebolah emerged, and Shite milias against the Israli’s, the US found itself getting involved in Bayrut)
∙ Suicide operations turning point (image of 1983 Beirut barracks bombing) it was hard for Regan to understand how this Shite Terrorist group did this
∙ Lebenon Turned into Syria (place of ananrchy, a den of terrorism) ∙ June 1985: TWA flight 847 Captain John Tesrain you can tell by his face that it has been going on for a while, as the passangers were held for ransom,
o Robert Dean Stethem image was killed he was a “CB” he was an engineer, he was a very young men and he was identified by the terrorists and his body was thrown onto the tarmat the terrorist said “you better take us seriously because we have now beaten this soldier”
o The hostages were taken off the plane and they made a negotiation
⇒ Imad Mughniyah (image) born in the early 1960’s in the Shite and begain his politics with the shite cause, that meant Israli influence, he was the operation chief in Hesbalah
∙ His end came where he was killed in Demascas, the newspapers had it that it was an Israli operation
∙ He was accused with being involved in the TWA operation and Sunni-Arab operations
⇒ 1985 busy year for terrorism: Image of Achille Lauro hijacking Meditteran cruise that was hijacked by palestian groups, the US was very upset with Italy because they had the terrorist and they let them go, and the US thought that they let them escape because they were afraid of them
⇒ Abu Nidal most spectacular act of terrorism in Rome and Vienna and the groups were trained and equipped to kill as many people as possible until you are killed in the airports.
∙ Out of no where might come this commandos to kill
∙ Abu Nidal began to have wars with other Palestian factions, and it was here where he began to associated himself with Gaddafi ⇒ End of the 1980’s the Pan Am Explosion, Gaddaffi told NIdal that he had to leave Libia.
∙ The US launched air attacks to kill Gaddaffi, this is Gaddafi’s revenge against the US
∙ Lockerbee their were explosions in the lockers in airport in London during Christmas
∙ Gaddafi’s association came to an end, the other groups like Carlos also came to an end
⇒ 1990’s is the era of Al-Quida a shift takes place, state terrorism II. Necessity
⇒ Idelogies; Marxism- leaders for ideological reasons can use violence against its own people.
∙ The Soviet Union, and Germany, states that would be about terror for the purpose of institutionising its terrorism
∙ Children reporting on their parents, instituinonzised terror ∙ Terrorizing a population into conformity
∙ The totalitarian world, social engineering- to enact transformation ∙ “In the totalitarian world the source of info itself was a valued target for social engineering” “amir weiner”
⇒ Terror is a means to that end and they favor the milias the Gestapo for example
∙ SS Heydrich leader image do these regimes create killers? Or Do they provide a framework were these individuals find a home. ∙ They complete that process of radicalizing individuals
∙ Regimes that were based on violence and purity seeking “show trials” “witch hunts
∙ German propaganda hitler appear as this omniscient figure ⇒ Stalin’s Great Terror is commonly called a “witch hunt” ∙ Ignition stage was reached with the Moscow show trial in August 1936
o The point of the show trial is the point of them to make an example of a person and the accused has to recant “yes I was guilty” and would read these prepared statements because they know if they don’t that knock is going to come for their children
o Sending shock waves of terror amongst a population
⇒ Robet Conquest Stalins attempt to starve the Ukrainian people ⇒ What made these regimes different? They had a sophisticated framework, it was bureaucratic terrorism
∙ It drills power and control in a society, you create a culture of informers (children informing their parents, or teachers and it spreads)
∙ Very difficult to overthrow
⇒ Nazi state that has a bureaucratic control, and catalyst that comes “Crystal Night” the assassinations on the third right and it was blamed on the jewish people
∙ It was a warning on what was coming to the Jewish population ⇒ Newspaper- Jewish families were ordered this morning to leave Munich ⇒ German spokesman yesterday openly sanctioned anti-semetic wave of terrorism, the government is therefore stimulating this.
∙ Elie Wisel writes about these flows of energies shifting the world they once had
∙ Hannah Arendt “Nazism is actually the breakdown of all German and European tradition, the good as well as the bad..”
∙ Thomas Mann wrote a number of infamous books that is a play of the faust story an allegory a person that is offered something that he should refues, the devil comes in and promises him power for his soul the character becomes then this famous pianist and his soul decays
o Uses this analogy as these German people selling their souls to Hitler
⇒ Just as the popularized feature of Marx’s classless society have a queer resemblance to the Messianic Age, so the reality of the concentration ∙ Hitler practicing his camp
∙ “Against all hope book” Castro regime
∙ Timmerman wrote about the Argentiana junta state terrorism ∙ Solzhenitsyan he was a solider in the Goulag and took notes about what happened there and trying to turn people against the Soviet Union
⇒ Hostage taking operation OPEC image of (Ahmed Zaki Yamani) he was the oil minister in the go go years 1970s he was a Saudi, he really set the rise for the oil industry
∙ This made him a target for terrorist
⇒ State as a place of sanctuary (Pakistan, Nigueria ) “restful, sanctuary” ⇒ Image of Lahore (capital of Pakistans most popular era) 1. Mounting Sorrows
⇒ A place to go to be safe or a safe heaven such as Iraq’s story in the 1990’s no fly zones
∙ A safe place for people who are interested in terrorism (such as an ineffective government, people within the same ideological group) ∙ What are the characteristics of a state to have a high or low immune system?
⇒ There is nowhere to hide from the mounting sorrows of this unfortunate country.
⇒ Pakistan- Muslim nationalist would have two elements east Pakistan (Bangaladesh) farly new country a lot of new countries rising ∙ There own media is very critical of themselves and this terrorism had to do with the war against Afganistan.
o The first cycle or afgan war in 1979 when soviet troops came down from Asia, and that it was called the Mujad Hajim forces that fought against the Soviet union. Many of the leaders of the Al-Quieda got their ideas from fighting
o The US invaded after 9.11 to fight against the Taliban
⇒ Two groups:
∙ Persian peoples in Afganistan
∙ Indic peoples
o Two different population groups in afganistan
⇒ Idea of this immune system because Pakistan ahs been in the epi-center of terrorism.
∙ Osma Bin Laden was in Abatabad called home for years (Al-Queida type have found sanctuary following down the region)
⇒ Why? What made Pakistan so receptive to this region?
∙ 1. Mohama Ali Ginad he set a pattern by which civilian would rule Pakistan and had a western view point
∙ 2. A different perspective militant, angry place and he is meant to be really angry at standing at the Indian flag (image)
o It is to remind India how much they hate them as a threat towards them.
⇒ We have a face of Pakistan that is liberal, secular, and the other side is one of militant and anger.
∙ There is something about that system that likes the anger that is why Osma Bin Laden vacationed there
⇒ Nawaz Sharif- Sunni Muslim (image) with President of Turkey at the airport, the challenge of Sharif to manage the pressures of the country that has a modern, secular as well as edgy angry population
∙ It is meant that in Pakistan’s history the military has played a very leading role
∙ Why is military such an impirtatn aspect?
o The Indian threat from 1958-2008 general presidents were in power
⇒ This country is trying to figure out what it is supposed to be
⇒ The story of the frontier (the frontier and the center of Pakistan) tribal areas particularly the area Waziristan.
∙ That is where most of the drone attacks take place wherever al quieda is set to be because the US believes many of the Al-Quieda elements are set to be
⇒ 1. What kind of nation state is Pakistan meant to me?
⇒ 2. And the types of People of the frontier.
⇒ Hakimimullah Mashud (image) very old family of the frontier before the Al Keda.
∙ There are very severeal elements of the weakened immune system ∙ 1. The men of the frontier are not set to be militants. They have allowed themselves to be receptive to the Al-Quieda ideology o The Haqqanni another important family that was supporting the Afgan effort in the 80’s and recently an enemy because they are associated with the Taliban
⇒ Top of the triangle is the frontier family (recent muslims, converted during the age of expansion of mountainous land, they adhere very much to their ecosystem and families, second corner is the Taliban corner (its is indigenous to the Pastune area, these are young Pastunes living in the refuge camps in the late 80’s, and the military started arming and training them to try to stabilize Afganistan against Pakistan, and they were worried that India would circle the area and invade Pakistan so they created this Taliban “student” group, the third corner is the Al-quieda
∙ These groups forms together, and Pakistan was in the center as it stimulated it, and eventually became a victim to this Pakistan ⇒ Hafiz Saeed of Pakistan itself in the hearland, and he is part of a world of religious forces,
∙ India blames him for the Mumbai Attack, he is protected by the Pakistan miliarty
∙ The Pakistan military is very could about recruiting people ⇒ Civil society force in Islam another part of our immune system, countries that have problems governerning themselves
∙ Movement have moved in to help the government , or fill a vaccum o Hesbolah, Hamas, they are filling a vacumm better the state and its people
II. Bad lands (ungoverned spaces)
⇒ Local actor, Taliban, and Al-Qaida all join together
⇒ The pastun are the people that are a significant part of the Afgan story the leaders are Pashtun
∙ Afgan Tajikistan they are very indigenous
⇒ Irredentism: a condition where you have a population in the other side of the story and elites asking why are they in that part of the region ∙ From Pakistan’s perspective they do not feel safe
∙ Kashmir Muslims who live there
∙ Pakistan has problems on the Afghan side, in the Kashmir side, and with India, that is why militancy has shaped the country
⇒ Beginning in the 70’s and more in the 80’s the Saudi factor entered into the area of Afghanistan and it had to do with oil wealth
∙ Much more intense of ideological religion, Pakistani an military thought it would be a very good idea, they began encouraging this idea to these Tali’s
⇒ 70’s, 80’s and 90’s was a wave of thinking of Saudi Arabia and Pakistan to try to project their influenced.
∙ They were encouraged by wealthy countries like the US as a way to combat communism
⇒ Wazir’s clans, groupings of people that have collective memory, mountain people tend to be very close knit very opposed to outsiders, you want your independence
∙ These moonshiners have never been dominated by anyone, they have always been autonomous
∙ The geography is very forbidden only through the sky can we control the area
∙ Problems of extending it writ over its own country, and the deal has been with Pakistan we will leave you alone, if you leave us alone ∙ Therefore it has been a SANCTUARY FOR OUTSIDERS, THEY GO BECAUSE THEY CAN, the terrorist tourist can find a place to CALL HOME
⇒ Bad land story then there is the urban story (mafia dimension to Al-Keida) ∙ Ethnic fighting with people in the gun business, the subsidizing of Al-Quieda
⇒ The inside story, poltical role of the countries, and the outside game and they are both important because they come to this place because they can there is money
⇒ The emrgence of the Phillipine communist party, brave against the Japan ∙ William Fumeroy the political pilgrim called so carried away that he forget his loyalty to the US.
∙ Not something unique to the Islam world as you lose one identity to enter into another
⇒ Since 2008 Pakistan has had civilian rule, perhaps some degree of peace will happen
⇒ Nigeria Bogohoran ISIS looking at these scriptures in a very literal meaning, use violence to purify this area
∙ Northern Nigeria has been Muslim, and began this campaign of violence
∙ Africa, which populatons are most capable of this outsider syndrome o One of the points that was made that it is a very homogenous area, the persistnace of a polically dominant ethinic group is the problem to this area
o There is not a direct relationship between population levels and overall levels of political violence, further refuting
persisitnant claims of the specifically of Islan as a particulary violence socio-cultural phenemon
o The broken government is the issue
⇒ Think about what it is that fortifies a country against this, and affects their immune system to become affected.
⇒ The terrorists don’t know what a real war is, because they have only been subjected to airstrikes. They don’t have experience of real military action. –Ramzan Kadyrov
⇒ Iran, Iraq, Syria, Hesbolah- a raid against the kingdom.
∙ Ramzan Kadyrov: Muslim Identity, face of authoritarian
∙ Sunni in Czechnia
⇒ Face of Russian Power: Foreign Minister Labrov his argument is on the threat on Islamic terrorism but also on International law and Syria sovereignty.
⇒ What threat do foreign Arab jihadists returning from the war in Syria pose to their home states and the broader Arab world?
⇒ Mobilization towards terrorism, towards radicalization
∙ For people who are alienated from the normative social order, conventional explanations of events do not suffice, because they reject the legitimacy of the sources of these explanations
∙ Ruby Ridge federal law enforcement turning to investigation. It was an overreach, and it really fed into a narrative on the far right that the feds did not follow proper protocol.
∙ Waco siege: charismatic, cult personality over may people that had trouble over there lives he had several people in there and the ATF were trying to get the children their and fire happened Janet Rino was the Attorney general. View that the government is out of control. Using this standoff for his own purpose
o The two situations have a lot of murkiness
o Murell building a target.
⇒ The Turner Diares: takes the view that the American government into a jewish conspiracy.
∙ Terry Nichols was an accomplice of Timothy McFaye.
∙ Eric Rudolph.
⇒ Why the 90’s? The rise and fall of terrorism? Why right wing terrorism so profound?
I. Do not go gentle
⇒ Do not go gentle into that good night.
∙ Person must have a lot of rage and anger
∙ Mao Tse-Tung- Hostility towards the system, striking down the counless masses of slaves, if you are a person of determind revolutionary viewpoint, and if you have been to the villages and looked around, you will undoubltly feel a joy never before known.
∙ Isisah Berlin- historian of Russian populism, the populist movement. Image of Gavrilovich Cheryshevsky (hate, anger, riviling) …a loathing of ridgly class-conscious social pyriad.
∙ There is something romantic about hating, originally romanticism was an aesthetic revolution… - Hans Kohn The Mind of Germany: The Education of a Nation.
∙ There is something seductive about hating
II. Why Rebel?
⇒ Edmund Burke the famous british writer class, priviledge reform ⇒ Crane Brinton, Harvard historian, the anatomy of revolution, his argurmment was revolutions go through phases, the first stage is the elites begin turning away from exsisting order, he went further to argue that the regimes are weaken then most people think they will be, there is the rise of the extremist.
⇒ Lenins revolution is a revolution within a revolution, the terror phase that institutionizes and then there is a cooling phase.
∙ Revolutions go through stages
⇒ Religious theory….a radical movement’s success depends less on the popularity of its ideological position, and more on the weakeness in the exsisting regime, external and demographic pressures, as well as the relative deprivation perceieved in the onset or stall
⇒ Classical Marxist theory attributes radical collective action to working class solidaritu in repudiation of capitalist interest
∙ Religion itself may not be the best variable to explain the mobilization of this movement
⇒ Modernization theory, in which readical extent movements are posited to thrive as a result of socialpsychoogical anomie in a transitional society, may be considered the foundational non-Marxist sociological treatment of revolution.
∙ All are structural approaches to understand? Why men rebel. The subject of revolution
o Ted Robert Gurr the United States was host to political
science. Opposition movements that turn violent. 1960’s.
⇒ The basic theoretical proposition is that a psychological variable, relative deprivation, is the basic precondition for civil strife…
⇒ Czhenia race for independence
∙ Perceptions of discrepancy between their value expectations and their value capabilities.
o Sociological theory to help explain riots in the 60’s one of the reasons why Gurr become so famous because US didn’t know what to do.
⇒ Physical violence, and movement that makes its way through violence ∙ Watts Riot in California, National Guard, Fergeson
∙ Idea of the virulent mob that took place in Swedan, broad sociological level, then towards a mob as a unit of people and energy are capable of moving people into violence.
∙ At a group level it has the ability to drive people into agency. ∙ Individuals, groups, and organizations are said to be revolutionary ∙ Brinton said that these revolutions begin to take an upswing a degree of prosperity and modernatize
III. Transfer of Allegiance
∙ The transfer of allegiance of the intellectuals.
o Student uprisings in Tokyo, Paris.
o Tom Hayden, founder of the SDS Michigan and Jane Fonda: Daniel Bell: Coming out of themselves with no sense of the past, they have a callow vitality, drive, and hubris,
uncomplicated by notions of history, complexity, tragedy or o doubt.
o …the first steps in revolution are by no means always clear to the revolutionaries themselves. (they don’t really know what is happening there is a lot of frenzy)
o It fizzled out from the United States because there is an old middle class society
o Feltrinelli image we may begin with gentleman revolutionist, the misguided superior.
o The revolution like staturn devours its children.
IV. Accepting Violence
∙ Religionsity is not a significant predictor if accepting violence as justified in order to defend factors extraneous to religiosity, Nigerian state. It really has a lot to do with economic reasons
∙ Main questions? Why are some societies more agreeable than others, maybe there is something about the US periods of radicalism but they tend not to last
o It has a lot to do with the American labor movement. John Lewis head of coal miners
o Daniel Bell is saying is that the Marxian tradition has never been able to take root in the US because the revolutionaries are in the world but not really part of it.
⇒ Leadership ( Middle East, Latin America, and Europe)
∙ Leninist sense of the Vanguard the leaders for the followers. ∙ Image (Sabina Selimovic, Samra Kelinovic- children of the Balkens of Bosnia) there families have had to move to Vienna because of the battlelands in Bosnia
o They found their way to Rakka, they were the brides of ISIS, one of the two ladies has been killed.
∙ What is it that attracts these ladies here?
∙ What roles do leaders play into drawing them into these movements?
⇒ Turkey events in Ankara, the author of this event was ISIS 90 people were killed
∙ The Deep State the shadow state (a series of murky situations amongst security)
∙ There esxists a state in Turkey that you cant see, behind the curtain there are security agencies that have connections with organized crime, they represent something of the balancing mechanism when a government is getting too insecure they will come in (1960’s, 1980’s)
o Pakistan has this deep state
Terrorist syndrome (actions and reaction)
Number of suspects as potential suspects (government, PKKK-kurdish movement
Murky systems such as Peru, and Italy
⇒ What is this deep state?
∙ You know it when it materializes, in Turkey the ISIS situation could be a façade to diminish the government.
∙ The relationship between the terrorist and the terrorisized becomes like a feedback, they become a co-dependant relationship ⇒ The Cyndero Luminoso –the shining path of progess, Marxist group.
∙ The shining path doctrine enshrines the party leader… as the wise inventor of a ‘distinctively Peruvian Marxism.
∙ Now it is more about cocaine trafficking, less about Marxian theory ∙ Farch Columbia, negotiations with Venezula to come up with a broker agreement with the Columbian government
∙ Chapo Guzman – el chapo
∙ “Manuel Ruben Guzman Reynoso” was a professor of philosophy he became very enamored of revolution, violence ones.
o He is a representative of an “intellectual vanguard” a person of ideas
o From a middle class family in the desert town of Mollendo, and arrived in Huamanga in 1962 to take a post at the university as a philosophy professor
o New lefistism the revived left of the post war years.
o He was interested in “Mauism”- the Chinese model, the relationship between the intellectuals in the city and the
people in the farms.
o The intellectuals the poets, and the followers the students. ⇒ The bulk of recruits were high school and university students from Ayacuchos shantytowns and countryside
∙ The middle class was important
∙ …the political culture of the revolutionaries centered on class struggle and anti-imperialism, and on the party’s primacy in revolution.
o The intellectuals and the unions
o Anti-imperialism symmetry between Latin America and Middle East
⇒ Drivers of ideological resistance to imperialism and capitalism ∙ “The American Role”- the Monroe Doctrine
∙ direct interventions into Haiti, Nicaragua, the presence of American businesses, the penetration of American businesses
∙ World Systems theories, centers and periferalies
∙ The culture of opposition in Latin American has been a hostility in capitalism and imperialism
∙ Conservatives would be with the large land owners, with the church, with the military and liberals were interested with political reform.
∙ Revolutionary streams would be Mauism, Lenisim, and Marxism ⇒ Nixion in Peru Lima Image
∙ Folks from the Peruvian left, largely dominated by conservatives and liberals
∙ Students were the ones expression their hostility to Nixion ∙ The danger of the action/reaction theory and a regime that clamps down even further.
⇒ Neighboorhood organizations called Commitess to Defend the Revolution have begun to spring uo
∙ The Jodan bombing
∙ The Badder Manholf group
o All rising up
∙ Go to countryside and bring the people in the professors and the students
∙ Disconnect between the urban and the students Cuba story ⇒ …achieve liberation by means of … a prolonged military offensive, mobilizing the peasantry. Surround and finally assault the cities. ∙ The movement of the Cendero Luminoso would continue in the 80’s ∙ …in every age, a set of men emerges who apply ‘Marxist’ principles in their purest form.
∙ This ‘fistful of Communists’ in Guzman ‘s phrase , would lead the masses across a ‘river of the blood’ (romantiscim, Vanguardian thinking) to the promised land of a classles utopia. (“fill the river with blood because that’s ok because we are going to get to the promise land” this concept we see a lot in the class)
⇒ The professor mobilizing the students, and then the students go into the countryside and mobilize to create a revolutionary movement to take these people out.
∙ Alberto Fujimori image the Japanese influence in Peru which was going through economic problems.
∙ He was seen as a reformer
∙ Vladimir Illich Monesinos – security minister, the cracking down of terrorism the Cendero Luminoso, capturing Guzman.
⇒ Tupac Amaro group, members of this group gained control of the embassy group and held them hostage “Japanese embassy hostage” picture ⇒ The syndrome, counterterrorism creating the action/reaction syndrome
⇒ Tupac Amara Revolutionary Movement
∙ bringing down the government in Lima
⇒ Lori Berenson image – a student who grow up in New York she went to MIT and was interested in Latin American politics
∙ She traveled to Lima and befriended the Tupac Amara group, she had an infinity with these people, and they thought she was involved in terrorism she was arrested, she was deviant and was not going to renounce her rule, she was sent to military prisions, she was more intentionally of what she was doing
∙ The Clinton Administration did not want to do anything
⇒ Marghertia Cagel, was involved in the “Red Brigades” in Northern Italy ∙ …a shift from Black to Red (ideologically it means that the current violent energy from facism to communism –Marxism)
∙ Badder group were the children of these governments, collaborator governments
∙ The beginning of these cycles of violence, the Red Brigade bombings
∙ “Among the industrialized democracies, Italy has experienced one of the most protracted national episodes of political terrorism.” ∙ The revolution is a northern story, it comes out of these modernized sectors of society (means, education, times on their hands, rising expectations)
Aldo Moro image – the prime minister he was kidnapped and killed it was becoming a constant companion to daily life
General James Dozier image- he was kidnapped and survived, and he would give lectures later on about “don’t do this…
don’t follow the same paths…don’t follow the same path… General Dozier learned the hard way.
⇒ In northern Italy the industrial guerillas of such anarchist –Communist factions as contining fight and Red Brigades bomb plants.. You’ve got Indochina right in your factory
∙ The reaction to this terrorism would be its own problem, the deep state.
∙ The Japanese “red army” terrorists the popular front for the Liberation of Palestine and other Arab guerillas in the Middle East, the People’s Liberation Army in Turkey and Italy’s “red brigade”
⇒ Carlos Marighella, the Brazilian and author of the mini-manuel of the urban guerilla.
∙ The principle task of the urban guerilla is to divert, weaken and demoralize the military the military dictatorships
o To shake and omit horro
o Hoping that the regime will react, bring out the authoritarian o The deep state associated with criminals the mafia, facist, elements of the church, dark reactionary forces in Northern Italy, we need to create a workers state to combat these
⇒ Why is it that these movements ran aground in the 1990’s? ∙ The Al-Quieda a rise and then a fall on what systems are meant to do.
⇒ Herat (Iran) geopolitical shifts that are taking place, eastern frontier (Iran) or in Iraq and Syria (the partisan of Syria with an alewife section) 1. Leaderless
⇒ If ‘leaderless resistance is the wave of the future…more like spontaneous combustion that someone from the outside lighting a match ∙ People based not so much on territory but on idea
∙ Plots that come together very quickly with some type of objective, leadership, leaderless subject.
⇒ The Hierarchical (formal organizational chart) vs. the network (based on prior themes we have spoke about before)
∙ Groups must instead move from the classical structure of an underground organization with a hierarchical “pyramid” –shaped chain of command, to a “secret gang-war” which has different and numerous cells
⇒ Many types of networks that exist
∙ common delinquency, social networks formed around mosques, social networks in prison (the heart of these networks are “functional ties” they do things together like in prison, it is a finishing school for criminals) social networks linked to particular trades and recreations, social networks linked to former jihadist networks.
∙ Ex: Madrid bombing in 2009
o These are environments that people come together.
o Networks can be varied in a cultural or work setting
⇒ Isral is now dealing with a form of terrorism ‘the knives’ not associated with a particular organization.
∙ They have a spontaneous quality about them. Image (wall complex that exist within Israel they are walls of separation)
⇒ Suicide networks
∙ Addressing the immediate threat first requires an acknowledgement that the majority of organizations that employ suicide attacks do not function from a Western world perspective of “rationality” whether “instrumental,” “bounded” or otherwise.
o What would be some of the qualities of a network that’s focol quality is suicide operations?
You would have to have good recruiting, spotting people that would willing to get into the field, how to operate
explosives, money for the family as the inducement,
counseling that is working with the person so as to be
sure they do not get cold feet.
o The organizations employ suicide attacks generally pursue the quixotic goals of an “abstract/universal” ideology, like political Islam or revolutionary socialism, and as a result often exude ‘less rational tendencies’.
∙ Why do these countries use the concept of suicide bomber? o Easier to use
o They are willing to fight at any cause for their country – psychological stance there really is no limit
⇒ Seth Jones military analyst is telling us about these loose networks are more effective than the linear structures.
∙ Case of the Palestinians the target is Israel if you have your resistance diffused in the ‘knives” it has a diffused quality. ∙ Palestine’s dressed as reporters than quickly turn to police with knives.
∙ It is meant to convey that it is a popular uprising but it
communicates horror to others.
⇒ Networks in Sommalia the Ashgabat Organization
∙ Sommalia émigré community living in Kenya, many of whom are exploited for money, Ashgabat raquiketeering
o How networks exploits their nationals?
∙ The network is trying to pulse its community (networks that are extending across borders)
o The IRA against Ireland
o ISIS and Britain
o The shakedown of Kurds and the PKK in Germany
⇒ What kind of ethnicity are Taliban?
∙ They are Pastune, the networks of the Afgan Taliban are associated with the Pakistan Taliban
∙ What stuff to you need to keep the Taliban going?
o MONEY the fundraising elements of charities, drugs a network of transportation and distribution (the area of the Baluchistan region)
o The idea of the networks involved in all kinds of things
fundraising, safe houses
⇒ The concept of “networked warfare” begins from the premise that the increasing case and speed of individuals and groups to communicate with each other has altered.
∙ Network groups are dispersed, small, and allow individuals to communicate, coordinate, and conduct their campaigns with little precise central command
∙ The difference between a terrorist organization with a top down relation and this diffused network model that is held together with an ideology.
∙ The network model allows a civilization survive without a leader ex: the Al-Quieda in Iraq
⇒ How have these networks been so successful?
∙ Kinship ties, relationships within people in the same area. o ..importance of trusted prior contacts for the effective
functioning of a secret society
∙ this dense under-layer of prior trusted relationships made the hijacker network both stealth and resilient.
∙ Many of these plots would often involve people that are relatives with one another.
o Ex: Yemians recruited to Al-Qaida (it was money they could ger remittance money)
∙ Michael Levi ‘Combating the Financing of Terrorism’ article “follow the money”
o The attacks in New York and Washington on Sept 11 are estimated to have cost the terrorist who carried them US
o This article is taking the view of the limits on the trail of money
o The author is trying to suggest that money is important but it is not everything
∙ For all of the effort that is put into following the money the return of efforts have not been so rewarding
∙ Suicide bombing is actually not that expensive
⇒ Image of Ghaza from the POV of Israel
∙ How would you go about designing a strategy to combat the antifada of the ‘knives’?
∙ We have a problem these young people with these knives ∙ Maybe international peacekeepers are needed to help resolve the issue
⇒ Final exam hypothetical question like what strategy would you use to combat the antifada?
⇒ Structure of the movement part of the Zionist but the problem was the local Arab population (have been in the area for 100’s of years) the other are the inhabitants of the King David hotel (British habitants)
∙ If the underground forces in Palestine are out of control… ∙ Anne O’Hare McCormick “the Crisis of Palestinian Leadership” ∙ Image of King David Hotel bombing
⇒ What is the issue here?
∙ The fanatics who have not hesitated to kill Jewish as well as British members of the Administration in the bombing of the King David Hotel do not balk at jeopardizing the rescue of the victims of Hitlerism in whose name they have launched this second terror. o These movements don’t want to increase the Jewish
population in Palestine, so the British are holding the breaks on this and is getting this militia groups very upset
o …Nobody in London knows what to do about Palestine
Now they are founding themselves victims of terrorism ⇒ Movements in the Jewish community were mobilizing
∙ The Hagana
∙ Irgun Zvai Leumi numbers 4,000 to 5,000 men and women of whom 1500 engaged in “frontline duty” with half that number constantly operating in shifts…
∙ The most famous person was Menahem Beggin
o The brains behind the organization is thin, hawk-faced who is now living on the run under a string of aliases with a reward of $8,000 offered for is capture.
o Beggin is a skilled tactician bringing off some of the most daring coups in Irgun record’s by the use of small party
o Many of them are swarthy Yemenite Jews or other oriental Jewish types coming from underprivileged classes. These
would be the “do’ers” of the movement, and had an animosity towards the Arabs
⇒ The three major organizations
∙ Stern Gang
⇒ These are people that were involved in terrorist groups against the British ⇒ Terrorism against military or against civilians for the purpose of driving them out, this was more hierarchal
⇒ Also raises the issue of people who began career in military and then become prime ministers –away from violence and into politics ⇒
⇒ What were the stressors and dynamics that were given to this movement in the bombing of King David?
∙ Trying to make the Jewish state happen, the arab mobilization and the british military presence.
⇒ A challenge for these movements is to stay on top of the movement, to make sure they maintaining control of the temple.
⇒ The majority of the Irgun considered the Arabs to be their ultimate adversary, Stern’s splinder group looked upon the Arabs as mere rivals and on the British as the real enemy
⇒ The Irgun was financed partly by its political supporters (mainly rightwing industrialists) and partly by contributions from Jews living in the US. ∙ What kinds of groups rely on funding, and where do they go to get the funding?
o IRA, and spend time in the US fundraising towards the US jewish population for money
Yitzhak Shamir: for many years ran the Israli ministry,
did not get along with the US
∙ Tzipi Livni Israel’s foreign minister, has found herself deeply embroiled in the debate- her father Eitan, was Irgun’s chief operations officer.
∙ Can a terrorist organization evolve into democratic leaders? o Yasserf Erafat 1993 Palestine
o ANC, African National Conference, Nelson Mandela
∙ How we can we measure the migration from terrorism to democracy?
o Has the movement evolved in a way that they don’t involve violence, in the Israeli case is that ultimately the Hagana or the mainstream in Israel moved to bring these radical
movements in the fold. When Israel became a state, the test was would the IRgun fold themselves against these forces and play by the rules. They found it successful to bring these
radical movements in the mainstream
∙ Meir Feinstein: he died for the cause of Israel
∙ Meir David Kahane: outlier, Brooklyn in the 1970’s and 80’s he was involved in the jewish defense league from threats greater imagined, it was a militia of Brooklyn, he was an organizer a riser of spirits, he took his furys and went to Israel. He was part of a transfer movement towards Jordan. He developed a political party, but it was deemed to be racist and legal by the Israeli people. He spent a lot of time in Miami to support the cause in the west bank, he was a brilliant debater on TV. He was assainated by El Sayyid Nosair, it was the beginning of that conspiracy that would bring down the world trade centers.
⇒ There was an intensity within this cleak to attempt to plan bombs, it was underreported and yet you can see the beginning of the Al-Qaeda. ∙ Conspiracy’s of these émigrés
⇒ London bombing, self-starting network
∙ Britain has a lot of experience dealing with terrorism
∙ Aidan Kirby reading “The London Bombers”- Amidst the entire landsape of the post 9/11 radical Islamic threats, the emergence of the self starters
∙ Bombings that took place in the trains, and in a bus
∙ Bombers were all British, of Pakistani descent, and one of Jamaican decent that was a convert
⇒ Identify some areas of the carribean of the Al-qaeda after 9/11 ∙ Gaiona, Trinidad, these were folks that were living in queens in NY Gaionese, it was planning explosions in JFK airport.
⇒ The first of three had grown up in Leeds area…
∙ These are areas that have had racial tensions, the train bombers can from the area of Leeds
∙ Mohammad Sidique Khan
⇒ What type of terrorism is prevalent is in the 70’s?
∙ The Munich, PLO, it was terrorism of leftist, ethnic nationist type. ⇒ Khan was not raised in a strictly religious household (born again dynamic, person that is embracing virtual Islam or organic Islam) rather it is quite lenient and he was a strong student who had gone on a pursue higher education at a local university
∙ The born again is a very intense type
⇒ 1980’s terrorism (Arab-spring)
⇒ Shezhad Tanweer was economically the most well-off of the four
⇒ Hasib Hussain: he was younger and trouble finding himself in life, he planted himself on the bomb in the bus
⇒ Germaine Lindsay: converted to Islam, the outsider, twice removed from this phenomenon.
∙ His wife Samantha Lewthwaite: the white widow, a play on the black widow, she has been accused of outskirt terrorist plots.
⇒ These four young men were influenced by virtual islam ∙ ..videos of what was taking place in Bosnia (mobilizing force because of the genocide against Muslims), Chechnya, and Iraq including extremely graphic footage and narration aimed at inciting rage
⇒ What is their motiviational structure, the plot (conspiracy)? ∙ Islam ‘crystallizes’ the rejecton of the west for many alienated and radicalized Muslim and that Islam lends itself well to being a religion of the dominated or those who are being crushed by ‘Western arrogance’
∙ Ambient environment of rage
⇒ …cliques… (can be viewed as the positive as brothers or negative because it relates to the theme of peer pressure)
∙ Marc Sageman: They are the social mechanism that puts pressure on prospective participants to join, defines a certain social reality for the ever more intimate friends (spending too much time together), and facilities the development of a shared collective social identity and strong emotional feelings for the in-group
∙ They start developing a parallel culture, there own inner world and become their own society, full of their own sanctimony, and a strong sense of arrogance and it develops within a period of type.
⇒ The clique is the entity that facilitates the escalation of commitment among its members.
⇒ A year later, in Aug in a small second floor apartment in East London, two young Muslim men planted explosives on airplanes over the Atlantic Ocean
∙ Source of concern for the Muslim community in UK
⇒ Canada with the Somali population living there
∙ Paul Joose, “Narratives and Counternatives”
o Narrative criminology explores the ways people establish who they are- their identity work by emplotting their experience into narrative
∙ Look at the sources of resistance to terrorism against emigray’s ∙ Rather than quantitative positivist it is looking at language, the words of rejection of Al-Shabat by Somali nationalist living in Canada
∙ Constructivist in nature, narrative criminology of narrative as an ‘ontological ( way of being) condition of social life…
∙ The pyramidal models as currently formulated leave little room for a recognition of the agency of non-radicaliszed or pre-radicalized population
∙ There is security of identity or self-worth
∙ Terrorists, supporters, sympathizers, neutral
⇒ Mohamed Siad Barre: when he left Somalia, the system of clans gave apart.
∙ To explore why so many Somali-Canadian youth are not attracted to the Somali group al-Shabbab and how specifically their
counternarratives work to vitiate the enticements proffered by their group.
∙ …since the late 1980’s, Somalia has become a ‘diasporised nation’ ⇒ …its immense pride…a lot of time in the religion people are referred to as heroes and there’re so many hero stories..just the name that is used that’s shared, Mujahahedeen, coming from the word Jihad like this person is looked up to.. appeal to the Jihad
∙ If you look at it, it seems that he is the right person for the job, there looking for someone who is kinda cool, that relates to them, and there looking for someone who is hip,
∙ An empowering incredulity towards the mythic elelments of terrorist group propaganda has strong potential as an ‘upstream’ method of preventing engagement
A Too Big Boy
⇒ Nicki Riley in south of England was of Christian descent, and suffered developmental problems, he spent a lot of time in the internet about Jihadist religion
∙ His plot was that he was going to mix explosives and go to a café in the time of tea and he has a backpack full of explosives
∙ A plot of one but it blew up in his face and was not successful