Intro to Psychology Midterm 1 Study Guide
Intro to Psychology Midterm 1 Study Guide PSYC 1101
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chapman Lindgren on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Achee in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 302 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/27/16
Intro to Psychology Midterm 1 Study Guide Psychology as a Science Psychology involves the study of mental activity and behavior while Psychological Science is the study, through research, of mind, brain, and behavior. >mind refers to mental activity (perceptions of sound, smell, taste, etc.) >behavior describes the totality of observable human actions >Critical Thinking involves looking for holes in evidence using logic and reasoning the determine whether the information makes sense, and considering alternative explanations. >Thoughts and feelings are responsible for how we act >Psychology is an observable science. We can’t see someone thinking however we can get a look at their mental behavior by observing their actions, emotions, etc. What does the Modern Psychologist look like? A. Basic research finds out how the mind works, but just for the sake of finding out. Application of research improves lives and benefits science. B. More than ½ of modern psychologists are clinical and counseling psychologists (therapist, etc.) I. What is the difference between a clinical psychologist and a psychiatrist? Intro to Psychology Midterm 1 Study Guide Simply put, a psychiatrist has been through medical school and has the authority to prescribe medication while a psychologist studies the mind and behavior of humans and animals II. Social psychology: the branch of psychology that deals with social interactions. It is the ways in which a person’s behavior can be affected by the presence of others. i. Ex: wearing a blue shirt to school because the “popular” kids wear blue shirts a lot, tying the color to the impression of being “cool”. III. Developmental psychology: how we change psychologically over time. A more concrete definition of developmental psychology is: “the scientific study of how and why human beings develop over the course of their life.” IV. Psychometricians are actually pretty cool. They deal with a develop psychological tests. Intro to Psychology Midterm 1 Study Guide i. Here you will find a list of common psychological tests measuring everything from quality of life to memory retention. V. Industrial Organizational Psychology is the study of human behavior in work settings and the application of psychological principles to change work behavior. VI. School or Educational Psychologists are typically school guidance counselors who work with students on study techniques, stress management, etc. i. The branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. VII. Health Psychologists work to understand how psychological, behavioral, and cultural factors contribute to physical health. Intro to Psychology Midterm 1 Study Guide As shown by this picture, stress can physically manifest with physical symptoms such as stomach cramps and Intro to Psychology Midterm 1 Study Guide Different Perspectives on Behavior >We observe a behavior and then apply a psychological theory to explain why the behavior happened 3 things that influence behavior: 1. Biological (neurology and genetics) a. Certain hereditary genes can make some individuals predisposed to certain types of behavior. 2. Psychological or Mental 3. Environmental a. Differences in culture (Americans and Russians act differently, concept of “personal space”), and nature versus nurture. What is science? Scientific attitude: a scientific way of thinking about the world. I. This requires skepticism and critical thinking a. What is the evidence? b. What else could explain it? c. Ex: Pheromone perfume. A pheromone is a chemical substance released into the environment by an animal that affects the behavior of others of its species. i. How does this relate to critical thinking? Does every girl in x residence hall really experience their menstrual period at the same or is it just because of pheromones? II. Open mindedness III. Objectivity (v. bias) a. When we see attractive people we automatically assume they’re intelligent but this is not always the case. Thinking objectively is to be aware of and compensate for bias. Scientific Cycle I. Involves observations, theories and hypothesis a. Observations: watching physical behavior or actions closely in order to gain information b. Theories: statements that explain observations. Scientific theories must be testable, but not all theories are scientific. Theories are tested by experiments. i. Some of the best theories in science are the ones that have yet to be proven false c. Hypothesis: gives a specific prediction about what should be observed based on some theory (an educated guess on how something works). Intro to Psychology Midterm 1 Study Guide II. Are theories “provable”? a. Theories produce 2 types of hypothesizes: what should and should not happen b. About eliminating wrong theories rather than proving them wrong i. However, are theories even “provable”? The Müller-Lyer Illusion shows three parallel lines, all of the same length. When arrows are added, the lines appear to be differently lengths. Biases – we see what we expect to see Some common biases: I. Confirmation Bias: the tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of one’s existing beliefs II. Placebo Effect: a passive and beneficial effect that can’t be attributed to the product of the placebo itself but due to the patient’s belief in the treatment. a. They happen regardless of what you do. III. Self-fulfilling prophecies: you expect something to be true. Because of this, you change your behavior to make sure whatever it is happens. a. Experimenter bias: when experimenter expectancies regarding study results bias the research outcome. IV. Availability or vividness bias: our thinking is strongly influenced by what is personally most relevant, recent or dramatic. a. We can remember pain, fear, happiness, and other emotions that strongly influence our thinking. What is Psychology? Intro to Psychology Midterm 1 Study Guide Specific research methods in psychology a. Case study: a set of observations in psychology all based on one person. b. Survey: common way of collecting data c. Naturalistic observation: observe stuff as it happens naturally. If you strictly observe and don’t alter anything, it is a naturalistic observation. d. Controlled experiment: the experimenter controls the experiment (variables, conditions, etc.) Correlation: a statistical measurement that indicates the extent to which two factors are predictively related Causation: the extent to which two factors are causally related (i.e., does on factor actually cause the occurrence of the other? Correlation and causation are related, but are not the same thing o Ex: watching violent TV shows and being a violent person o To determine whether violent TV causes people to behave aggressively, we need to do a controlled experiment: Have a set group of people watch violent TV 10 hours every week. They get in, on average, 6.7 fights per week. But that doesn’t mean anything because it’s not being compared to anything. If you take another group that doesn’t watch any TV, who gets in, on average, 2.3 fights per week, and compare their data to the group that watches violent TV every day, correlation can be observed o We need two groups of people as alike as possible, except that one group is exposed to violent TV and the other group is not Control Group: no violent TV Experimental Group: do hours violent TV per week o Measure any subsequent differences in probability or intensity of violence Independent Variable: the thing that the experimenter is controlling Dependent Variable: measure any subsequent differences in probability or intensity of violence Sigmund Freud Freud’s view of the mind 1. Conscious, preconscious and unconscious o Different levels of consciousness o structuralism: divide the mind up into different parts o functionalism: mind is divided up according to function o conscious: contact with outside world o preconscious: material just beneath the surface of awareness Intro to Psychology Midterm 1 Study Guide o unconscious: difficult to retrieve material; well below the surface of awareness 2. Psychodynamic theory of personality: unconscious forces- such was wishes, desires, and hidden memories- determine behavior 3 parts of the mind id: the part of your mind that wants things. It motivates you to get food, sex, sleep, water, and other things necessary for survival. o Instinctive urges and desires o Pleasure principles o Immediate gratification ego: the part of your mind that has to deal with the real world. It has urges and desires and is the part of the mind that sees things around you, making it the “reality principle”. o Reality principle o Delayed gratification: satisfies the id’s demands (postponing primitive urges like sex to get a degree at UGA) superego: what distinguishes us from animals o moral conscience, internal sense of right and wrong o quells the id’s urges especially those that society forbids, such as sex and aggression o creates feelings of guilt and pride Conflicts between the id and the superego lead to anxiety. The ego then copes with anxiety through various defense mechanisms: unconscious mental strategies that the mind uses to protect itself from distress. o Common defense mechanisms include denial, repression, projection, reaction formation, rationalization, displacement, and sublimation. Personality consists of people’s characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviors. Some personality psychologists study how particular characteristics, such as self-esteem or shyness, influence behavior Their interest is in how the particular characteristic influence behavior. Each characteristic is a personality trait: a pattern of thought, emotion and behavior that is relatively consistent over time and across situations. Personality is rooted in genetics Genes help produce biological differences in personality. These differences are called temperaments: general tendencies to feel or act in certain ways Intro to Psychology Midterm 1 Study Guide Personality is adaptive For the test: bring a blank sheet of paper and a #2 pencil. We get a scantron, but it won’t get handed back out so write down answers your answers on a blank sheet of paper so we can check it in class following the exam. The format is multiple choice. This study guide does not include notes from the final class meeting before our exam on Wednesday. If you have downloaded this study guide, email me at firstname.lastname@example.org and I will promptly email you Monday’s notes.
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