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Psychology Test 1 Study Guide (Updated)

by: afshan lakhani

Psychology Test 1 Study Guide (Updated) Psyc 1101

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Psychology (PSYC) > Psyc 1101 > Psychology Test 1 Study Guide Updated
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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on the Monday's exam.
Elementary Psycology
Kara A. Dyckman
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by afshan lakhani on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psycology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 08/27/16
Psychology 1101 Professor Dyckman Study Guide for Chapter 1 & 2 Highlight = Key Term                                      Highlight = Important Concept Chapter 1: Introduction to Science of Psychology Psychology          Scientific study of mental processes and behavior Answering Thoughts Observable questions based on and activities (all meticulous and emotions things that can methodical be observed) observations well as data analysis Psychologists  scientists who work in the above fields.   Conduct two major types of researches A. Basic  o Focuses on what is going on and why o Goal is to gather knowledge for the sake of knowledge B. Applied o Taking the research and applying it to other things o Focuses on changing behaviors and outcomes o Goals are more practical Goals of Disciplines of Psychology 1. Describe o Report on what is being observed o Ex. What can I observe about their behavior? 2. Explain o Why the behavior is being observed? 3. Predict o Under what circumstances was the person behaving a  specific way? 4. Control o Can you modify or change the behavior in some way?  Roots of Psychology  Plato: thought truth and knowledge exist in the sould before birth.  Nature: we are who we are.  Aristotle: empiricism o We know reality through perception and we learn through our  experiences o Experiences shape who we are: Nurture  Rene Descartes o Dualism   The mind and body interact as two separate entities  Both interested with each other, but both are separate  Gustav Fechner o Physiological Psychology o Study of the physical ability to sense stimuli o How we get this information in and what happens once info is  in our system  WIllhelm Wundt o “Father of Psychology”  o First research laboratory of psychology in Germany o Introspection:  He would present stimuli to students, and ask what the  students thought and felt while presenting the stimuli Psychology is driven by Critical Thinking: o Curiosity: make your self ask questions, wonder o Skepticism: challenge previous beliefs that make you want to find out  if it were true or not. o Humility: be able to accept when your previous belief was wrong Numerology:  Look for signs or expectations for behaviors  Find things if you wand to but does not actually mean anything  Astrology:  Descriptions are so vague that one can apply to it if you want  to, but does not mean it is scientific. Scientific methods  Tests our theories  Everyone uses this even babies  A systematic way of learning things. Research Basis  Variables  o Anything that can change  o Ex: what you measure  Population o What population of people you are interested in learning about o All members of the group you are interested in  Sample o Cannot give a survey to every college student or a person in a  population, so take some group from a population that will do  your study.  o Needs to be random and representative  Informed Consent o Read and sign a consent that tells you what you are going to do and the participant has the right to say no.  Debriefing o The experimenter cannot tell you everything about what you are going to do, but you can ask them after the study is over.  Descriptive Research (Methods) o Describe what is happening o Not trying to manipulate anything just observing what is  happening o Ex. Naturalistic observation: observing animals in natural  environment  Laboratory Observation o Descriptive, observation o Seeing what people are doing, but in a laboratory setting o In a more controlled setting  Case study o Study one person extensively  Survey o Descriptive study o Researchers are trying to get info out of the person o Not being manipulative to the participant  Correlational Analysis o Correlational Method  Is a way to examine relationships among variables  Descriptive only  Does NOT prove causation  Appear that they are related to each other but cannot  know for sure that one causes the other.   Uses a scatter plot  Ex. Low self esteem could cause depression, or vice  versa *** The above methods are not cause­and –effect, but describing what is  happening.*** Psychological Research  Experiment o Type of research that manipulated a variable of interest  (Independent Variable) to uncover cause­and­effect  variables    Group                 IV                             DV Experimental      breast milk       intelligence score, age 8 Participants:                               Control                formula          intelligence score, age 8  Independent Variable (IV) o What is being manipulated in the study   Dependent Variable o What is being measured  Random Assignment o Controlling for other variables such a parental intelligence  and environment Experimental Method  Placebo o Inert substance given to members of the control group  o The false treatment has no benefit, but it is administered as  of it does  o Ex. Sugar pill Double­Blind Study  Type of study in which neither the researchers who are  administering the IV nor the participants know what type of  treatment is being administered. Experimenter Bias  Researcher’s expectations influence the outcome of the study Ethics in Psychological Research  Institutional Review Board (IRB) o Professional group o Reviews the safety, consideration of participants  Common Ethical Guidelines 1. Rights and well­being of participants weighed against the  study’s value 2. Informed consent 3. Deception must be justified 4. Participants may withdraw at any time 5. Participants protected from risks 6. Investigator must debrief participants 7. Data must remain confidential Animal Research  Attempt to answer questions not obtainable with human research  Avoid exposure to necessary pain or suffering  Used in approximately 7% of psychological benefits Chapter 2: Biology and Behavior Neuroscience  Study of the brain and nervous system Biological psychology  Focuses on how the brain and other biological systems influence  human behavior Neurons  About 100 billion of them in the human body  Enable biological functions The Brain  Pink in color because of blood vessels  Tofu­ consistency  Weighs 3 lbs. and floats in cerebral spinal fluid Phrenology  Pseudoscience   Determine the personality of people by feeling the bumps on your  skull Ablation  Taking the piece of the brain out and see whether the person can do  certain functions without that piece of the brain Ways to See the brain  CAT Scan: x­ray  MRI: better picture to look at the brain ** CAT and MRI are the types of machines that help looking at brain  structure. **  EEG: Put electrodes in the brain and measure the brain’s electrical  activity  PET  FMRI: functional MRI ** EEG, PET, and FMRI see what is happening to the brain while  someone is doing a particular function** **** These machines help see what areas of the brain are involved in a  variety of function. Do not have to wait, because can get results right  away.**** Parts of a Neuron  86­100 billion in the brain and spinal cord  Cell Body or Soma o Nucleus resides here o All mechanisms in it keep the neuron alive  Dendrites o Branches that come out of the cell body o Receive info into cell body from other receptors o Neuron can have lots of dendrites o Transmits messages into cell body to axon  Axon o Only have ONE of these that come off the cell body o Separate into terminal buds o Sends messages from cell body to terminal buds  Myelin Sheath o Axon are usually covered in this  o Insulates one neuron to another neuron o Speeds communication  Terminal buds or Axon Terminal o The ends of the axon o Transmits messages to other neurons  Synapse or Synaptic Cleft o Space between the end of one neuron terminal bud to the  dendrite of another neuron  o The space does NOT touch!  Glial Cells or Glia o Serve as glue of the nervous system o Provide structure and nutrition for the neurons o An infinite number of them in our body How does Communication happen within Neurons?  Each neuron either fires an action potential (AP) or it does not fire  and AP  Neuron cell membrane o At rest, it is more negative 70mv relative to the outside which is  called the RESTING POTENTIAL  Action Potential o Something happens to the neuron from either another neuron  or from the environment o The neuron becomes less negative or depolarizes o It happens because some channels have opened up and  positive ions will come inside the cell membrane o If the cell membrane increases to ­55 mv, then the neuron will  open up some more channels o The channels are usually sodium channels that let sodium ions  inside o The change in charge keeps on going all the way down the  axon o AP happens only in the places where the axon is not covered  by the myelin sheath called NODES OF RANVIER o The AP will reach the terminal buds o Neurotransmitters in the terminal buds are released into the  synapse which are released by the AP o The neurotransmitters bind to the receptor sites of the receiving neuron’s dendrites o This is how an AP travels down a neuron How do Neurons affect our Behavior?  These signals will synapse into a muscle fiber if it wants it to cause a  movement  Can affect how you think, hormones  Are driving what you are doing The Supporting Systems  The brain needs supporting infrastructure to carry out directions and  relay essential information from outside 1. Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): everything else Spinal Cord  Communication between the brain and PNS  Diameter of pinky finger  Grey matter on the inside: cell bodies  White matter on the outside: axons Reflex Arc  Allows us to do certain things without the need of the brain  Automatic responses because you have connection through the  spinal cord  Ex. Touch the hot pan Two Hemispheres of the Brain 1. Right Hemisphere  Controls left side of the body 2. Left Hemisphere  Controls right side of the body   Has two areas devoted to language: Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s  Area Lobes of the Brain  Each hemisphere has 4 lobes 1. Frontal  Executive functions o Planning,  o Not do things we do not want to do o Thinking  Humans have the largest proportion of the frontal lobe  Motor Cortex o Located in the very back of the frontal lobe o Works with other areas of the body to plan and execute  voluntary movements o Can also be stimulated by and electrical shock 2. Parietal  Sensory and spatial information  Touch, temperature, and etc.  Somatosensory Cortex o Very, very front to the parietal lobe and next to the motor  cortex o Receiving information from different areas of the body o Ex. When you feel something, the signal goes to this cortex 3. Occipital   Processing information that comes from our eye 4. Temporal  Processes auditory information and language information Split Brain I. Hemispherectomies a. Rare, last resort surgery b. Remove a hemisphere  c. Used when seizures occur many times a day II. Callosum rectomies a. Corpus Callosum i. Band of axons connects the right and left side of the brain ii. Both sides of the communicate with each other and  process information b. Surgery where the corpus callosum is severed  III. Split Brain Experiment a. An experiment where info is presented to the right side of the  visual field is processed in the left hemisphere where language  is processing occurs. Subject can speak the answer b. Information presented to left visual field is processed in the right hemisphere. Subject cannot use language to say what was  shown. c. The subject can touch the correct object even if they cannot say what has been projected in the left visual field. The subject  uses the left hand, which is controlled by the right hemisphere,  which processes the hand to move.


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