Psychology Test 1 Study Guide (Updated)
Psychology Test 1 Study Guide (Updated) Psyc 1101
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by afshan lakhani on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psycology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/27/16
Psychology 1101 Professor Dyckman Study Guide for Chapter 1 & 2 Highlight = Key Term Highlight = Important Concept Chapter 1: Introduction to Science of Psychology Psychology Scientific study of mental processes and behavior Answering Thoughts Observable questions based on and activities (all meticulous and emotions things that can methodical be observed) observations well as data analysis Psychologists scientists who work in the above fields. Conduct two major types of researches A. Basic o Focuses on what is going on and why o Goal is to gather knowledge for the sake of knowledge B. Applied o Taking the research and applying it to other things o Focuses on changing behaviors and outcomes o Goals are more practical Goals of Disciplines of Psychology 1. Describe o Report on what is being observed o Ex. What can I observe about their behavior? 2. Explain o Why the behavior is being observed? 3. Predict o Under what circumstances was the person behaving a specific way? 4. Control o Can you modify or change the behavior in some way? Roots of Psychology Plato: thought truth and knowledge exist in the sould before birth. Nature: we are who we are. Aristotle: empiricism o We know reality through perception and we learn through our experiences o Experiences shape who we are: Nurture Rene Descartes o Dualism The mind and body interact as two separate entities Both interested with each other, but both are separate Gustav Fechner o Physiological Psychology o Study of the physical ability to sense stimuli o How we get this information in and what happens once info is in our system WIllhelm Wundt o “Father of Psychology” o First research laboratory of psychology in Germany o Introspection: He would present stimuli to students, and ask what the students thought and felt while presenting the stimuli Psychology is driven by Critical Thinking: o Curiosity: make your self ask questions, wonder o Skepticism: challenge previous beliefs that make you want to find out if it were true or not. o Humility: be able to accept when your previous belief was wrong Numerology: Look for signs or expectations for behaviors Find things if you wand to but does not actually mean anything Astrology: Descriptions are so vague that one can apply to it if you want to, but does not mean it is scientific. Scientific methods Tests our theories Everyone uses this even babies A systematic way of learning things. Research Basis Variables o Anything that can change o Ex: what you measure Population o What population of people you are interested in learning about o All members of the group you are interested in Sample o Cannot give a survey to every college student or a person in a population, so take some group from a population that will do your study. o Needs to be random and representative Informed Consent o Read and sign a consent that tells you what you are going to do and the participant has the right to say no. Debriefing o The experimenter cannot tell you everything about what you are going to do, but you can ask them after the study is over. Descriptive Research (Methods) o Describe what is happening o Not trying to manipulate anything just observing what is happening o Ex. Naturalistic observation: observing animals in natural environment Laboratory Observation o Descriptive, observation o Seeing what people are doing, but in a laboratory setting o In a more controlled setting Case study o Study one person extensively Survey o Descriptive study o Researchers are trying to get info out of the person o Not being manipulative to the participant Correlational Analysis o Correlational Method Is a way to examine relationships among variables Descriptive only Does NOT prove causation Appear that they are related to each other but cannot know for sure that one causes the other. Uses a scatter plot Ex. Low self esteem could cause depression, or vice versa *** The above methods are not causeand –effect, but describing what is happening.*** Psychological Research Experiment o Type of research that manipulated a variable of interest (Independent Variable) to uncover causeandeffect variables Group IV DV Experimental breast milk intelligence score, age 8 Participants: Control formula intelligence score, age 8 Independent Variable (IV) o What is being manipulated in the study Dependent Variable o What is being measured Random Assignment o Controlling for other variables such a parental intelligence and environment Experimental Method Placebo o Inert substance given to members of the control group o The false treatment has no benefit, but it is administered as of it does o Ex. Sugar pill DoubleBlind Study Type of study in which neither the researchers who are administering the IV nor the participants know what type of treatment is being administered. Experimenter Bias Researcher’s expectations influence the outcome of the study Ethics in Psychological Research Institutional Review Board (IRB) o Professional group o Reviews the safety, consideration of participants Common Ethical Guidelines 1. Rights and wellbeing of participants weighed against the study’s value 2. Informed consent 3. Deception must be justified 4. Participants may withdraw at any time 5. Participants protected from risks 6. Investigator must debrief participants 7. Data must remain confidential Animal Research Attempt to answer questions not obtainable with human research Avoid exposure to necessary pain or suffering Used in approximately 7% of psychological benefits Chapter 2: Biology and Behavior Neuroscience Study of the brain and nervous system Biological psychology Focuses on how the brain and other biological systems influence human behavior Neurons About 100 billion of them in the human body Enable biological functions The Brain Pink in color because of blood vessels Tofu consistency Weighs 3 lbs. and floats in cerebral spinal fluid Phrenology Pseudoscience Determine the personality of people by feeling the bumps on your skull Ablation Taking the piece of the brain out and see whether the person can do certain functions without that piece of the brain Ways to See the brain CAT Scan: xray MRI: better picture to look at the brain ** CAT and MRI are the types of machines that help looking at brain structure. ** EEG: Put electrodes in the brain and measure the brain’s electrical activity PET FMRI: functional MRI ** EEG, PET, and FMRI see what is happening to the brain while someone is doing a particular function** **** These machines help see what areas of the brain are involved in a variety of function. Do not have to wait, because can get results right away.**** Parts of a Neuron 86100 billion in the brain and spinal cord Cell Body or Soma o Nucleus resides here o All mechanisms in it keep the neuron alive Dendrites o Branches that come out of the cell body o Receive info into cell body from other receptors o Neuron can have lots of dendrites o Transmits messages into cell body to axon Axon o Only have ONE of these that come off the cell body o Separate into terminal buds o Sends messages from cell body to terminal buds Myelin Sheath o Axon are usually covered in this o Insulates one neuron to another neuron o Speeds communication Terminal buds or Axon Terminal o The ends of the axon o Transmits messages to other neurons Synapse or Synaptic Cleft o Space between the end of one neuron terminal bud to the dendrite of another neuron o The space does NOT touch! Glial Cells or Glia o Serve as glue of the nervous system o Provide structure and nutrition for the neurons o An infinite number of them in our body How does Communication happen within Neurons? Each neuron either fires an action potential (AP) or it does not fire and AP Neuron cell membrane o At rest, it is more negative 70mv relative to the outside which is called the RESTING POTENTIAL Action Potential o Something happens to the neuron from either another neuron or from the environment o The neuron becomes less negative or depolarizes o It happens because some channels have opened up and positive ions will come inside the cell membrane o If the cell membrane increases to 55 mv, then the neuron will open up some more channels o The channels are usually sodium channels that let sodium ions inside o The change in charge keeps on going all the way down the axon o AP happens only in the places where the axon is not covered by the myelin sheath called NODES OF RANVIER o The AP will reach the terminal buds o Neurotransmitters in the terminal buds are released into the synapse which are released by the AP o The neurotransmitters bind to the receptor sites of the receiving neuron’s dendrites o This is how an AP travels down a neuron How do Neurons affect our Behavior? These signals will synapse into a muscle fiber if it wants it to cause a movement Can affect how you think, hormones Are driving what you are doing The Supporting Systems The brain needs supporting infrastructure to carry out directions and relay essential information from outside 1. Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): everything else Spinal Cord Communication between the brain and PNS Diameter of pinky finger Grey matter on the inside: cell bodies White matter on the outside: axons Reflex Arc Allows us to do certain things without the need of the brain Automatic responses because you have connection through the spinal cord Ex. Touch the hot pan Two Hemispheres of the Brain 1. Right Hemisphere Controls left side of the body 2. Left Hemisphere Controls right side of the body Has two areas devoted to language: Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s Area Lobes of the Brain Each hemisphere has 4 lobes 1. Frontal Executive functions o Planning, o Not do things we do not want to do o Thinking Humans have the largest proportion of the frontal lobe Motor Cortex o Located in the very back of the frontal lobe o Works with other areas of the body to plan and execute voluntary movements o Can also be stimulated by and electrical shock 2. Parietal Sensory and spatial information Touch, temperature, and etc. Somatosensory Cortex o Very, very front to the parietal lobe and next to the motor cortex o Receiving information from different areas of the body o Ex. When you feel something, the signal goes to this cortex 3. Occipital Processing information that comes from our eye 4. Temporal Processes auditory information and language information Split Brain I. Hemispherectomies a. Rare, last resort surgery b. Remove a hemisphere c. Used when seizures occur many times a day II. Callosum rectomies a. Corpus Callosum i. Band of axons connects the right and left side of the brain ii. Both sides of the communicate with each other and process information b. Surgery where the corpus callosum is severed III. Split Brain Experiment a. An experiment where info is presented to the right side of the visual field is processed in the left hemisphere where language is processing occurs. Subject can speak the answer b. Information presented to left visual field is processed in the right hemisphere. Subject cannot use language to say what was shown. c. The subject can touch the correct object even if they cannot say what has been projected in the left visual field. The subject uses the left hand, which is controlled by the right hemisphere, which processes the hand to move.
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