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CSU - CHEM 111 - Class Notes - Chem Week 1 Notes

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CSU - CHEM 111 - Class Notes - Chem Week 1 Notes

School: Colorado State University
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry I
Professor: Ruth Tucker
Term: Summer 2016
Tags: atoms and Chemistry
Name: Chem Week 1 Notes
Description: These notes cover material discussed in the book as well as each of the lectures this week.
Uploaded: 08/28/2016
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background image Chemistry Reading 1.1, 1.3-1.6 1.1 States of Matter: All things physically real is matter Matter: anything that has mass and occupies space Chemistry: the study of the composition, structure, and properties of  matter in an object Matter exists in three phases or physical states: solid, liquid, or gas Atomic theory: all forms of matter are composed of microscopic  particles Molecules: a collection of atoms chemically bonded together Chemical bonds: a force that holds two atoms in a molecule of a  compound together Solid: free packed, vibrate a little Liquid: randomly ordered, close Gas: separated and vibrate Matter can be transformed from one physical state to another as its  temperature is raised or lowered Sublimation: transformation of a solid directly into a vapor (gas) Deposition: transformation of a vapor (gas) directly into a solid 1.3 Classes of Matter The two principal classes of matter are pure substances and mixture Pure substance: matter that cannot be separated into simpler matter  by a physical process Pure substances cannot be separated into simpler forms of matter by  any physical process Physical process: a transformation of a sample of matter, such as a  change in its physical state, that does not alter the chemical identity of any substance in the example Pure substances are two groups: elements an d compounds o Elements: a pure substance that cannot be separated into  simpler substances by any chemical process Only a few found in nature in their elemental states
background image o Compound: a pure substance that is composed of two or more  elements linked together in fixed proportions and that can be  broken down into those elements by chemical process Chemical formula: a notation for representing the elemental  composition of a pure substance using the symbols of the elements;  subscripts indicate the relative number of atoms of each element in  the substance Low of constant composition: the principle that all samples of a  particular compound always contains the same elements combined in  the same proportions Mixtures: a combination of pure substances in variable proportions in  which the individual substances retain their chemical identities and can be separated from one another by a physical process o Classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous  Homogeneous mixture: a mixture in which the components are distributed uniformly throughout and have no visible  boundaries or regions Also called solutions o Often liquids but may also by solids of gases Heterogeneous mixture: a mixture in which the  components are not distributed uniformly, so that the  mixture contains distinct regions of different composition Induct immiscible liquids Combinations of liquids that are incapable of mixing  with, or dissolving in each other Nearly all forms of matter we encounter are mixtures Mixtures can be separate
background image Distillation: a process using evaporation and  condensation to separate a mixture of substances  with different volatilities  o volatility: a measure of how readily a substance vaporizes inversely proportional to the strength of  the interactions between its particles  filtration: a process for separating solid particles from a liquid or gaseous sample by passing the sample  through a porous material that retains the solid  particles can  be soaked in acetone to dissolve some of the  compounds present  chromatography: a process involving stationary and  mobile phases for separating a mixture of substances based on their different affinities for the two types of  phases 1.4 Properties of matter Intensive property: a property that is independent of the amount of  substance present o Distinctive color, malleable, ductile, melts Extensive property: a property that varies with the amount of  substance present o Length, width, mass, and volumes Properties of Substances o Physical property: a property of a substance that van be  observed without changing the substance into another  substance

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry I
Professor: Ruth Tucker
Term: Summer 2016
Tags: atoms and Chemistry
Name: Chem Week 1 Notes
Description: These notes cover material discussed in the book as well as each of the lectures this week.
Uploaded: 08/28/2016
9 Pages 11 Views 8 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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