Psychology Study Guide: Exam 1
Psychology Study Guide: Exam 1 Psyc 1101
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle H. on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 182 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psycology in Psychology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/27/16
Chapter 1 Practice Questions 1. Psychology is the study of ___________. 2. Research focused on changing attitudes or behavior is called ___________. 3. The goals of the study of psychology are to ______ , ______ , _______ , and _______ behavior. 4. A study is done to indicate who is likely to follow the safety rules. The goal of this study was to __________. 5. At the heart of the humanistic perspective is the concept of _______. 6. The __________ perspective focuses on studying behavior that can be observed and measured. 7. The steps of the scientific method are ______, ________ , _________ , and __________. 8. The ________ method allows researchers to draw conclusions about cause and effect. 9. A ________ is the group about which the researcher is interested in learning. Answer Key The letters next to the answers indicate which section of the notes the answer can be found in. 1. Behavior and mental processes (A) 2. Applied research (E) 3. Describe, Explain Predict and Control (B) 4. Control behavior (B) 5. Free will (C) 6. Behavioral (A) 7. Observation, Hypothesis, Experiment, Conclude. (A) 8. Experimental (E) 9. Population (E) A: General Overview Psychology: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. ● In psychology, there are three main perspectives we can use to study behavior and mental processes. ● Behavior: Observable activities ● Mental processes: Thoughts and emotions Psychological research always follows the steps of the scientific method Scientific Method Observation ● Notice a behavior that should be studied. Hypothesis ● An “educated guess” about the outcome of an experiment Experiment ● Used to prove a hypothesis Conclusion ● Determine whether or not your hypothesis is true. B: Goals of Psychology ● Describe: Reporting on what behavior has been observed. ● Explain: Understanding why people are behaving in a certain way. ● Predict: Determining when a person is likely to exhibit the behavior. ● Control: Modifying or changing a behavior C: The Roots of Psychology Psychology began in the field of philosophy. Many famous philosophers created some of the earliest ways of thinking about psychology. (This is not a main part of the test, just learn which highlighted term is associated with each philosopher and what they mean) Plato: Believed that truth and knowledge existed in the soul before birth. ● This is the belief of nature over nurture, which means that a person is born with their behaviors. Aristotle: We know reality through perceptions and we learn through experiences. ● This belief is known as empiricism or humanism and states that a person’s behaviors are caused by their environment ● Believes in the concept of nurture over nature, or that humans exhibit free will over their behaviors. Rene Descartes: The mind and body interact as two separate entities. ● This belief is called dualism and still has supporters today. Gustav Fechner: Pioneered the study of the physical ability to sense stimuli, known as physiological psychology. Wilhelm Wundt (18321920) ● Studied behaviors by presenting subjects with stimuli and asking for their reactions. This is called introspection. ● Created the first psychology research laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany in 1879 ○ For this reason, he is considered to be the founder of modern psychology. D: Descriptive Research Methods These methods of research involve observing the behavior of a subject without interfering in any way. An example of this is studying animals in their natural habitat. There are four main methods of conducting descriptive research. Naturalistic Observation: Researchers observe what naturally occurs without manipulating any events. ● Researchers do not interfere in events or introduce any variables. ○ Eg. Observing animals in the wild. Laboratory Observation: Researchers observe naturally occurring behavior in a controlled setting and are able to introduce variables. ● Researchers do not actively influence the behavior of a subject, they only observe their behaviors when presented with a certain variable. ○ Eg. Placing 4 children into a room and giving one of them a toy. Case Study: A type of naturalistic investigation in which researchers conduct indepth observations and analysis of a single subject. ● Case studies are often performed on individuals that have a naturally occurring abnormal trait or behavior. ● Allows scientists to gain information that they would not be able to gain in a laboratory setting. ○ Eg. Scientists preformed a case study of Phines Gage, a man who lost a large portion of his brain in an accident. Survey: A study in which researchers ask questions to participants without influencing their answers in any manner. ● Information about a subject is only gathered. Scientists cannot influence these behaviors in any way ○ Eg. Surveying 50 people to determine their favorite color. Descriptive research can only determine a possible relationship between two variables. You cannot define the cause for behavior using descriptive research. E: Analyzing Variables When a scientist performs any type of descriptive research, it is necessary to analyze the results to determine if the variables are related. This is done using a method called correlation analysis Correlation Analysis: A method of determining whether or not two variables are related. ● A correlational analysis can’t define the cause of a specific behavior ● These analyses are graphed using s catter plots Correlation does not prove causation! What does that mean? ● The easiest way to explain this is using an example study in which it was observed that over the last 20 years, both cancer diagnoses and cell phone use increased. ● One scientist concluded that cell phones cause cancer. ● However, another scientist could reasonably conclude using the same data that cancer causes cell phones. ○ For this reason, this study can only prove that there is a possible relation between cell phone use and cancer cases. F: Experimental Research By conducting experimental research,it is possible for a researcher is able to determine what causes a certain behavior. Research can also be used to help change a subject’s behaviors. Psychological Research: A research method in which scientists are able to manipulate events in order to determine the cause of a certain behavior. Applied Research: A method of research in which scientists focus on changing a subject’s attitudes or behaviors. Psychological research requires at least two groups of subjects: ● Control group ○ Group that completes a task normally without a variable being introduced ● Experimental group ○ Group that completes the same task as a control group but with a certain variable introduced by researchers Types of Variables Independent variable: Variable that is changed by researchers ● Variable that is not influenced by other variables. Dependent variable: What is measured by researchers ● The value of the dependent value is caused by the independent value. ○ Eg. Exam score Additional Vocabulary Placebo: A substance given to the percipients that has no effect, such as a sugar pill. This is mostly used in pharmaceutical studies. ● However, sometimes the placebo has an effect because the participants b treatment is working. This is known as the placebo effect. Double Blind Study: Type of study in which neither the researchers nor the participants know if they belong in the control or experimental group. ● This removes experimenter bias, or when the researcher’s expectations has an unconscious effect on the participants. Single Blind Study: A study in which the participants don’t know which group they belong to but the researchers do. ● Not as commonly used as double blind studies. Random Assignment: Assigning participants to either an experimental group or a control group at random ● This can help for other variables present in the participants such as intelligence level and other environmental levels. Population: The group a researcher is interested in studying ● If the scientist is interested in the effect sleep has on college students’ grades, the population would be all college students Subjects: The individuals from the population that participate in the study ● In order for a study to be completely unbiased, all members of the population must have an equal chance of being included in the experiment. G: Ethics in Psychology Research Ethics in psychology are important in order to ensure the physical and mental wellbeing of research subjects. Commonly, an experiment is reviewed by a group called an Ethics Review Board to ensure that all ethical guidelines are being met. This only applies to experiments using human subjects. Common Ethical Guidelines ● Rights and wellbeing of participants should be weighted against the value of the survey ○ How valuable is the information being gathered and how does it compare to the impact it may have on the participant? ● Informed consent ○ Participants must understand what tasks they are explained to complete and agree to participate ● Deception must be justified ○ All information withheld from the participants must be withheld for a good reason ● Participants may withdraw at any time ○ No penalty for withdrawing from study. ● Participants protected from risks ● Investigator must debrief participants ○ Participants can inquire about the study findings after the research has concluded ● Data must remain confidential ○ Eg. Participants are assigned numbers instead of using their names, anonymous surveys Animal Research Ethics ● Attempts to answer questions not obtainable with human research as they violate the ethical guidelines. ● Avoid exposing animals to unnecessary pain and suffering ○ Value of research vs. pain level ● Animals are used in approx. 7% of psychological studies Chapter 2 Practice Questions 1. We are learning about the brain in psychology because ____________________. 2. Grey matter is primarily made up of _________ and white matter is primarily made up of ________. 3. Auditory information is processed by the ________ lobe of the brain. 4. Your motor cortex is in the ______ lobe of the brain. 5. For the vast majority of people, language is lateralized to the ____ side of the brain. 6. At rest, the inside of a neuron is _____________ relative to the outside of the brain. 7. A nerve is a bundle of ______. 8. The ________ connects the brain to the rest of the body. 9. A neuron communicates with another neuron by sending an __________. Answer Key The letters next to the answers indicate which section of the notes the answer can be found in. 1. Your brain orchestrates your behavior (A) 2. Cell bodies, axons. (A) 3. Temporal (G) 4. Frontal (J) 5. Left (J) 6. More negatively charged (F) 7. Axons. (H) 8. Spinal cord (F) 9. Action potential (F) A: General Overview Neuroscience The study of the brain and the nervous system Biological Psychology How the brain and the nervous system influence our behavior Brain: Orchestrates all behavior in the body. ● Composed of two hemispheres: the right and the left ● Brain weighs about 3 lbs. ● Made up of white matter and grey matter ○ White matter is mainly made up of axons ○ Grey matter is mainly made up of cell bodies Cerebrospinal Fluid: Cushions your brain from impacting the inside of the skull and prevents the brain from collapsing. ○ Concussions are caused when the impact is too severe and brain hits the skull ○ Generally has two points of impact at the front and back Neurons: Specialized cells that transmit nerve impulses through the brain. ● 86 to 100 billion neurons within the brain ● Communication between neurons causes everything that happens in the body B: Methods of Studying the Brain Phrenology: Determination of one’s personality by feeling bumps on the skull ● Created by Franz Joseph Gall (17571828) ● Has since been discredited and is considered a pseudoscience ● First time people considered parts of brain had impact on personality Ablation: Removing portions of the brain and observing how bodily functions are affected. ● Created by Pierre Flourens (1794 –1867) ● Usually done on rats or other animals in a controlled setting ● Case studies on individuals who have lost or damaged parts of their brain are also considered ablation CAT Scan: Stands for Computerized Axial Tomography ● A scanner uses Xrays to create multiple crosssections of the brain. ○ used to determine structural damage MRI:Stands for Magnetic Resonance Imaging ● Creates a powerful magnetic field that is able to pass through the brain and create crosssections of the brain ● Similar to CAT scans, but MRI scans are more detailed ● MRI gives a more accurate depiction of the brain, including soft tissue ○ Determines what areas of the brain are possibly damaged C: Methods of Watching Brain Functions ● EEG: Stands for Electroencephalogram ○ Electrodes are placed on the scalp and record the electrical activity taking place in the brain ○ Shows the intensity which certain parts of the brain respond to different stimuli ● PET: Stands for Positron Emission Tomography ○ A radioactive substance called a tracer is injected into the bloodstream of a subject ○ A computer tracks the location of the tracer while the subject is asked to perform certain tasks ○ The computer uses this information to create a 3D model of the brain that shows the amount of activity occurring in each part of the brain ● fMRI : Stands for functional MRI ○ Presents stimuli to participants while they are inside of MRI machine ○ Uses magnets to track changes in the blood oxygen level of participants ○ Shows the amount of activity in each part of the brain, similar to a PET scan. These new technologies allow for researchers to obtain realtime information about what the different parts of the brain are used for, allowing for new breakthroughs to be made much faster. D: Structure of a Neuron ● Cell Body: Contains the nucleus and all other mechanisms that keep the cell alive. ○ Also called soma ● Dendrites ○ Small,branch like fibers that come off the cell body ○ Each neuron contains many dendrites ○ Receives information from other neurons and deliver this information to the cell body. ■ Think of dendrites as little “arms” that extend out and “grab” information ● Axon: Tubelike structure that extends downwards from the cell body ○ Each neuron has only one axon. ○ Transmits information from the cell body to other neurons ● Myelin Sheaths: A fatlike substance that insulates the axon and speeds up the transfer of information between neurons. ■ The majority of neurons are myelinated, or contain myelin ■ However, some axons do not contain myelin ○ Without myelin, communication is slowed and the function controlled by the neuron is affected ■ Multiple Sclerosis is the result of the axon becoming demyelinated ■ The immune system of an individual with Multiple Sclerosis attacks the myelin, which causes it to break down ● Terminal Buds: Transmits messages to other neurons. ○ Located at the end of the axon. ● Synapse: The small space between the end of one neuron and the beginning of another neuron ○ Communication between neurons occurs in this location ○ Can also be called the synaptic cleft or the synaptic gap. ● Glia: Produces the myelin used by the myelin sheaths to protect the neurons. ○ Support cells to the neuron. ○ Glia is the “glue” of the nervous system: it provides cohesion and support for neurons ■ Neurons cannot store their own energy, glia provide this energy ○ Estimated 500 billion glia in the body Stage 3: Action Potential Travels Length of Neuron ● When the action potential is reached in one segment of the axon, it causes a chain reaction down the remaining segments ○ These segments begin to also experience a voltage change ● The chain reaction allows for a message to be carried from the top of the axon to the terminal buds, allowing the message to be passed on to other neurons ○ The top of the axon is called t xon hillock. ● The only place this change in voltage can occur is in the break between the myelinated parts of axon ○ These breaks are called the ode of ranvier F: Conveying Messages Between Neurons ● Neurons use chemicals called neurotransmitters to communicate with each other ● When two neurons communicate with each other, it is called neurotransmission Process of Normal Neurotransmission ● The action potential travels down the axon, reaching the terminal buds. ● This triggers vesicles within the terminal buds to release neurotransmitters into the small space between the two neurons called the ynapse ○ Vesicles are small fluidfilled sacs within the neuron ● Neurotransmitters travel across the synapse to the receptor sites on the dendrite of the second neuron. ○ Receptor sites are the places on the receiving neuron that neurotransmitters attach to. ○ This causes positively charged ions to enter the second neuron and creates an action potential. ● After they bind to the receptor sites, any leftover neurotransmitters diffuse out of the synaptic gap or are reabsorbed into the first neuron. ○ When neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the sending neuron, it is called reuptake ○ There are a variety of different neurotransmitters. If the neurotransmitter does not fit the receptor site of the receiving neuron, it is useless ■ Think of it like a key: if the neurotransmitter does not fit the lock (receptor site), it can’t be “opened" G: Effect on Behavior ● Axons send signals all throughout the body to cause bodily functions such as motion ● Sends signals all throughout body ● Affect how you think, glands, movement ● Drives everything that you do in ● Axons can be long or short ● Nerves are bundles of axons H: The Supporting Systems ● Brain needs supporting infrastructure to carry out directives and relay essential information from the outside Central Nervous System ● Spinal Cord: Transfers information from the brain to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) ○ Connects the brain to the rest of the body. ○ Reflex arc allows for motion to take place before signal reaches brain ○ Interneurons allow for movements to occur without the input of the brain ● Motor Neurons: Responsible for the movement of muscles ○ Motor neurons send axons down from the brain ○ Sensory neurons help us to receive information from the environment Brain Hemispheres ● Two hemispheres, the Right hemisphere and the left hemisphere ● Each hemisphere has 4 sections ● Contralaterally located, meaning the right hemisphere controls the left side,etc. ● The brain is plastic, meaning that it can alter its shape depending on what is needed. I: Lobes ● Frontal lobes: Controls higher level cognitive functions such as planning, personality, and planning ■ This part allows you to make decisions such as not going out partying the night before you have an exam ○ Humans have a much larger frontal lobe than most other mammals ○ Frontal lobe does not fully mature until the age of 2025 ● Parietal lobe: Processes sensory information such as touch and temperature as well as spatial information. ○ Spatial information allows you to understand your position in space and navigate your environment ● Optical lobe: Processes visual information ○ Humans rely mostly on their sense of vision, which explains the large area dedicated to processing this information ● Temporal lobe: Deals with hearing, comprehension, and language J: Specialized Areas ● Motor Cortex ○ Located in the back of the frontal lobe ○ When certain areas of the motor cortex correspond to different parts of the body ○ Stimulating these areas causes movement. ○ Body parts that require a lot of fine/complex movements have a larger area of the motor cortex dedicated to it ■ For example, your tongue has a much larger area than your knee ● Somatosensory Cortex ○ Located at the back of the parietal lobe touching the motor cortex ○ Processes nerve information from ○ It is possible to increase the amount of space dedicated to a certain body part ● Language Areas ○ There are two areas in your brain that deal with language formation, understanding, and acquisition ○ Broca’s area ■ Located in the frontal lobe ○ Wernicke’s area ■ Located in the temporal lobe ○ Both these areas are only located in the l eft hemisphere. ■ Stroke victims or those with brain damage in the left hemisphere may slur their words or have problems finding the proper words to use K: Operations to Correct Neurological Issues ● Hemispherectomies: Used to correct extreme problems with seizures (eg. 150 a day) ○ Exceptionally rare, often considered a last resort ● Colostomies: Known as a split brain operation ○ Done by cutting the corpus coliseum which severs the axons ■ Right and left hemispheres are disconnected and cannot communicate with each other ■ Allows for the two halves of the brain to act independently ○ Helps to control epilepsy
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