Intro to Sociology Final Study Guide
Intro to Sociology Final Study Guide socy100104
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Information for the Final: Wednesday May 11th 12:30PM 35 Questions (scoring out of 30, 5 additional points) 11 questions will be from the first 11 weeks (before midterm) ⇒ g eneral 24 questions will be from the last 5 weeks ⇒ I n depth Study guide Todo list: 1. Reread all readings involved 2. Add words and definitions that are required 3. Be clear on all concepts as well as the schools of thought these concepts build upon *Notes ➢ this study guide should be mostly complete ➢ all definitions up till week 14 are from the Giddens textbook ➢ Information on the readings summarised and crossreferenced with my own notes, please feel free to add things that are missing (please don’t remove anything) ➢ “Outline” can be found under the “tools” tab and is very useful for navigating ➢ If you want anything to appear on the “outline” section, make it bold and leave the line before empty ➢ I’m sorry it’s quite long, and good luck with this final on wednesday :) Final Review: DEFINE THE FOLLOWING TERMS ON YOUR OWN: ● 3 aspects of post 2011 activism, 2 examples of post 2011 activism ● New social movements (examples and characterization) ● What is #regeneration criticizing? ● Activism vs slacktivism (what are the outcomes of personal investment in a cause?) ● Global city (4 characteristics) ● Global commodities chain theory (and its effects), which theorist is this most similar to? ● World systems theory, which theorist is this most similar to? ● Market orientated strategies ● Leighton and Reighman’s arguments ● What is the women’s holocaust? ● Conflict theory → which tradition does it follow? ● interactionist → which tradition does it follow? ● Control theory → which tradition does it follow? ● Why is deviance functional? ● Merton’s 5 types of people ● Demonic, classical, pathological theories on deviance PREWEEK 12 ● No child left behind and race to the top ● Kozol’s argument ● Friere’s argument ● Functionalist approach to family ● Feminist approach to family ● Weber (specifically), Marx, Durkheim on religion ● Civil religion ● Taylorism and Mcdonaldization → detriments (what does alienation mean here?) ● Bonilla silva → colorblind racism and latin americanization of race ● Functionalist and feminist approach to gender ● What is “doing gender” ● Shapiro → what is the hidden cost of being african american? ● Perucci and wysong’s theory ● Domhoff’s social register → false positive, false negative ● Olin Wright’s theory on stratification → which school does it link to? ● Schor’s argument ● Bordieu’s theory on capital (social capital specifically) ● Goffman’s theory on impression management (4 different types of practices) ● “Looking glass self” ● Zimbardo study, milgram’s study ● Durkheim, marx, weber’s basic theories ● Sociological imagination Week 1 The Sociological Imagination Readings: ● Giddens et al., Ch. 1 “What is Sociology?” ● Sternheimer, Ch. 1 “Thinking Sociologically and Doing Sociology” ○ 1. The Sociological Perspective: C. WRIGHT MILLS, The Promise Sociological Imagination ❏ A quality of mind that allows for people to think of themselves in a social context ❏ “The sociological imagination enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within society. That is its task and its promise.” C. Wright Mills The Promise The Questions that Orient the Discipline I. What is the structure of this particular society as a whole? What are its essential components, and how are they related to one another? How does it differ from other varieties of social order? Within it, what is the meaning of any particular feature for its continuance and for its change? II. Where does this society stand in human history? What are the mechanics by which it is changing? How does any particular feature we are examining affect, and how is it affected by, the historical period in which it moves? And this period What are its essential features? How does it differ from other periods? What are its characteristic ways of history making? III. What varieties of men and women now prevail in this society and in this period? And what varieties are coming to prevail? In what ways are they selected and formed, liberated and repressed, made sensitive and blunted? What kinds of ‘human nature’ are revealed in the conduct and character we observe in this society in this period? And what is the meaning for ‘human nature’ of each and every feature of society we are examining? Social Construction ❏ An idea/practice that people within the society agree exists and agree that it is a societal creation ❏ Gender (social construction) vs Sex (natural) ❏ Teaching a child to act a certain race because of a certain social construction Social Order ❏ A particular set or system of linked social structures, institutions, relations, customs, values and practices, which conserve, maintain and enforce certain patterns of relating and behaving ❏ Why is it possible? ❏ Because it is a “norm” ❏ Because of a “belief”. The lecture hall as a symbol of a greater whole, a sacred place that is part of the larger moral universe Socialization ❏ The process of acquiring and internalizing the norms and values of a society Agency and Structure ❏ A sense of responsibility in society to act individually Social Change ❏ The shift or the change from one form of society to another (may vary via magnitude) Traditional / Preindustrialized societies ❏ Kingdoms and empires until the 17th/18th century (depending on location) ❏ Agriculture as the main source revenue ❏ Peasants within a hierarchical Feudal system (based upon local authorities) ❏ Extended / large families present ❏ Both w ork and anufacturing being done at home Industrial Revolution and Modern / Postindustrial societies ❏ Mechanization mass production and factory work ubiquitous ❏ Increased communications, transportation and factories ❏ Urbanization ❏ Nuclear families ❏ Nation states and citizens → rights and liberties ❏ Rationalization → Efficiency, bureaucracy, technology + science ❏ Division of Labor and interdependence Modernization ❏ Transition from traditional to modern societies Emile Durkheim Theories: Understanding social cohesion through the functions of each part of society and division of labor Social facts ❏ Aspects of social life that shape our actions and individuals mechanical solidarity ❏ Social integration of its members based off a common belief or idea (collective conscious). Religion / Moral consensus as the source of solidarity. organic solidarity ❏ Social integration of its members through division of labor and interdependence. ❏ Society working as a human body, each aspect of society has its own functions, and only through the smooth operation of all these functions should society function. social constraint ❏ The conditioning influence on our behaviour of the groups and societies of which we are members. division of labor ❏ The specialization of work tasks by means of which different occupations are combines within a production system. Anomie ❏ Aimlessness caused by rapid changes occurring in society. ❏ Lack of social constraints and social facts causing anomie. Karl Marx Theories: Understanding social cohesion through the concept of conflict Materialist conception of history ❏ Social change as being prompted primarily by economic influences Communism ❏ Communal ownership that leads to a more equal society Capitalism ❏ An economic system based on the private ownership of wealth which is invested and reinvested in order to produce profit bourgeoisie (capitalist class) ❏ People within society who own capital factories, machines, and large sums of money proletariat (working class) ❏ The mass of the population that makes of a class of wage workers, who must find employment from the capitalist class, therefore are exploited by the capitalists Classconsciousness ❏ Understanding of the class (of the two that are defined above) that one resides in ideology (“the ideas of the ruling class are ruling ideas”) ❏ Only through gaining “class consciousness” can the working class take down the capitalist class ❏ “Equal ownership of the means of production” Max Weber Theories: Believed that economic factors and ideas and values both have equal effect on social change Protestant ethic ❏ The notion that christianity’s emphasis on hard work and perseverance as the basis of the rise of capitalism ❏ Application of this belief therefore resulted in the belief that one was “saved by god” if one worked hard, therefore the continual gaining of wealth as a divine notion Asceticism ❏ Indulging and gaining pleasure from worldly pleasures ❏ Weber believed that only continual hard work and wealth would garner divinity, therefore asceticism should be stayed away from Bureaucracy ❏ Extreme efficiency gained through a large, well defined, hierarchical organization ❏ Rule of experts (“top level”) who determine the direction of humankind Rationalization ❏ Science and technology and bureaucracy taking over iron cage of bureaucracy ❏ When stagnation occurs due to bureaucracy and the rule of experts, yet no change occurs Modern Theoretical Approaches symbolic interactionism ❏ A theoretical approach in sociology developed by George Herbert Mead that emphasizes the role of symbols and language as the core elements of human interaction ❏ Mead believed that identity was fluid and ever changing ❏ Adjust our behaviour based others ❏ Language as a collection of symbols which then determine our identity Functionalism ❏ Based off of Durkheim’s theories on division of labor ❏ If everything is functional, then change would not occur ❏ Manifest functions (Robert K Merton) ❏ Those known to, and intended by, the participants of social activity ❏ Latent functions (Robert K Merton) ❏ Those consequences of that activity of which participants are unaware Marxism ❏ A school of social theory that emphasizes on the concept of p ower as well as conflict, class divisions and ideology ❏ “Ideas of the ruling class are the ruling ideas” Feminist theory ❏ Argue that sociology is a male dominated discipline and thus from a male point of view ❏ Social construction of gender and its influences Rational Choice Theory ❏ Each individual’s behaviour is purposeful ❏ Weber’s theories on rationalization (this theory is similar) 1) Behaviour orientated to higher values 2) Behaviour oriented toward habit 3) Behaviour oriented toward affect (emotions) 4) Behaviour orientated towards self interest ❏ If one could only have a single variable to explain society itself, s elf intere would be the best one Postmodern Theory ❏ Claims the collapse of the “it goes somewhere” / history has a shape notion, the destruction of the “Grand narrative” or the “metanarrative” ❏ Meaning being created through a “flow of images” as opposed to in person viewings ❏ Social life is influenced above all by signs and images Microsociology ❏ Examining smaller parts of society, more individual parts of society Macrosociology ❏ Examining the larger parts of society, society as a whole and its impacts Week 2 Methodology Readings: ● Giddens et al., Ch.2 “Asking and Answering Sociological Questions” ● Sternheimer, Ch. 1 “Thinking Sociologically and Doing Sociology” ○ 2. Research Questions: JANICE PRINCE INNISS, Matching Research Methods to Research Questions ● Zimbardo, Philip G., Craig Haney and W. Curtis Banks “ Interpersonal Dynamics in Simulated Prison” pp. 4352 in Mapping the Social Landscape edited by Susan J. Ferguson. 2008. New York, NY: McGrawHill. (available online at course reserves) ● Meyer, Philip. “If Hitler Asked You to Electrocute A Stranger, Would You?” (available online at http://www.unc.edu/~pmeyer/General_Publications/Hitler.pdf ) ● Duneier, Mitchell. “Sidewalk” pp. 5362 in Mapping the Social Landscape edited by Susan J. Ferguson. 2008. New York, NY: McGrawHill. (available online at course reserves) Methodology The steps of sociological research 1. Define the research problem 2. Review literature to ensure that an this review has not been done before 3. Developing a hypothesis 4. Research design → qualitative or quantitative 5. Institutional Review Board (IRB) → guidelines regarding risks, benefits and participant consent 6. Data gathering 7. Data analysis 8. Reporting findings 9. future/further research Ethnography ❏ fieldwork usually involving participant observation through direct interaction ❏ Interviews are conducted as well Advantages Limitations ➔ Large amounts of data ➔ Participants may lie ➔ Able to observe direct behaviour ➔ Generalization is nearly impossible including body language ➔ Interviewer may lose objectivity/perspective ➔ Interviewer may choose which information to display ➔ Takes a long time ➔ Life is at risk ex: Yanmaz talks about the sociologist was discovered to tag along on a crime scene Surveys Advantages Limitations ➔ Questions → variables → correlation ➔ Misinterpreted questions ➔ Less time ➔ Surveys may be ignored ➔ Standardized ➔ Less in depth ➔ Simultaneous ➔ Bias within the question ➔ Anonymous ➔ Statistical ⇒ generalizations ➔ Large population ➔ Less risk to interviewer Population ❏ A group connected by a common aspect Sampling ❏ Obtaining people from the population Random sampling ❏ Obtaining random people from the population Openended surveys ❏ Surveys with no fixed choices or answers Standardized or fixed choice surveys ❏ Surveys with fixed choices or answers which replies select from Experiments ❏ Experimental group the group that gets investigated / changed ❏ Control groups the group that does not get affected / changed Advantages Limitations ➔ Systematic and controlled ➔ Trauma is possible ➔ Designed ➔ The setting of an experiment may be ➔ Reliable and repeatable unnatural Comparative research ❏ Enables researchers to document whether social behaviour varies across time, place and according to one’s own social group membership Causal relationship ❏ If A causes a changes in B, ie A is impactful in B Correlation ❏ Change in A shows a change in B ❏ Correlation does not imply causation Zimbardo’s study Stanford experiment ❏ What is it about ❏ Investigating whether or not a situation would shape a person ❏ What is their methodology ❏ Conducted research through creating a false prison, and then having two groups, a guard group and a inmate group ❏ Gave the guard group uniforms and nightsticks to increase the similarity to the role ❏ Conclusion ❏ Power corrupts and the role or the placement of one into a role results in one embracing the role to an unknown extent ❏ Role takes over morality and the notion of just Milgram’s study ❏ What is it about ❏ Investigating the effect of authority on the action of a person ❏ Trying to show how Germans were different than Americans when it comes to the willingness to administer torture / execution ❏ What is their methodology ❏ Through having a “Teacher” a participant and a fake victim ❏ The teacher tells the participant to administer fake electric shocks to the victim ❏ Testing how much pain participants are willing to administer before stopping ❏ Conclusion ❏ Human darkness is limitless, some participants (in America) were willing to administer up to a lethal dosage of electric shock Inductive Reasoning ❏ Going from general to specific (all owls ar white, this is an owl, therefore it will be white) Deductive reasoning ❏ Going from specific to general (if it works for 1, 2, 3… the it will work for n) Week 3 Socialization, Social Interaction and Identity Readings: ● Giddens et al., Ch. 4 “Socialization and Life Cycle” ● Sternheimer, Ch. 3 “Self and Interaction” ○ 1. Breaching Norms: BRADLEY WRIGHT, Grocery Shopping, Ordering Whoppers, and Borat ● Giddens et al., Ch. 5 “Social Interaction and the Internet” ● Sternheimer, Ch. 3 “Self and Interaction” ○ 2. The Public Self: ERVING GOFFMAN, Impression Management ○ 3. Identity and Value: BRADLEY WRIGHT, Romantic Exchanges ● Rosenbloom, Stephanie. “Putting Your Best Cyberface Forward” (available online at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/03/fashion/03impression.html?pagewanted=print&_r=0) ● Dholakiya, Pratik. “Is Social Interaction on the Internet a Good Idea?” (available online at http://inspirationfeed.com/articles/business/issocialinteractionontheinternetagoodid ea/) Socialization ❏ The process whereby the helpless infant gradually becomes selfaware, knowledgeable person, skilled in the ways of her culture. Primary socialization ❏ Socialization that occurs at an e arly ag the main agent of socialization is t amily Secondary socialization ❏ Socialization that occurs at an l ater in the main agent of socialization chool/peers Social reproduction ❏ The process whereby societies have structural continuity over time Agents of socialization ❏ Groups or social contexts in which significant processes of socialization occur Social roles ❏ Socially defined expectations for a person in a given position Social identity ❏ The characteristics that are attributed to an individual by others Selfidentity ❏ The ongoing process of selfdevelopment and definition of out person identity through which we formulate a unique sense of ourselves and our relationship to the world around us George Herbert Mead’s theory Symbolic interaction His theory states that the transition from “I” to “me”, the fluidity of one’s identity, language effects Symbolic interactionism ❏ Emphasize on the interaction between human beings which occurs through symbols and the interpretation of these symbols social self ❏ The basis of self consciousness in human individuals. The social self is the identity conferred upon an individual by the reactions of others Selfconsciousness ❏ Awareness of one’s distinctive social identity as a person separate from others generalized other ❏ The general values and moral rules of the culture in which children of the culture are developing ❏ “Me” → the social self which is developed through self consciousness ❏ “I” → the unsocialized infant full of spontaneous wants and desires Charles Horton Cooley’s theory looking glass self ❏ Continuation of Mead’s social self theory ❏ Process: 1) We imagine how we appear to others 2) We imagine their judgement of that appearance 3) We react to their judgement ❏ This process then repeats and erodes one’s personality Erving Goffman’s theory Impression management impression management and its relation to avoid embarrassment and social order disruption Performance ❏ Theatre language ❏ Everyone plays a role in society, and they are expected to maintain that role front region ❏ A region where the actor (person of society) is in front of an audience (other people) therefore has to maintain his/her role Back region ❏ A region where the actor is not in front of anyone, therefore does not have to maintain his/her role, can relax and be themselves civil inattention ❏ When one is aware that others are around, yet choose not to interact. (ie. on a train / t) give and give off ❏ Give → what one portrays ❏ Give off → what another interprets, what another sees performance disruptions ❏ preventive practices → actions to prevent disruption of social order (closing mouth when burping) ❏ corrective practices → actions to correct disruption (“excuse me”, “fuck”) ❏ defensive practices → actions to defend disruption ( excuses ) ❏ protective practices → actions conducted by others to correct the disruption and restore order Normbreaking ❏ Disrupting social norms Social interaction on the Internet ❏ Interaction between individuals online and the practices that occur Week 4 Culture, Subcultures and Consumption Readings: ● Giddens et al., Ch. 3 “Culture and Society” ● Bourdieu, Pierre. “The forms of capital” pp. 241258 in Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education edited by J. Richardson. 1986. New York: Greenwood. (available online at http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/fr/bourdieuformscapital.ht m) ● Thornton, Sarah. 1996. “Introduction” in Club Cultures: Music, Media and Subcultural Capital. (available online at course reserves) ● Hebdige, Dick. 1979. Subculture. The Meaning of Style. London: Methuen, 1979. Pp 4770. ● Sternheimer, Ch. 2 “Culture, Consumption, and Media” ○ 1. Consumption: THORSTEIN VEBLEN, Conspicuous Consumption ○ 2. Lifestyle: JULIET B. SCHOR, The Visible Lifestyle: American Symbols of Status ● Wright, Bradley. “Conspicuous consumption and your iPhone” (available online at http://www.everydaysociologyblog.com/2008/09/conspicuouscon.html) Culture ❏ Consists of the values the members of a group hold, the norms they follow, the material goods they create and the languages and symbols they use to construct their understanding of the world, including both speech and writing. Society ❏ A system of interrelationships that connects individuals, common culture to an extent Values ❏ Abstract ideals of right and wrong that are observed by all in the society Norms ❏ Principles or rules of social life that everyone is expected to observe ❏ Norms are : formal (laws), informal (unwritten rules), dependent on time and place, everchanging Material goods ❏ A result of technology and globalization ❏ Spread of materials throughout the world, contributing to material culture Language ❏ The primary vehicle of meaning and communication in a society, language is a system of symbols that represent objects and abstract thoughts ❏ Used to push society forward given that humans lack biological instincts Cultural universals ❏ Norms present in each and every culture ❏ Marriage / family, facial expressions, language, belief system, art Symbols ❏ Items used to stand for or represent another Types of human societies: Huntergatherers ❏ Nomadic or fixed territories ❏ Communal and cooperational ⇒ no private property ❏ Small groups with an emphasis on their belief system ❏ Inequality based on gender and age Pastoral and Agrarian Society ❏ Settlements ⇒ private property ❏ Concentration of power ❏ Family dynamic and larger groups ⇒ conflicts between groups Traditional Societies ❏ Empires and kingdoms ❏ Slightly more division of labor ❏ Feudal system and class hierarchy ❏ Accumulation of wealth and private ownership present ❏ Agriculture emphasis Industrial Societies ❏ Mass production ❏ Interdependence and division of labor ❏ Urbanization Industrial Revolution ❏ Nation states → power is even more concentrated ❏ Citizens with rights and obligations ❏ Armies to protect borders ❏ Language specific to nations ❏ Division of labor Postmodern/ Postindustrial Societies ❏ Technology / The Internet ❏ Informationalization ❏ Increased presence of the service sector ❏ Earning money from not having to produce tangible things ❏ Globalization Colonialism ❏ The process whereby western nations established their rule in parts of the world away from their home territories Global north ❏ Refers to the northern hemisphere as well as former colonising countries ❏ More economically and industrially developed Global south ❏ Refers to the southern hemisphere as well as former colonised countries ❏ Less economically and industrially developed Cultural conformity ❏ Done through either socialisation or social control Subculture ❏ Values and norms distinct from those of the majority, held by a group within a wider society Counterculture ❏ A way of life and a set of attitudes opposed to or at variance with the prevailing social norm Assimilation ❏ The acceptance of a minority group by a majority group in which the minority group takes on the values and norms of the dominant culture Multiculturalism ❏ A condition in which ethnic groups exist separately and share equally in economic and political life Ethnocentrism ❏ The tendency to look at other cultures through the eyes of one’s own culture, and thereby misrepresent them Cultural relativism ❏ The practice of judging a society by its own standards Bourdieu’s Theory of different types of capital “Taste classifies, and it classifies the classifier” Bourdieu Economic capital ❏ Linked and dependent on cultural capital when a determinant class cultural capital ❏ Split into 3 different types: ❏ Objectified → material objects that are accumulated ❏ Institutionalized → a certification for certain skills of knowledge ❏ Embodied → the ability to evaluate the value of objects ❏ Linked and dependent on cultural capital when a determinant for class symbolic capital ❏ Network, how many “important” people are accumulated in one’s network social capital ❏ Honor, prestige, capital Taste ❏ To show that certain status is achieved ❏ Shapes one’s “performance” when one is faced with objects of “high culture” Habitus ❏ One’s upbringing can and will affect one’s tastes High culture vs. mass/popular culture ❏ Bourdieu’s separation of the two, Bourdieu studied 60’s France ❏ 21st century American is very different Veblen’s theory of Conspicuous consumption ❏ Consumption of any good is purely to show one’s class Juliet B Schor’s basic arguments ❏ Conducted research on female makeup products ❏ For a significant number of branded and highly advertised products, there are no quality differences discernible to consumers when the labels are removed ❏ Variation in prices typically exceed variation in quality Sarah Thornton’s basic arguments ❏ Argues that the separation of culture can still be examined via Bourdieu’s cultural capital ❏ However, embodied, objectified and institutionalized capital are significantly different ❏ Within club cultures, distinction done through experience and knowledge Subcultural Capital ❏ Popular culture is not singular ❏ different taste cultures have their own subcultural capital Week 5 Stratification, Class and Inequality Readings: ● Giddens et al., Ch. 8, Stratification, Class and Inequality ● Domhoff, William. “Chapter 1: Class and Power in America” pp. 121 in Who Rules America? , Sixth Edition. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill. 2010. (available online at course reserves) ● Sternheimer, Ch. 6 “Stratification” ○ 1. American Class Structure: ROBERT PERRUCCI and EARL WYSONG, Class in America ○ 2. The Intersection of Class and Race: JANICE PRINCE INNISS, Class and Race ● Shapiro, Thomas. “The Hidden Cost of Being African American: How Wealth Perpetuates Inequality” pp. 280 291 in Mapping the Social Landscape ed. By Susan J. Ferguson, Boston: McGraw Hill (available online at course reserves) ● Ehrenreich, Barbara. “NickelandDimed: On (Not) Getting By in America” pp. 292305 in Mapping the Social Landscape ed. By Susan J. Ferguson, Boston: McGraw Hill (available online at course reserves) Social Stratification ❏ The structuring of inequalities between groups in society, in terms of their access to material and symbolic rewards. The most distinct form of stratification in modern societies is class divisions. Class ❏ No clear, agreed upon, precise definition of class ❏ Use the term to refer to socioeconomic variations between groups of individuals that create variations in their material prosperity and power Social class ❏ Division in society based off of social and economic status Determining factors of social class Income ❏ Money received from paid wages and salaries or earned from investments Wealth ❏ Money and material possessions held by an individual or group ❏ May be reproduced through education Education ❏ Refers to the amount of training received for an individual by an institution Occupation ❏ Refers to the job that one holds, may be used as a determinant for social prestige Theories on the stratification Marx’s theory on stratification/ inequality ❏ Capitalists → own the means of production ❏ Working class → employed and exploited by capitalists, their wealth continues to decrease while the wealth of the capitalists continues to increase ❏ Why → technology, outsourcing, increased costs of living ❏ Alienation and dehumanization of workers ❏ Surplus value → The capitalist class paying the workers a lot less ⇒ instead this becomes profit ❏ Ideology → “the ideas of the ruling class are the ruling ideas” Marx Weber’s theory on stratification (life chances, skills, credentials, status) Class is gained through status and skills and credentials ❏ Believed that class divisions are not only because of owning means of production (unlike Marx) instead s kills and credentials make the individual more “marketable” ❏ Life chances as the source of upward mobility ❏ Status ❏ The social honor and prestige a particular group is accorded by other members of a society ❏ Pariah groups ❏ Groups who suffer from negative status discrimination they are looked down on by most other members of society ❏ High status is proportional to wealth. ❏ Exceptions → aristocracy who have high status by low wealth ❏ Link and compare to Bourdieu’s theory on owning capital ❏ Source of class is linked to both owning economic and social capital Erik Olin Wright’s theory ❏ Controlling investments, production, and lab as the source of class, or constitutes the upper class ❏ Modification of Marx’s theory ❏ Working class → owning none of the above factors ❏ Middle class (contradictory class locations) → owning one or two of the above factors ❏ Managers control labor but do not own investments ❏ Engineers control production but do not own investments Domhoff’s idea of social class Studied the power elite. Using a social register to classify class Social register ❏ A collection of institutions (schools, clubs research societies) that all upper class are part of, therefore being a determinant for class false positives ❏ A person who falls within the social register despite not having wealth ❏ Ie. Obama for going to an elite college despite being from middle class false negatives ❏ A person who falls out of the social register despite having the wealth ❏ Ie. underground billionaires, people who choose not to participate in clubs or schools power elite ❏ A relationship between the upper class, government and investors ❏ They have the “power” to influence politics and the economy Perucci and Wysong’s theory Using the double diamond structure to show a diminishing middle class “new working class” ❏ Theory compares to Marx’s theory ❏ Measured class through stability, the ability to secure a job and wealth ❏ Downsizing and outsourcing ⇒ middle class jobs going international ❏ Upper diamond ❏ Top 20% → the power elite → owners, professionals, politicians ❏ Lower diamond ❏ Bottom 80% → blue collar workers, working poor, teachers, nurses ❏ Economic polarization Davis and Moore’s theory Functionalist approach ❏ Stratification is functional for society ❏ Roles require certain skills → therefore require rewards ❏ Brain surgeons can’t just be anyone, therefore they require higher income ❏ Weaknesses of the model ❏ Depends a lot on the context of the problem ❏ Income is disproportionate to skill ❏ Does not pay attention to anything else → interpersonal skills and life skills Class and race (Inniss) ❏ Four dimensions of class ❏ Income, wealth, occupation, education ❏ The above factors are interrelated to race as well Types of classes we have today ❏ Upper class → A social class broadly composed of the more affluent members of society, usually those who inherit wealth, own businesses and/or large numbers of stocks (shares) ❏ Middle class → a social class comprised broadly of those working in white collar and lower managerial occupations ❏ Upper middle class consists of highly educated professions (doctors, lawyers, engineers, professors) ❏ Lower middle class consists of trained office workers (bookkeepers, secretaries, teachers, nurses, sales) ❏ Working class → a social class composed of people working in blue collar, or manual occupations (20% of the population) ❏ “Underclass” → a class of individuals situated at the bottom of the class system, normally composed of people from ethnic minority backgrounds ❏ People in this class lack access to the world of work and mainstream patterns of behaviour. ❏ Located in the highest poverty neighborhoods → “new urban poor” Social mobility ❏ Movement of individuals or groups between different social positions Intragenerational mobility ❏ Movement up (Upward mobility) or down (Downward mobility) a social stratification hierarchy from one generation to another Intergenerational mobility ❏ Movement up (Upward mobility) or down (Downward mobility) a social stratification hierarchy within the course of a personal career Poverty line ❏ An official government measure to define those living in poverty ❏ Absolute poverty → the minimal requirements necessary to sustain a healthy human existence ❏ Relative poverty → poverty defined according to the living standards of the majority in any given society Working poor ❏ People who work but whose earnings are not enough to lift them above the poverty line Barbara Ehrenreich’s basic arguments about wealth and income ❏ “When someone works for less pay than she can live on ... she has made a great sacrifice for you .... The "working poor" ... are in fact the major philanthropists of our society. They neglect their own children so that the children of others will be cared for; they live in substandard housing so that other homes will be shiny and perfect; they endure privation so that inflation will be low and stock prices high. To be a member of the working poor is to be an anonymous donor, a nameless benefactor, to everyone” Thomas Shapiro’s basic arguments about wealth and income ❏ Hidden cost of being african american ❏ African Americans have less inherited wealth, therefore start off “behind” whites, thus through that the reproduction of wealth is limited already ⇒ “hidden cost” ❏ Wealth allows for the cushioning from economic blows ❏ The idea of a difference in inherited wealth spans back to slavery times, irrecoverable Week 6 Gender, Sexuality and the Body Readings: ● Giddens et al., Ch. 10 “Gender Inequality” ● Steinem, Gloria. “If Men Could Menstruate” in Ms. Magazine. 1978. (available online at http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/steinem.menstruate.html) ● Giddens et al., Ch. 18 “Sociology of Body” (Section 1, 3: except for “Global Health Inequalities”, 4) ● Sternheimer, Ch. 7 “Gender and Sexuality” ○ 1. Gender as Performance: CANDACE WEST and DON H. ZIMMERMAN, Doing Gender ○ 2. Performing Masculinity: KRISTEN BARBER, The WellCoiffed Man: Class, Race, and Heterosexual Masculinity in the Hair Salon Sex ❏ The biological and anatomical differences distinguishing males and females Gender ❏ Social expectations about behaviour regarded as appropriate for the members of each sex. ❏ Refers not to physical differences but to socially formed traits o f masculinity and femininity. Social construction of sex and gender ❏ The learning of gender roles through socialization and interaction with others Gender role socialization ❏ The learning of gender roles such as schooling, the media and family “Doing” or “performing” gender (West and Zimmerman) ❏ Linked to Goffman’s theory on performance, gender as a display ❏ “Doing gender” ❏ Doing things (regardless of conscious or not) to show that person A is of said gender ❏ Social construction of sex ❏ Physical, innate attributes that are seemingly attached to certain genders “If men could menstruate” by Gloria Steinem ❏ “The truth is that, if men could menstruate, the power justifications would go on and on. If we let them.” Steinem ❏ Through satire, communicating the emphasis society has placed on men and its impact by contrasting it against menstruation Functionalist approach to gender Argues that gender differences, and specifically men and women’s specialization in different tasks, contribute to social stability and integration ❏ Denounced as perpetuating conservative views on the social world ❏ Murdock (1949) → concluded that although not biological, sexual division of labor is present in all cultures and the most logical and efficient basis for societal organization ❏ Parsons (1955) → believed that stable and supportive families were the source of successful socialization. Thus saw the importance in sexual division of labor via domestic and breadwinner (external) ❏ Bowlby (1953) → mother as crucial to the successful socialization of the child, therefore the key to successful socialization would be the domestication of the mother ❏ Biological determinists see gender inequalities and differences based on gender as inevitable and unchangeable because they are consequences of biological necessities, not of social processes Feminist theory Concerned with women’s unequal position in society, however schools differ in ideology Liberal feminism ❏ Sees gender inequalities as rooted largely in social and cultural attitudes. ❏ Separate factors that contribute to inequalities → Sexism and discrimination in the workplace, educational institutions and the media Radical feminism ❏ Men are responsible for and benefit from the exploitation of women ⇒ systematic domination of females by males Black feminism ❏ Strand of feminist theory that highlights the multiple disadvantages of gender class and race that shape the experiences of nonwhite women. ❏ Reject the idea of a single unified gender oppression that is experienced evenly by all women ⇒ early feminist analysis reflected the specific concerns of white, middle class women Postmodern feminism ❏ Challenges the idea of a unitary basis of identity and experience share by all women ❏ Encourage acceptance of many different standpoints as being equally valid Patriarchy ❏ a social system in which males hold primary power, predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property. In the domain of the family, fathers or fatherfigures hold authority over women and children Gender inequality ❏ Difference in treatment that is differentiated by gender Second shift ❏ Women’s dual roles at work and at home Sexual orientation ❏ an enduring pattern of romantic or s exual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender Social construction of sexual orientation ❏ Sexual orientation as a social construction “Wellcoiffed man” (Barber) ❏ Gender, race/ethnicity, sexuality, class and age are interconnected ❏ White, professional, upper class men entering a traditionally female space ❏ Represent / show class through the increased price (Veblen conspicuous consumption) ❏ Upper class masculinity through price ❏ Uses participant observer Ethnograph Week 7 Race and Ethnicity Readings: ● Giddens et al., Ch. 11 “Ethnicity and Race” ● Sternheimer, Ch. 8 “Race and Ethnicity” ○ 1. Constructing Race: MICHAEL OMI and HOWARD WINANT, Racial Formation, from Racial Formation in the United States ○ 2. Racial Identity: JANICE PRINCE INNISS, Black and White or Rainbow Colors: Tiger Woods and the ‘One Drop Rule’ ● Du Bois, W.E.B. “Chapter I. Of Our Spiritual Strivings” in The Souls of Black Folk (available online at course reserves) ● BonillaSilva, Eduardo. “’New Racism,’ ColorBlind Racism, and the Future of Whiteness in America” pp. 359373 in Mapping the Social Landscape edited by Susan J. Ferguson. 2008. New York, NY: McGrawHill. (available online at course reserves) ● Sternheimer, Ch. 8 “Race and Ethnicity” ○ 3. Race Relations: C. N. LE, Racial Tensions and Living in a Colorblind Race ❏ Differences in human physical characteristics used to categorize large numbers of individuals Ethnicity ❏ Cultural values and norms that distinguish the members of a given group from others. Share a distinct common cultural identity, which separates them from others. Social construction of race ❏ Race as a social construct. Therefore perceived differences will always remain perceived. Omi and Winant’s theory of racial formation Racial hegemony as “messy”, today’s complex situation as the culmination of racial prejudices from all of history ❏ “Race is a concept which signifies and symbolizes social conflicts and interests by referring to different types of human bodies” Omni and Winant ❏ Racial formation → sociohistorical process by which racial categories are created, inhabited, transformed, and destroyed ❏ Perspectives on race ❏ Neoconservative → acting in a “colorblind” fashion, race playing NO role in the social structure, thus the state has no right to segregate by race ❏ Liberal → The sudden shift to a “colorblind” society is impossible without “perpetuating the same type of differential, racist treatment” ❏ Essentialize race ❏ Racial definitions as shifting and ever changing Institutional racism ❏ Patterns of discrimination based on ethnicity that have become structured into existing social institutions Models of ethnic integration Assimilation ❏ The acceptance of a minority group by a majority population, in which the new group takes on the values and norms of the dominant culture Melting pot ❏ The idea that ethnic differences can be combined to create new patterns of behavior drawing on diverse cultural sources Pluralism ❏ A model for ethnic relations in which all ethnic groups retain their independent and separate identities yet share equally in the rights and powers of citizenship Multiculturalism ❏ The condition in which ethnic groups exist separately and share e quall in economic and political life BonillaSilva’s theory of new racism Racism has shifted to a more subtle less obvious methods. colorblind racism ❏ BonillaSilva says that racism has only changed faces; rather than outright discrimination, people of color instead experience more subtle social cues which hint at biased tendencies ❏
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