A. 12,00015,000 years ago
II. How many?
A. About 4 million
A. People from Asia crossed the Bering Strait from Asia into North
America and South America
IV. European Contact
A. Native Americans lose out on the side of conflict with Europeans
even with there being about 4 million of them
1. Europeans have better war technology: ships with
cannons, guns, horses. Native Americans have maybe bows and arrows 2. Europeans carried diseases that didn’t exist in the
New World and would affect the Natives terribly. Includes smallpox,
typhus, and measles (P.M. Ashburton).
3. Over 90% of all Natives that died were killed by
4. Native American tribes are not all united and won’t
gather to push enemies out
● Clovis people; hunters in New Mexico
● PreClovis people border of South Carolina and Georgia
● Cahokia was the largest Native American city in North America, in Illinois
I. European Contact
II. Portuguese, Spanish, French
C. Other Southern Colonies
Columbian Exchange: exchange of goods, ideas, diseases, plants, and animals Atlantic World
Cortes: gets offer to serve in Spanish navy in Cuba, doesn’t get the fame he expected; heard about the Aztecs and a land of wealth so he sails there to conquer the land; burns his ships so his men can’t go back; 200 tons of gold and 16,000 tons of silver were brought to Spain Richard Hakluyt’s argument regarding why England should plant colonies: 1. To extend reform religion If you want to learn more check out Give me an example of social structure.
We also discuss several other topics like What are the causes of decreasing trust?
2. To expand trade
3. To increase English revenues (i.e. precious metals)
Caravel: to travel; 66 x 17 ft; durable and maneuverable
Prince Henry the Navigator
Christopher Columbus: asks King and Queen to finance his trip; thought he had found the Indies and not a new continent; establishes the idea that Europeans are here to stay Ponce de Leon: travels to Florida
Sir Walter Raleigh: sends expedition to the outer banks of North Carolina and later sends people over to Roanoke Island If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between chemical changes and chemical properties?
Roanoke: home of Lost colony; the people here vanished and left the carving “Croatoan” in the trees
Joint Stock Company: people invested in this to make profit in the New World; created the Jamestown settlement
Jamestown: Virginia; had problems; had about 105 guys; John Smith said people had to work to eat; people kicked John Smith out and so came the starving winter; colony first shrinks from 105 settlers in 1607 to 60 in 1610, but later there are 800 in 1622 and continues growing to 8,100 in 1640 **between 1607 and 1622, 4,279 settlers arrive. Between 1625 and 1640 15,000 arrive
Powhatan: wants to take the 105 guys to work for him We also discuss several other topics like What are nutrients?
Pocahontas: saves John Smith as the Powhatan are about to kill him, but Europeans thought him being saved was a sign from God that if they kept trying they would conquer the Indians; she becomes liaison between the Natives and Europeans
Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)
“A colony of a colony”
● Native Americans didn’t view land as being owned by anyone so when Americans would pay to use it and end up making it their own it would start problems ● Reasons people would go to America: land, money, trade, fame, precious metals, religious freedom
● French get the Mississippi River, the most important transport river