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Intro to English Grammar Final Exam

by: jlake30

Intro to English Grammar Final Exam LING 3500

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Types of Grammar Linguistic Units Nouns Noun Phrase Functions Objects Complements Possessive Determiners Definite and Indefinite Articles Demonstrative Articles Verbs Modal Auxiliary Ver...
Intro to English Grammar
Dr. Adrian Palmer
Study Guide
english, grammer, Prescriptive, Language, Linguistics, morphemes, nouns, objects, complements, Determiners, Articles, verbs, tense, Modifiers, Pronouns, Adjectives, Adverbs, prepositions, particles, passive, active, negation, Emphasis, clauses
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Date Created: 08/28/16
LING 3500 – English Grammar Notes Types of Grammar Mental Grammar: Every native speaker’s intrinsic, implicit, unconscious knowledge of the structure of that language. o Function 1: Make grammatical judgments  Linguists use the asterisk (*) to indicate ungrammatically of this type. o Function 2: Help generate the language we speak and write when the focus in on communication and when we don’t have time to think about what we will speak. Descriptive Grammar: Statements that characterize regularities in the English of all L1 (first language) speakers of English. *Do not attempt to model or explain mental grammar. Prescriptive Grammar: A type of grammar that attempts to tell people how to use the language. A set of norms or rules governing how a language should or should not be used rather than describing. o Some sort of “authority” prescribes to use of language. o Relies on conscious knowledge L1: First language/native language o When L1 speakers have questions about their native language, it is when prescriptive grammar and mental grammar disagrees. L2: Second language/foreign language Explicit knowledge: Knowledge that has been or can be articulated, codified, and stored in certain media. Implicit knowledge (tacit): Knowledge that is difficult to be transferred to another person. *For English, literacy became important in the 1700’s. 2 Logical Bases for Prescriptive Rules: o Bases: Ways of coming up with prescriptive rules.  Internal Logic: Various ways of saying the same thing should follow the same grammatical rules.  He is taller than ____ am tall.  Analogical Logic/External Logic: Based on other languages known such as Latin or Ancient Greek.  Reason 1: They didn’t change because there were no native speakers. *English uses German and Latin *Double Negatives: I don’t want nobody to see this book -> I don’t want anybody to see this book. o Very widespread in world’s languages.  No tengo ningún libro -> Spanish double negatives Language change is a natural process in all languages. Linguistic Units Morphemes • {elder} + {-ly} Words • elderly Phrases • the elderly man • the elderly man left, because it Clauses snowed • The elderly man left Sentences because it snowed. Morphemes: Smallest meaningful unit in language o {-ize} in “finalize” Word: Group of one or more morphemes with relative freedom of movement o {cat} + {-s} = cats  Movement:  The cats ate my fish  The fish feared my cats Phrase: Group of related words not containing both a subject and a verb o My new best friend o Ate the potato Clause: Group of related words containing both a subject and verb o I went inside. [Independent clause] o because it rained Sentence: Independent clause or set of clauses marked with end punctuation o I went inside because it rained. o Because it rained, I went inside. o What do you want? Constituent Units: Groupings o Example: Bakery = [Bake] (Verb ,[Baker] (Noun ),[Bakery] (Noun ) o Hierarchical structure: What we can hear and see in language consists of units strung together in linear order.  Some of these seem to group together in units.  These units can consist of morphemes, words, phrases, clauses, sentences, etc.  The grouping of sequences of units is called hierarchical or constituent structure. Unfortunate un- fortunate fortune -ate o Labeled tree structure  Branches: The lines  Nodes: The circles where the branches come together Adjective Unfortunate Prefix Adjective un- fortunate Noun Suffix fortune -ate Hierarchical Structure of Phrases old men and women *Old men and all women old men and women old men and women *Old men and old women old men and women Nouns Forms o Shape  Can end with possessive {-‘s}  Can end with plural {-s} o Location  Can occur after a determine (article, possessive, etc.)  Can occur after a wh- word (which, whose, etc.) Functions o Sematic function  To name things o Grammatical function  Subject (John)  Direct object (John hit the ball)  Indirect object (John gave a ball to Bob)  Object of preposition (John hit the ball with a bat) Plural Spelling Rules o Singular nouns that end in a sibilant (hissing sound), add {-es} o Singular nouns with no hissing sound, add {-s} o Nouns that end in a vowel + {-y}, add {-s} o Nouns that end in a consonant + {-y}, drop {-y} and replace with {-ies} Apostrophes With Plurals o To form the plural of an abbreviation, a number, or a capital letter used as a noun, add an {-s}.  Late 1940s  Group of MPs o To form the plural of an abbreviation with periods, a lower case letter used as a noun, and abbreviations or capital letters that would be ambiguous or confusing if the {-s} alone were added, add {-‘s}.  Group of M.P.’s  The x’s in the equation  Sending the SOS’s Types of Nouns: o Common: Nouns referring to a general kind of person, thing, or idea. Written with lowercase letters. Ex.: city o Proper: Begin with capital letters and designate a specific noun. Ex.: California o Concrete: Nouns we can visualize. Ex.: chair o Abstract: Usually ideas or concepts with no clear visual image associated with them. Ex.: sincerity o Animate: Humans and animals o Inanimate: Things o Human: We refer to the nouns as he or she o Nonhuman: Refer to the noun(s) as it o Count: Objects you can count directly. Ex.: one bean, two beans o Noncount: Objects you can count indirectly. Ex.: one cup of rice, two cups of rice Pre-determiners Determiners Post-determiners Quantifiers Articles Quantifiers Quantifiers + of Demonstratives Numbers Quantifiers Ordinal numbers Possessive pronouns Possessive noun phrases Noun Phrase Functions Subject o Form  Noun or noun phrase  Usually found before the verb  Affects the form of the verb, which must agree with the subject  John likes ice cream  John and Mary likes ice cream o Frequently the “actor” in the sentence. (Passive sentences break this rule)  Can’t always identify subject by using ‘actors’ Ellipical Subjects  Remember to do your homework o Imperative (command) forms in English typically have hidden subjects.  (You) remember to do your homework. Subjects in questions o In questions, word order is frequently different from canonical subject-verb-object word order. Expletive Subjects o What do it and there mean in sentences?  They have no referential meanings. o Subjects that have no referential meaning is called an expletive subject Finding Expletive (Placeholder) Subjects o There is where I left my purse. [Not expletive] o It is too hot to eat. [Both] o It is snowing. [Expletive] Prescriptive S-V Agreement Rules o Prescriptive rules require the verb in an expletive construction to agree with the “other” noun phrase in the sentence.  There are three cats in my backyard.  There is the subject. Double Subjects o Considered nonstandard in formal writing Objects Direct Object o Function: The direct object is a phrase that identifies the recipient of the action of the verb.  Example: John sold his Ipod o Form  Noun or noun phrase  Often found immediately after the verb o However direct objects do not always come immediately after the verb. Passive Test for Direct Objects o If you try to make the sentence into a passive, the direct object from the sentence will become the subject of the next sentence.  The team built the bridge  The bridge was built by the team (passive) Indirect Object o Function: A grammatical relationship that is almost always defined by meaning.  Usually a person that receives indirect benefit or harm from the action o Form o Sometimes indirect objects come between the verb and the direct object. They are not introduced by ‘to’ or ‘for’  Jimmy gave the teacher an apple  Sara gave her sister a lollipop o Indirect objects in this position are inverted. o Indirect objects sometimes come near the end of a sentence. They are introduced by ‘to’ or ‘for’  John gave a pan of lasagna to Garfield  Did you buy that ice cream for me? Indirect Objects without Direct Objects o Most sentences have both indirect and direct objects o It is possible to have an indirect object and no direct object  Kimberly is constantly giving to her sister  Keith gave Mary a present for her birthday.  Mary is the indirect object because it can move  A present is direct because it can’t move  Her birthday is object of preposition  Keith gave a present to Mary on her birthday Object of Preposition o Form:  Shape: Noun  Location: Follows a preposition o Function:  Functions to illustrate a temporal, spatial relationship between the object of the prepositional phrase and other components of the sentence.  Example: The dog is on his bed Complements Complements o A complement is something that fits together, goes with, or makes something complete. o Function: To provide additional information about the subject o Forms:  Nominal: “Predicate nominative”  Adjectival: “Predicate adjective” (Subject) (verb) (adjective (noun) o Example: [My parents] [are] [excellent] [musicians]  My parents = excellent musicians o Example: (subject) (adjective) (preposition) (object) [Your friends] were [happy] [during] the [party] last night  Your friends = happy Verbs in Sentences with Complements o Associated with linking verbs  Linking verb: A verb that connects a subject to a description of the subject  Example: seems, appears, looks, feels  He was sick  She looks happy  They were late o Be is not always used as a linking verb.  Noam Chomsky is the instructor of the Introduction to Grammar class.  Noam Chomsky instructs the Introduction to Grammar class.  The second point sounds better Object Complement o Function: To complete or add information about the direct object o Form: Noun, noun phrase, or adjective Verbs with Object Complements o Made, thought, found, believe, consider, and declare/called Possessive Determiners Possessive Pronominal Determiners o Must precede a noun in a noun phrase, not replace them  Example: This is my book o ‘This is mine’ is not because it replaces noun phrase and doesn’t function as a determiner Singular Plural st 1 Person my us, ours 2 Person your you all 3 Person his/hers/its their Possessive Noun Phrase o Noun phrase (NP)  A phrase with a noun at its head o Possessive noun phrase  A noun phrase that acts like a determiner Structure o Made of 2 parts: A noun phrase and a possessive marker, {-s} Definite and Indefinite Articles Articles o Indefinite: a and an o Definite: the Articles Definite Indefinite Form: the Specific Non-Specific Function: Speaker & hearer have same thing in mind Form: a/an Function: Form: a/an Function: Speaker has Speaker & item in mind. hearer don't have item in mind. *A number between 5 and 10 = indefinite nonspecific Demonstrative Articles Demonstrative: o They are determiners that show the relative distance between the speaker and the noun referred to. Singular Plural Near this these Far that those Current Usage of ‘This’ o Consider this sentence:  I was walking down the street and this guy started talking to me. o Why is it ‘this guy’ rather than ‘a guy’?  Puts listener right there with you Verbs Forms of Verbs (Inflectional) o 3 singular present tense  {-s} = walks o Past tense  {-ed} = walked o Infinitive (2 versions). Each version has a verb form with no suffix  Base form (bare infinitive)  Verb  Walk, eat  Base form proceeded by ‘to’  To + verb  To walk, to eat o Present participle form  {-ing} = walking o Past participle form  {-en/-ed} = walked, eaten Functions of Verbs o An action  Walk, eat sleep o A perception  See, hear, smell o A mental or emotional state  Expect o A connecting/linking function  Is, was, looks, appears, seems, feels Types of Verbs o Main verbs  He ate the apple o Auxiliary verbs  Non-modal auxiliary/helping verbs  He has eaten the apple  He is eating the apple  Modal auxiliary verbs  He might eat the apple  He should eat the apple Main Verb o Form:  Can occur alone in a sentence or last in line with one or more helping/auxiliary/modal verbs o Function:  To express main action/perception/state/linking function of a sentence. Auxiliary Verb o Non-main verb  Modal  Non-modal Non-Modal Auxiliary Verb o Forms  Do  Be  Have o Functions  Emphasis  Question formation  Negation Auxiliary Verbs Used as Main Verbs o Forms  I have three pencils (Infinitive) Verb Forms Made from Nouns & Adjectives o Made up of ‘to + base verb’  To walk, to eat o Created from words that function as a noun  To parent, to market, to eyeball o Derivational suffixes: Change the part of speech of the form to which they are attached.  {-ize}, {-ate}, {-ify} Are All Words That Express Action, Verbs? o Consider  The change is obvious o This is a noun that refers to actions but don’t express actions, as the following verbs.  He destroyed the habit. Modal Auxiliary Verbs Forms o Shapes: One syllable words  May, might, should, must, will, would, shall, can, out to, had better, used to  Modal auxiliary* - subject – modal auxiliary* - bare infinitive verb – noun  *Modal auxiliary can be in either locations o Location: Always the first forms in the sequence of auxiliaries and main verb. Functions o Generally add a notion of something other than actuality to a main verb.  Actuality: Something that is real o *Modals can’t occur by themselves because the verb will still be implied.  He should buy that.  He should. (Buy that is still implied) “Modal-Like” Verbal Expressions o Meaning is similar  I have to exercise everyday = I must exercise everyday o Location is similar: They precede main verbs. Double Modals o Some dialects of English do allow double modals. (North Carolina, Louisiana, etc.)  I might could come over tomorrow. Prescriptive Rules for Modals Can and May o Rule: Can is used to ask about ability and may is used to talk about permission. Verb Tense and Aspect Tense o Definition (book)  The time of the action of the verb  Combination of time and aspect o The indicator of when the action occurs (narrated) relative to the time of the utterance (speech). [Technical definition]  Narrated event: The time at which the action talked about takes place  Speech event: The time at which the sentence is uttered Speech Even and Narrated Events o I say “John ate dinner yesterday.” o Speech event:  Uttering the sentence o Narrated event  Yesterday o Times of speech and narrated events  Time of speech event time (now)  Time of narrated event Functions of 3 Tenses o Past: Narrated event occurs prior to speech event o Future: Narrated event occurs after speech event o Present: “Right now” and “in general” use  “Right now” use: Narrated event occurs at exact time  “In general” use: Narrated events occurs over a wide range of unspecified times Tense Forms Forms That Signify Past Tense o Forms of auxiliary verbs: be, have, do?  Was, were, had, did o Suffix on main verb  {-ed} Forms That Mark Future Tense o The auxiliary: will Forms That Mark Present Tense o Forms of auxiliary verbs  Is, am, are, have, has, does o Suffix on main verb rd  3 singular, {-s} Location of Tenses o On the single finite verb if there is only one verb form  John walked home  Mary exercises regularly o On the first verb in a sequence, if there is more than one verb form  I am going  He has been eating  She had been sleeping  They will be leaving Aspect o A feature added to the tense (time) of an action to show its relationship to another time.  Perfect  Progressive Perfect Aspect o Form  Formed by using have and the past participle form of the following verb  Past participle is formed by adding {-ed} to the main verb. There are many irregular past participles.  HAVE + _____{-ed/-en}  He has eaten dinner  They have eaten dinner  She had eaten dinner o Function  Event interpreted as relevant (related) to a later event.  Example: “I have washed the dishes” implies that I did the washing recently enough so the dishes are still clean. Progressive Aspect o Form  Formed by using be followed by present participle of the following verb.  BE + ____{-ing} Finite Verb Phrases Linking Verbs o A verb that connects a subject to a description of the subject  She is happy  The test appears hard Linking Verbs With {-ly} Adverbs  He feels badly  She looks badly o If these verbs are functioning as linking verbs, prescriptive rules say they are incorrect, since linking verbs don’t take adverbs o If these verbs are somehow functioning as non-linking verbs, the usage is correct.  She looks fiercely Questionable Transitivity o The argument for calling them intransitive is that they can stand alone o There is an “understood” object  She reads at bedtime Non-finite Verb Phrases/Dangling Modifiers Verb Phrase o A phrase with a verb at its head and all modifiers of a verb Finite and Non-Finite o Finite: Verb phrase that can stand alone as the main verb in a sentence, can be marked for tense, and can agree with the subject of a sentence.  Jane was happy  Jack and Jill were singing o Non-finite: Verb phrase containing no verb form carrying the tense of the sentence  I like to eat ice cream *Note o Non-finite verb forms can occur as the only verb form in a non-finite verb phrase OR with a finite verb to create the two aspects (finite) (non−finite)  She [enjoyed] [playing] tennis Nonfinite Verb Usage o Nonfinite verbs as adjectives  Past participle: Beaten silly, the boxer quit  Present participle: Staggering around, the boxer gave up. o Nonfinite verbs used as nouns  Gerund: Swimming is a good exercise / I like swimming  Infinitive: I like to travel / To delay would be foolish Dangling Participles o A nonfinite verb phrase that is not appropriately linked to a noun phrase in the rest of the sentence o (Or) a nonfinite verb phrase that doesn’t get its subject from the noun immediately following it.  Running through the park, the statue looked beautiful to me.  Literally means, running through the park, I saw a statue that looked beautiful to me o Dangling participles are common when meaning isn’t confusing Subject – Verb Agreement Terminology o Subject and verb match each other in person and number o Person:  Describes whether the sentence refers to the speaker and/or listener st  1 person  2 person rd  3 person o Number  Singular  Plural 3 Person Singular S-V Agreement o In regular verbs, only the simple present is marked To be (present) Singular Plural 1st am are 2nd are are 3rd is are To be (past) Singular Plural 1st was were nd 2 were were 3rd was were Rules Native Speakers Break 1. Coordination with and or both…and 2. Coordination with or or either…or a. Verb agrees with the noun closest to the verb. 3. Noun phrases starting with one of or each of a. Verb agrees with one or each. These are singular forms 4. Avoid using the lexicalized there’s construction a. There’s = singular, there are = plural Pronouns Definition o Words that stand for, or take the place of noun phrases of, for other people or items. Antecedents o The noun, constituents, other people, etc. that the pronouns “talk about” or refers to. Agreement o Pronouns agree with their antecedents in gender and number. Personal Pronouns Definitions o Personal: People, places, things, ideas o Three distinguishable cases  Subjective (nominative)  Objective (accusative/dative)  Possessive (genitive) Subject Singular Plural st 1 I we 2nd you you all 3rd he/she/it them Object Singular Plural 1st me us 2nd you you rd 3 him/her/it them o “Non-standard: second person plural pronouns  You guys, you all, you ones (Maine) Object Case Functions o Direct o Indirect o Object of a preposition o *Exception to the rule that the objective form follows a preposition.  Subjective version of pronoun goes after than  He is taller than I Possessive Cases of Pronouns o Possessive case forms of pronouns functioning as pronouns (replacing nouns) Pronominal Determiners and Pronouns o My, your, her  Possessive pronominal determiners  Functions as determiners o Mine, yours, hers  Possessive pronouns  Functions in the place of a noun Possessive Singular Plural 1st mine ours nd 2 yours yours 3rd his/her/its theirs Coordinated Personal Pronouns o Jill left a message for me o Jill left a message for John and me  Doesn’t change Modern Usage o The norm: Dave invited Mary and me to the party o Modern Usage: Dave invited Mary and I to the party  Hyper-correcting Reflexive Pronouns Structure o Form  Pronouns that end in {-self} or {-selves} o Functions  When the subject and object in the sentence refer to the same entity (I love myself)  To provide contrast (I, myself left)  To carry the meaning of, “alone, without accompaniment” (he ate by himself) Reflexive Singular Plural st 1nd myself ourselves 2 yourself yourselves 3rd himself/herself/itself themselves Reciprocal Pronouns Structure o Form  Each other  One another o Functions  Used to indicate mutual effect between people  The boxers hit each other Prescriptive Rules o Each other: 2 people o One another: Multiple people Various Explanation o Number explanation (prescriptive) o Register (descriptive)  Each other is informal  One another is formal o Modality (descriptive)  Each other: spoken  One another: written o Animacy (descriptive)  Each other: animate  One another: inanimate Demonstrative Pronouns Singular Plural Near this these Far that those Relative Pronouns Relative Clauses o Relative Clause: A clause functioning as an adjective that is incorporated into another clause o Each relative clause typically contains a relative pronoun:  Who, which, whose, whom, that Relative Pronouns o Forms  Who, which, whose, whom, that o Function  Relative pronoun ties relative clause to the nearby noun it modifies Forms of Relative Pronouns o The form (case) is determined by its function within the relative clause  Subject: who, that  Object: whom, that, and which (used only as object of a preposition)  Possessive: whose o *Note on which  Which is most often used only with non-restrictive relative clauses Omission of the Relative Pronoun (symbolized by Ø)  I saw the cookie that you took  I saw the cookie Ø you took o The pronoun is functioning as the object within the relative clause  I saw the car that caught on fire  I saw the car *caught on fire o You can only take out object relative pronoun, not subject o *Note on whose  Whose generally refers to a human head noun Universal Pronouns Definition and Structure o Function: Words that represent all inclusive noun phrases o Forms:  Each, all  Every + body/one/thing  All is/are here  Depending on whether all replaces a count or non-count noun Indefinite Pronouns Structure o Forms  Words consisting of one morpheme  Some  Many Agreement Rules o Both, few, many  Plural o All, any, more  Singular and plural o *Is “none” singular or plural?  Rules  When the sense is plural, none (not any) is considered plural  When the sense is singular, none (not one) is considered singular Interrogative Pronouns Structure o Functions: Question words that ask the identity of a noun phrase o Forms: Similar to relative pronouns  Who? (human subject)  Whom? (human object)  Which? (human or non-human subject or object)  Whose? (human possessive)  What? (non-human subject or object) Adjective and Adjective Phrases Structure o Function  To modify nouns o Forms  Found before nouns and in complement position  Followed by comparative and superlative suffixes Locations of Adjectives o Attributive Adjectives  Adjectives found within noun phrase containing noun that adjectives modify o Adjectives functioning as complements  Adjectives found outside the noun phrase containing the noun that the adjectives modify  Subject complement  Example: The man seems rather moody  Object Complement  Example: I consider that man moody Gradable Adjectives o Adjectives that lend themselves to comparison  Examples:  Regular: Cold  Comparative: Colder  Superlative: Coldest Creating Comparative Forms o Add inflectional ending {-er} o Add [more]  More colder Rules for Forming Comparatives and Superlatives Adjectives o If the adjective had 1 syllable, form takes {-er}/{-est} o If the adjective has 3 or more syllables or more, form takes [more/most] o If adjective has 2 syllables and ends in the /i/ sound, form takes {-er}/{-est} Creating Superlative Forms o Add inflectional ending {-est} o Add [most]  Most coldest Prescriptive Rules o Comparing 2 things, use comparatives o When using the adjective for more than 2 items, use superlative Negative Comparisons o [Less] and [least] are the negative comparisons to [more] and [most] Non-Gradable Adjectives o Adjectives that do not lend themselves to comparisons or modification Language Change o [Fun] started as a noun  The fun we had… o Also found as predicate adjective  This is fun o Moved to an attributive adjective  It was a fun day Adjective Phrase o Adjectives accompanied by words that modify them  These words often “intensify” Locations of Modifiers o Before adjectives: intensifier o After adjectives: complement Complements of Adjectives o Words that follow adjectives that complete the meaning of an adjective Functions of Adjective Phrases o Subject complements: I am very happy o Object complements: She considered the question very annoying o Attributives: I heard an usual story Adverbs Definition o Part of speech that modifies:  Verbs  Adjectives  Sentences  Other adverbs Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adverbs o More – comparative o Most – superlative Intensifiers and Mitigators o Special adverbs that serve to emphasize or downplay the meaning  That movie was really good  adverb modifying adjectives (intensifier) Well and Good o Well  Adjective: In good health (I feel well)  Adverb: Skillfully (You play well) o Good  Adjective: “desired or approved of” (This is good food); “in good health” (I feel good today) Positive Comparative Superlative Good Better (than) (the) best Well Bad Worse (than) (the) worst Badly Positive Comparative Superlative Fast as fast as faster than the fastest Good as good as better than the best Bad as bad as worse than the worst o Prescriptive Rule  As _____ as (positive)  The ______ (superlative) Adverb Phrase o Adverb and accompanying words as the main word(s) Forms o Phrases containing modifying adverbs  Adverbs that precedes another adverb  Example: She eats very quickly o Phrases containing adverb complements  Words that follow an adverb and complete its meaning  Example: She eats quickly for a child Prepositions, Particles, & Phrasal Verbs Prepositions o Form  Shape: Little words  Location: That introduce prepositional phrases  Example: for, to, into, etc. o Function  Prepositional phrase = preposition + noun phrase Function Preposition o Time at 6 PM o Place on the wall o Accompaniment with my brother o Destination to Seattle o Manner with passion o Instrument with a screwdriver o Agent by Shakespeare o Possession (Capitol) of Italy Grammatical Functions o Modifying functions  Adjectival (complement): modify nouns  Adverbial (complement): modify verbs by telling time, place, etc. of action o Major sentence functions  Subject  Direct object  Indirect object  Subject complement  Object complement Like & As o Rules  Use like when resemblance but not equivalence  Use as when equivalence is suggested Voice Passive & Active Active & Passive o Active: Bill ate the cake o Passive: The cake was eaten by Bill Passive Form o BE + ____ ed/en o The BE form goes on the last auxiliary in the verb phrase o The ____ ed/en (past participle) suffix goes on the main verb Function of Passive o It is a focus construction that puts the receiver or undergoer of an action in the subject position  The focus of the sentence is on the receiver of the action Grammatical Word Order o Active: Subject, verb, object o Passive: Subject, verb, object Semantic Word Order o Active: Doer, action, receiver o Passive: Receiver, action, doer Particles and Two-Word (Phrasal) Verbs o Form: Verb-like things that are generally made of what looks like 2 or 3 words  Get up  Speak up Functions of Particles o They form a semantic unit constituent with the verb immediately preceding it.  She [turned down] (declined) the invitation (turn down = semantic unit) o Compare with prepositions  She walked down the path  Where did she walk? Down the path Particle Movement o Particles often (not always) move away from the verb. They move to the end of the sentence depending on whether their verb has a direct object  John turned down the offer  John turned the offer down  John turned it down  *John turned down it o If the direct object is a pronoun, the particle must move Full Passive vs. Truncated Passive o Full passive: The subject of the corresponding active sentence is expressed as the object of the preposition: by o Truncated passive: The subject of the corresponding active clause is left unexpressed Agent Deletion o Passive sentences are grammatical without agent deletion  Don’t know who  Want to conceal  Agent is obvious  Agent is unimportant Discourse Function Definition o Function has to do with the actual impact that the sentence has in the world Major Discourse Functions o Declarative: to make a statement o Interrogative: to get information o Imperative: to make commands o Exclamative: express judgment o Performative: make something true by saying it Declaratives Declarative Clause o Clauses whose typical function is to give information o Typical word order (structure) is: subject-verb-object Interrogatives Function o To obtain information What Types? o Yes-no o Wh- o Tag o Echo o Rhetorical Yes/no Question o Answered by a yes or no o Forming a yes/no question:  Is there a helping verb? (Have, be, do, or modal).  Invert (switch) subject and helping verb  If there is no helping verb, insert a form of do Wh- Question o Questions formed with a wh- word o Wh- question words:  When, where, how, why, who, whom, whose, what, which o Wh- formation:  Replace subject with who or what (wh- word)  John likes TV  Who likes TV?  When non-subject of sentence is questioned?  Start with statement answering the question  Create a yes/no question  Replace part of the sentence to be questioned with a wh- word  Move wh- word to front of sentence  When determiner is questioned?  Follow procedures for forming yes/no questions  Insert appropriate question word in place of determiner being questioned  Then move the question word (wh-) plus noun to the front of the sentence  This is Mary’s book  Is this Mary’s book?  Is this whose book?  Whose book is this? Tag Questions o Formed with a tag, adding it to the end of a statement  Mary likes ice cream, doesn’t she? o Forming tag questions:  Turn statement into a yes/no question and add that yes/no question to the end of statement  Change direction of tag (affirmative to negative and vice versa)  Replace the subject of the tag with a pronoun and delete the portion of the tag following the pronoun  Mary likes ice cream  Does Mary like ice cream?  Doesn’t Mary like ice cream?  Mary likes ice cream, doesn’t she? o Function of tag questions?  In general?  Some sort of expectation of agreement  Degree of expectation?  Mild: rising intonation on tag  Strong: falling intonation on tag Echo Questions o Formation of echo questions:  2 forms of echo questions  Yes/no echo questions (restate statement with rising intonation)  Wh- echo questions (replace the word you are questioning with a wh- word and use a rising intonation) o Functions of echo questions:  Yes/no: to express surprise  Wh-: to ask for clarification of information Summary o The terms declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamative describe the structure of the sentence. They are not necessarily descriptions of the function. Negation Verb Negation o Steps:  If there is no helping verb (have, be, modal), insert a form of do  John ate a whole cake  John did eat a whole cake  Insert negator (not/n’t) after helping verb  John did eat a whole cake  John didn’t eat a whole cake *Ain’t: Nonstandard Negator o Other forms:  Is not  Am not Negation of Indefinites o Indefinites starting with some-  Something  Nothing  Somewhere  Nowhere  Someone  No one Indefinites with Verb Negation o If you negate the verb, standard English requires that the indefinite word begins with any-  I need something  I don’t need anything Double Negatives o Refer to sentences that have more than one negative element.  I’m not undelighted about it. (Prescriptively correct) Verb and Noun Negation and Meaning o The difference in verb and noun negation is one of scope. The coverage of the negation is different o Rule of thumb is that the negative element negates everything after it in the clause.  Verb: He hasn’t understood the explanations (He understood some of the explanations)  Noun: He has understood no explanations (He didn’t understand any of the explanations) Emphasis Emphasis with DO o Used as a helping verb in some emphatic sentences  A: I don’t think you washed the windows  B: I did wash the windows Negation + Emphasis o Compare:  I didn’t break the glass  I did not break the glass Crossover Functions of Clause Types Imperatives o Functions  To make commands  To get someone to do something o Forms  Word order  Same as declaratives (?)  Understood subject  2 person singular or plural  Form of the verb  Base form Exclamatives o Function  To express commentary about something with added emphasis  You’ve done a fine job  Declarative  What a fine job you’ve done  Exclamative o Forms  What/how + [comment phrase] + additional sentence material  Except for when we are commenting on verbs  If the thing we are commenting is a noun phrase, we generally use what  For all other types of phrases, we use how  What [a silly idea] that is  Look  Look (at) what a nice job you’ve done!  The verb look often precedes the exclamative without changing the intent  See can function like look o Prescriptive Rules  The general tone of American academic writing is moderate and unemotional  Prescriptivists see exclamatives as emotional Crossover Functions o Rhetorical Expressions  Sentences that have interrogative word order but are not intended to ask for information  Example: Do you think I’m stupid?  Functions  To make statements  Forms  Same structure as interrogative o Performative  Function  Cause something to be by virtue of saying so  I now pronounce you man and wife o Conclusion  A clause type doesn’t have a one-to-one relationship with its discourse function Coordination Coordination o Joins 2 items of equal status o Refers to joining phrases or clauses together with a coordinating conjunction o Punctuation 2 coordinated non-clause items in a list  Coordinated with coordinating conjunction, there is no comma  She speaks French and Spanish o Punctuating 3 coordinated non-clause items in a list  Business language  X, Y and Z  He brought the dogs, Kate and Matthew  Academic language  X, Y, and Z  He brought the dogs, Kate, and Matthew Clause Coordination Simple and Compound Sentences o Simple sentences  Subject + predicate  One independent clause with end punctuation o Compound sentences  A sentence containing two or more conjoined independent clauses Three Ways to Coordinate Independent Clauses o Coordinating conjunctions o Conjunctive adverbs o Semicolon Coordinating Conjunctions o And, but, or, nor, for, so, yet (FANBOYS) Forms with Different Functions o Some of the words in the list of coordinating conjunctions can also function as other parts of speech o Adverbs:  So: she is so tired  Yet: I haven’t done that yet  Yet is designates the time o Preposition:  For: he did it for the captain Rules of Punctuating Compound Sentences with Coordinating Conjunctions o Independent clause, coordinating conjunction, independent clause Coordination with NOR o In a nor structure, generally the first clause is negated. The second clause needs no additional negation if it has nor.  I don’t have any peas, nor do I have any carrots o Subject inversion and do–support  Nor clauses require subject inversion and (if necessary) do–support  It requires do–support because nor negates, and do–support is required in negatives Run-on Sentences o Definition: a sentence with 2 or more independent clauses (IC) joined with no punctuation or only with a conjunction  Independent clause – coordinating conjunction – independent clause  *Conjunctive adverb (CA): IC; CA, IC, Run-on: IC, and IC Coordinators at the Beginning of a Sentence o DO NOT start a sentence with a coordinator. (once in a while)  And I felt. o A sentence beginning with and or but will tend to draw attention to itself o Overuse:  Avoid more than 2 coordinated independent clauses in a single sentence Subordination Subordination o The process by which one clause becomes part of another clause o A sentence with subordination contains more than one clause  Subject, verb  The cop who took the bribe got canned  Main: The cop…got canned  Subordinate: Who took a bribe Coordinating and Subordinating Conjunctions o Coordinating  A conjunction that joins independent clauses  And, but, or  Coordination: relative status  Joins 2 items of equal status o Subordinating  Special words that indicate the relationship of a subordinate clause to the independent clause  Subordination: relative status  Joins 2 items of unequal status  One of the clauses is considered to be lesser in status  Subordinate, dependent or embedded clause  One of the clauses is considered to be greater in status  Main or independent clause Location o Subordinating and coordinating conjunctions are found in different areas o Coordinating  Between 2 independent clauses o Subordinating  Part of dependent clause Movement Test o Subordination  Ted ate before David arrived  Before David arrived, Ted ate.  Conjunction can move with clause because it’s a part of the clause o Coordination  John studied and David napped  *And David napped John studied  Conjunction must be in between 2 clauses and is not part of a clause Deletion Test o The cop got canned after he took a bribe  Main: The cop…got canned  Subordinate: after he took a bribe o Rule:  Subordinate clauses can be deleted  Main clauses can’t be deleted Functions of Subordinate Clauses o Nominally (subject, object, etc.) [can replace clause with word] o Adjectively (modify nouns) o Adverbially (modify verbs and adjectives) Adverbial Clauses Adverbial Clause o Subordinate clause that functions as (plays the role of) an adverb o Characteristics  Modifies verbs, adjectives, and clauses  Indicate time, manner, place, result, etc. o Form  Shape: subordinating conjunction + subject + verb  Before, after, in the middle of Subordinators o Special words that indicate the relationship of a subordinate clause to the rest of the sentence Punctuation of Adverbial Clauses o If the adverbial clause comes first, the clause must be followed by a comma  Although he is competent, he never finishes a job o If the clause comes second, no comma  He never finishes a job although he is competent o If the clause is in the middle, have commas on either side  Baghwan, when the sun sets, it will be evening Order of Clauses in Complex Sentences o Sentences with adverb clauses have at least 2 clauses  Subordinate, independent  Since they don’t see the logic behind it, they threw it out.  Independent subordinate  They threw it out since they don’t see the logic behind it Topic-Comment Ordering o Topic-comment structure is a phenomenon that describes the “flow” of information in discourse o The topic is previously known o The comment is new information o F o *Coordinating conjunction: but (one comma) o Conjunctive adverb: however (semicolon) o Subordinating conjunction: whereas (no comma) Adverbial Clauses and Sentence Fragment o A sentence fragment results when a sentence does not contain at least one independent clause o Conjunctive adverbs (however, etc.)  Cause one to pause  I like ice cream; in contrast, my wife likes cake  Can be set off with commas  My wife, in contrast, likes cake o Subordinating conjunctions  Don’t cause one to pause Noun Clauses Structure o Function: To replace a noun in a sentence  A noun clause can be used for the same function as a noun o Form: a connecting word  Wh- word o Examples:  What he did surprised me  Subject  I know that she loves me  Direct object  I will give whomever she loves my worst wishes  Indirect object  This is what I want  Subject complement  I consider it what is necessary  Object complement  I waited until what she wanted came to pass  Object of preposition Noun Clause in Reported Speech o Direct speech: the speaker’s exact words are used with quotation marks  “I want you to leave” he said. o Reported speech: some of the speaker’s words are used (tense changes)  He said that he wanted to me to leave. (past tense) Who/m Rule o The form of the pronoun is determined by its function within the clause that contains it.  Who = subject  Whom = object Adjective (Relative) Clauses Structure o Function: modify nouns o Form: contains at least a relative pronoun, a subject, and a verb  The relative pronoun (subordinator) links the subordinate clause to the independent clause o Example:  The burglar [who stole my wallet] also took my pocket change.  Who links the clauses Restrictive and Non-restrictive Clauses Relative Clauses o Restrictive  Can only modify nouns  The information given in the relative clause gives you information necessary to identifying the modified noun:  The man who fixed my car promised a low price  The man [who fixed my car] promised a low price  [who fixed my car] cannot be removed, it is needed. o Non-restrictive  Can modify entire clauses, as well as nouns  Does not give us any information that identifies the noun  Winston Churchill, who is witty, cares about his country  Winston Churchill, [who is witty,] cares about his country  [who is witty] can be removed, it is just additional information o Punctuation  Restrictive clauses should not be set off with commas  Nonrestrictive clauses should be set off with commas o Testing  Try to take out relative clause to find out if restrictive or non-restrictive Relative Pronouns o Restrictive clauses sometimes use that as a relative word  The car that I bought o Non-restrictive clauses only use wh- words as relative words  John, who is my friend, lent me $400 Reduced Relative Clauses o A relative clause that has lost either its object relative pronoun or a relative pronoun and a form of the verb be  This is the book (that) I bought  Omit the relative pronoun only if it functions as the object of the relative clause  Omit the words (that are) underlined in the text  Omit any relative pronoun followed by any form of be Compound and Complex Sentences Definition o Compound sentence:  More than one independent clause  No dependent clause  Clauses linked by a coordinating conjunction o Complex sentence:  One or more subordinate clauses  But only one independent clause o Compound-Complex sentence:  Contains at least one subordinate clause Parallelism Definition o The use of the same type of grammatical form in successive conjoined elements  You can’t understand parallelism rules without knowing parts of speech


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