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by: Frannie Notetaker

Midterm GSC 103

Frannie Notetaker
GPA 3.5
Evolution of the Earth’s Modern Environment
Dr. Peter J. Leech

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Evolution of the Earth’s Modern Environment
Dr. Peter J. Leech
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Frannie Notetaker on Wednesday March 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GSC 103 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Peter J. Leech in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 96 views.

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Date Created: 03/25/15
Lecture 11 How Rocks Bend Elastic deformation when you bend something and let it go it bends back ductile deformation when you bend it and let it go it continues bending fracture when you bend it it breaks Brittleeg glass it breaks easilyductileit bends easily transitions in the crust and mantle as it goes deeper in the earth temperature goes higher and it becomes from brittle to ductile bottom of crust it is ductile top of mantle it is brittle because of different rock Vertical motion in the USice pushed crust down ice is melted north America is rising back isostatic rebound Three types of boundaries divergent normal fault Convergent thrust or reversed fault Transform slipstrike fault Footwall blocks when you step on two rocks the one you step onand hangingwall blocks the one that s above you Three types of vertical faults Horsts and grabens when the rocks move apart the hanging walls come down and creates ups and downs of the mountain which is horsts and grabens Monoclinesz shape half up half down synclinesdips in the middle and anticlines rises in the middle Five types of fold Open Symmetrical both limbs dip equally away from the axial plane 0 Symmetrical folds are either OPEN or ISOCLINAL lsoclinal both limbs of any fold are parallel to each other regardless of the dip of the axial plane Asymmetrical one limb of the fold dips more steeply than the other Overturned Strata in one limb have been tilted beyond the vertical Both limbs dip in the same direction but not at the same angle Recumbent Axial planes are horizontal or nearly so Strata on the lower limb of anticline and upper limb of syncline are upside down Lecture 12 Earthquakes Three types of earthquakes Normal thrust slipstrike Where do earthquakes happen boundaries Earthquake hazards especially tsunamis and liquefaction something on a wet sand after earthquake shake becomes liquid when the shake ends turns solid again Seismometers and the Richter scale Pwaves and swaves primary waves move faster than secondary waves pwaves can move through solid gas liquid swave only solid they happen at the same time Triangulating earthquake positions three point to figure out where the earthquake is Beachball diagrams hand out a note on earthquakes What earthquakes tell us about the core of the Earth size and solidliquid 8 wave doesn t happen if there is liquid What earthquakes tell us about other layers in the Earth echos by detacking different sets of s waves and p waves Lecture 13 Geological Time Uniformitarianism whatever happens geological today it may happen in the past so it shows the earth is really old because stuff moves really slowly Ussher and Kelvin s calculations for the age of the Earth ussher calculated by bible he gets a date of 6000 years William Thomson estimated the time that it would take for the Earth to cool from a molten mass to current temperature as 2040 million years Steno s three laws how sedimentary rocks lay down the horizontal the old one is on the bottom the new one is on the top if you see same sequences in two rocks they probably lay down the same time Chemical and fossil correlation if you find same fossils in two rocks they probably the same age Chemical correlation same thing Cross cutting igneous rocks that cut the way through the rocks Relative dating of rock layers be able to put rock layers in order on handout 8 DJIAGBECFH older to younger Radioisotope dating be able to do simple math know how we figure out how big the original pile of isotopes is that is know how we start the clock for living things and different rocks Lecture 14 The Earth Through Geological Time I Formation of the Earth 45 billion years ago Differentiation of the Earth the earth melts silicate floats on top of the metal Formation of the Moon another planet hits the earth and it explodes all things go up and forms the moon moon is identical to the mantle of the earth Evidence for plate tectonics and liquid water Evidence for ancient plate motion and collision Grenville orogeny is around 16 billions the mountain ranges underneath the appalachians three oceans and Rodinia Wilson cycles Cambrian explosion a massive increase in biodiversity in speciation Plant vascularity and wood separates roots and leaves plants become larger Formation of coal decrease of 002 increase in oxygen photosynthesis decrease 002 in the atmosphere and the wood becomes coal Fish evolve into amphibians into reptiles and mammallike reptiles Massive volcanism causes mass extinctions Lecture 15 The Earth Through Geological Time II Mammal like reptiles replaced by crocodilelike reptiles replaced by Dipodocus and Stegosaurus eat plants flowers evolve weak draw replaced by Triceratops eatpants and Tyrannosaurus eats triceretops Where do birds come from From dinosaurs Dinosaur extinction asteroid in the mexico The fall line along the east coast of US the sea level is higher and the appalaction mountain is eroding End up in the step passive boundary The Great American Interchange Lecture 16 Uplift Erosion and Denudation Davis s threestage cycle of erosion Young vs old landscapes disequilibrium Uplift collisional extensional and isostatic due to hot spot or lost root Erosion rates weathering and sediment Uplift rates warped strata and earthquake displacement Fission track dating Cosmogenic nuclides and lichenometry for exposure time Measuring rates of uplift with fission tracks cosmogenic nuclides and lichenometry Lecture 17 Mass wasting How mass wasting is different from other ways of moving rocks mass wasting is movement of rocks due to gravity not due to water ice Why rocks on a slope are unstable or stable the steeper the slope is the less the stable it is Angle of repose Slope failure vs downslope flow Slope failures slumps vs rock falls and slides How water changes the angle of repose Downslope flow slurry flow and granular flow Solifluction vs mudflows Frost heaving and rock glaciers Preventing mudflows and stabilizing slopes


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