New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Intro to Language Study Guide

by: jlake30

Intro to Language Study Guide LING 1010

Marketplace > University of Utah > Linguistics > LING 1010 > Intro to Language Study Guide
Salt Lake Community College
GPA 3.5

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Intro to Language Phonetics Phonology Morphology Syntax Semantics Pragmatics Language Acquisition Language Storing and Processing Language Variation Language and Culture Language Contact...
Intro to Language
Dr. Zebulon Pischnotte
Study Guide
Language, phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, acquisition, Culture, animal, communication
50 ?




Popular in Intro to Language

Popular in Linguistics

This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by jlake30 on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LING 1010 at University of Utah taught by Dr. Zebulon Pischnotte in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro to Language in Linguistics at University of Utah.


Reviews for Intro to Language Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/28/16
1. Introduction to language a. File 1.1 i. Why study language? 1. Language reflects one’s self-identity and is indispensable for social interactions; social and cultural aspects of a society ii. True things about language 1. Grammar is more complex than anything that could be taught in school, but every human is able to master the grammar of some language 2. There are 7106 living languages (David Crystal) iii. Misconceptions of language 1. Swearing degrades a language 2. Writing is more perfect than speech 3. It’s easier to learn Chinese if your ancestry is Chinese 4. Correct spelling preserves a language iv. Underlying themes of linguistic study 1. Language is systematic in spite of being extremely complex, it can therefore be studied 2. There is variation at every level of structure 3. All languages change over time, whether speakers desire change or not b. File 1.2 i. Linguistic competence and linguistic performance 1. Linguistic competence a. The underlying knowledge we have about our language (it’s subconscious) 2. Linguistic performance a. The way a person produces and comprehends a language 3. Performance errors a. Unable to remember a word, mispronouncing something, or jumbling the words in a sentence. You are simply making a mistake, you still have your linguistic competence 4. Noise a. Interference in the communication chain ii. How linguistic competence is stored 1. Lexicon a. A mental dictionary of the words we know 2. Mental grammar a. Every native speaker’s intrinsic, implicit, unconscious knowledge of the structure of language 3. Descriptive grammar a. Statements that characterize regularities in the English language of all L1 speakers of English. 4. Prescriptive grammar a. A type of grammar that attempts to tell people how to use the language properly. c. File 1.4 i. Design features of language 1. [See LING 3470 – Language and Communication, part c] ii. Different types of languages 1. Formal a. Languages like mathematical proofs, various computer languages, etc. b. A child cannot acquire this type of language naturally 2. Natural a. Languages that have evolved naturally in a speech community i. English, Spanish, Mandarin 3. Constructed a. A language that has been specifically invented by a human that may or may not imitate all the properties of natural language i. Elvish, Klingon, Valyrian b. Constructed languages have the potential to become natural languages, like Modern Hebrew c. A child cannot acquire this type of language naturally 2. Phonetics a. File 2.0 i. Phonetics 1. Definition a. The study of the minimal units that make up language ii. Types of phonetics 1. Articulatory phonetics a. The study of the production of speech sounds 2. Acoustic phonetics a. The study of the transmission and physical properties of speech sounds (sound waves) 3. Auditory phonetics a. The study of the perception of speech sounds b. File 2.1 i. Types of speech sounds 1. Speech sounds a. Segments i. Discrete units of the speech stream and can be further subdivided into the categories of consonants and vowels b. Suprasegmentals i. “Ride on top of” segments in that they often apply to entire strings of consonants and vowels-these are properties such as stress, tone, and intonation 2. Syllables a. Definition i. A unit of speech b. Structure i. Syllable: onset + rhyme (onset is optional) 1. On, up (no onset); pat, pull (onset) ii. Rhyme: nucleus + coda (coda is optional) Syllable Onset Rhyme Nucleus Coda 1. A, oh (no coda); paw, poo (N + O) iii. a. File 2.2 i. Place of articulation 1. Where the vocal tract is made narrower ii. Manner of articulation 1. How sound is modified by the vocal tract to produce the sound iii. Consonant Chart 1. b. File 2.3 i. Vowel chart 1. Monophthongs 2. Diphthongs ii. Classifying vowels 1. Tongue height a. High, mid, low 2. Tongue advancement a. Front, center, back 3. Tense/lax tongue 4. Lip rounding c. File 2.5 i. Length 1. Some speech sounds are longer than others 2. In some languages, differences in the durations of segments can be meaningful a. Finnish i. [muta] ‘mud’ ii. [muːta] ‘some other’ iii. [mutːa] ‘but’ ii. Intonation 1. The pattern of pitch movements across a stretch of speech a. Pitch accents i. A word may be produced with a pitch that is particularly higher or lower than the surrounding words 1. A: Who kissed Peter? 2. B: MARY kissed Peter b. Edge tones i. They represent the pitch pattern right before a perceived break instead of in the middle of an utterance 1. You got an A on the test? (↗) 2. You got an A on the test. (↘) 3. You got an A on the test (↗), a C on the homework(↗), and a B on the quiz(↘) iii. Tone 1. The pitch in a word when it’s pronounced can make a difference in the word’s meaning. a. Mandarin Chinese, Vietnamese, Zulu, Navajo, etc. i. 媽 [mā] = mother ii. 麻 [má] = hemp iii. 馬 [mǎ] = horse iv. 罵 [mà] = scold v. 嗎 [må] = question mark iv. Stress 1. More prominent than an unstressed syllable 2. Longer and louder than unstressed syllables and usually contain full vowels 3. Phonology a. File 3.1 i. Phonotactic constraints 1. Restrictions on possible combinations of sounds a. [bɹ] in bring b. [mj] in music c. [kw] in quick 2. Constraints in English a. Cannot start with [ŋ] & [ʒ] 3. Other languages do not have such a large number of syllable structures a. Hawaiian i. CV ii. V ii. Foreign accents 1. Sound substitution a. Sounds that exist in a language a speaker knows are used to replace sounds that do not exist in that language when pronouncing the words of a foreign language 2. Reasons a. L1 doesn’t have the sound that L2 has b. L1 doesn’t allow for the combination of sounds that L2 does b. File 3.2 i. Allophones and phonemes a. [See LING 3470 – Phonetics & Phonology, part c: phoneme and allophones] ii. Distribution 1. Contrastive a. In English, [ɹ] and [l] are allophones of different phonemes i. Leaf [lif] vs. reef [ɹif] b. Minimal pair i. Defined as a pair of words whose pronunciations differ by one sound 1. Team [tʰiːm] and teen [tʰiːn] 2. Complementary a. In Korean, ㄹ [ɹ] and ㄹ [l] are considered to be allophones of the same phoneme i. 불 [pul] and 불 [puɹ] are both considered ‘fire’ b. Alternation c. File 3.3 i. Phonological rules 1. /t/  [ɾ] / V__V  Does not work (i.e. Battalion) 2. /t/  [ɾ] / stressed V___unstressed V  works (i.e. kitten) ii. Natural classes 1. [k] & [t] fall into the natural class of voiceless stops a. /k/  [kʰ] / ____stressed V b. /p/, /t/, /k/  [pʰ], [tʰ], [kʰ] / ____stressed V 2. /i/  [i] / ____# (# means at the end) iii. Types of phonological processes 1. Definitions a. Assimilation i. The changing of one or more features of one sound to better match those of a neighboring one 1. Unbelievable is pronounced as [Ʌmbəlivəbļ] ii. Palatalization 1. Did you is pronounced as [diʤ ju] b. Dissimilation i. The changing of one or more features of a sound to make it different from a neighboring sound 1. In Greek, /epta/ ‘seven’ is pronounced as [efta] c. Insertion i. The insertion of a sound not present at the phonemic level 1. Strength /stɹɛŋθ/  [stɹɛŋkθ] 2. Hamster /hæmstɹ/  [hæmpstɹ] d. Deletion i. The removal of a sound present at the phonemic level 1. He handed her his hat  [hi hændəd ɹ ɪz hæt] e. Metathesis i. The switching around of 2 sounds 1. In Leti, /danat + kviali/ ‘millipede’ becomes [dantakviali] f. Strengthening (fortition) i. Make sounds stronger ii. Aspiration 1. Pat /pæt/  /pʰæt/ g. Weakening (lenition) i. Make sounds weaker ii. Flapping 1. Butter /bʊtɹ/  [bʊɾɹ] 4. Morphology a. File 4.1 i. Introduction 1. Lexicon a. Everything we know as a word or that carries some meaning that is stored in our mental dictionary i. Form ii. Meaning 2. Morphemes a. Smallest unit of meaning is a morpheme b. Some consist of single sounds (e.g. {-s}, a, an) c. Others are full words that can stand alone (e.g. cat, dog, from) 3. Derivational a. Words belonging to one of several lexical categories i. Open 1. Nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives ii. Closed 1. Pronouns, determiners, prepositions, conjunctions b. Adding prefixes or suffixes can derive new lexical categories from old ones i. Quick [adj.]  quickly [adv.] 1. Only within the set of open lexical categories 4. Inflectional a. Changes grammatical information i. Cat  cats (still a noun) ii. More classification 1. Morphemes can either be bound or free 2. Bound morphemes must attach to something; they are often difficult to pronounce or speak if they’re not attached (e.g. {-ing}, {-ed}) 3. Bound morphemes are almost always derivation or inflectional 4. Sometimes derivation doesn’t produced a new part of speech (e.g. man  man-hood [still a noun]) 5. Sometimes morphemes can be homophones a. Speak{-er}: one who speaks b. Bigg{-er} isn’t someone who biggs 6. Just because a word is long, doesn’t mean it has many morphemes a. Madagascar, pumpernickel b. File 4.2 i. Word formation process 1. Many words are composed of 2 or more morphemes 2. New words can be built by affixes ii. Affixation 1. They’re bound morphemes that attach to a root or stem a. Prefixes b. Suffixes 2. Some languages use infixes, circumfixes, and transfixes iii. Compounding 1. Words that combine 2 or more independent words a. Blueberry = blue + berry iv. Reduplication 1. Doubling either an entire free morpheme or part of it a. I like-like him b. You went to the bank-bank? v. Alternations 1. Words that undergo internal modification a. Swim, swam, swum vi. Suppletion 1. Involves the complete substitution of a different word into a paradigm a. Go, went, gone b. Good, better, best c. File 4.3 i. Language types 1. 2 major types a. Isolating/analytic b. Synthetic (3 types) ii. Isolating/analytic languages 1. Consist mostly or solely of free morphemes 2. Usually one word = one unit of meaning 3. Heavy reliance on word order and function words to convey meaning a. Chinese example: i. 我愛你 = I love you ii. 你愛我 = You love me iii. 你愛我嗎? = Do you love me? 4. Tend to be heavily monosyllabic 5. Often use compounding 6. Several (though not all) have simple syllable structures (V, CV), and many homonyms a. Vietnamese, Hatian, French, Chinese (highly tonal languages) iii. Agglutinating (synthetic) languages 1. One-to-one morpheme 2. Grammatical morphemes are glommed onto words they modify, rather than free 3. Many (though not all) exhibit vowel harmony a. Mongolian, Japanese, Bantu, Uto-Aztecan iv. Fusional/inflecting languages (synthetic) languages 1. Do not necessarily have a simple one morpheme correspondence 2. Word order often irrelevant a. Russian, Latin, Hindi (most Indo-European), Italian, ancient Greek v. Polysynthetic languages 1. Verbal paradigms; often extremely robust 2. Complex sentences can often be expressed using a single word 3. Commonly used verbs often appear as derivational morphemes a. Sora (India), Navajo d. File 4.4 i. Hierarchical Structure 1. Underdifferentiation a. Assuming everyone needs the same amount of help, even though there are different levels of people 5. Syntax a. What a constituent is i. A word or group of words (such as a phrase or clause) that act as a single unit within a larger syntactic structure 1. Gentle in gentlemen, gentlemanly, ungentlemanly b. How to determine word order i. SVO (42%) – English/Mandarin ~ 我要吃蘋果 (I want eat apple) ii. SOV (45%) – Japanese/Korean ~ 나는 사과를 먹지싶어요 (I apple eat want) iii. OSV (0%) – Apuriña ~ Anana nota apa (pineapple I fetch) iv. VSO (9%) – Gaelic ~ Phóg Máire an lucharachán (kissed Mary the leprechaun) v. VOS (3%) – Malagasy ~ Nahita ny mpianatra ny vehivavy (saw the student the woman) vi. OVS (1%) – Hixkaryana ~ Kana janɨmno bɨrjekomo (fish caught boy) c. What recursion means in a linguistic context i. You can keep adding to the sentence 1. He likes pizza 2. Fred likes pizza 3. My friend Fred likes pizza 4. My best friend Fred likes pizza 5. My best friend Fred, who is from Cincinnati, likes pizza d. Terms i. Constituent 1. A word or group of words (such as a phrase or clause) that act as a single unit within a larger syntactic structure a. Gentle in gentleman, gentlemanly, ungentlemanly ii. Case-marking 1. Use of affixes or completely different morphemes (rather than word order) to indicate the subject (nominative), direct object (accusative), indirect object (dative), possessive (genitive), or other roles within a sentence (instrumental, ablative, inessive, etc.). a. Korean: 나는 사과를 먹지싶어요 i. 는 = subject, 를 = object b. German: Die Frau küsst den Mann (The woman kisses the man), Die Frau küsst der Mann (The man kisses the woman) i. Den = object, Der = subject iii. Recursion 1. The ability to go back and add infinitely more internal structure (more constituents) to a larger syntactic structure a. I like food b. I like to eat food c. I like to eat healthy food d. I like to eat healthy soup and ice cream iv. Universal Grammar (UG) 1. Linguistic elements that (in theory) are the same in every language; this may consist of entire structures or may simply refer to recursion a. The ability to learn grammar is hard-wired into the brain (Noam Chomsky) v. Word order 1. Languages with lots of case marking have much freer word order a. SOV b. SVO c. VSO d. VOS e. OSV f. OVS e. File 5.2 i. Phrase structure 1. Syntax is structural/hierarchical, instead of linear a. Structural ambiguity b. Agreement c. Forming yes & no questions 2. A phrase is a string of words (one or more) that function as a unit in a sentence 3. Phrase structure rules a. VP  V + NP b. NP  DET + Adj. + N + PP c. PP  Adv. + P + DET + Adj. + NP d. Sen.  NP + VP e. αβ f. File 5.3 i. Constituency tests 1. A constituent is a string that a language allows to manipulate as a single piece 2. A constituent should be represented as a unit in the phrase structure a. Substitution i. That girl the red coat likes to eat 1. Replace the girl the red coat with she ii. She likes to eat b. Deletion/ellipsis c. Movement i. Topicalization d. Cleft i. The cat likes to sleep on the desk ii. It was on the desk that the cat was sleeping iii. It was the cat that was sleeping on the desk iv. *It was on the that the cat was sleeping desk 1. This ungrammatical, so it is not a cleft e. Psuedo-cleft i. Who, where, why, etc. 6. Semantics [See LING 3470 – Semantics] 7. Pragmatics [See LING 3470 – Pragmatics] 8. Language Acquisition a. File 8.1 i. [See LING 3470 – Linguistic Universalism & Bilingualism: part E] ii. Theories 1. Imitation Theory a. Children learn language by listening to the speech around them and reproducing what they hear 2. Active Construction of a grammar theory a. The most influential theory of language acquisition b. Children actually invent the rules of grammar themselves 3. Connectionist theory a. Children learn language by creating neural connections in the brain b. Developed through exposure to language and by using language 4. Social interaction theory a. Children acquire language through social interaction b. File 8.2 i. Babbling 1. Around 4 to 6 months, children in all cultures begin to babble 2. Repeated/canonical babbling starts around 7 to 10 months c. File 8.3 i. One word stage 1. Holophrastic stage a. No, gimmie, mine ii. Two word stage 1. Telegraphic a. More juice, ‘nother cup iii. Later stages of development 1. Plurals a. Overgeneralization i. Manses instead of men 2. Negatives a. No I drink milk b. No baby sleep 3. Interrogatives a. Why you are sad? b. Where he is going? iv. Word meaning 1. Overextensions a. A child overextends the word ticktock, using it to refer to clocks, watches, parking meters, and a dial 2. Underextensions a. A child underextends the word mammal to just a whale 3. Cluster reduction a. Chang or removing CV sounds i. Spoon  [pun] 4. Reanalysis a. Hears and analysis differently i. To Miami  Tim’s ami 5. Reduplication a. Mested up d. File 8.4 i. How adults talk to young children 1. The “Here and Now” 2. Taking turns 3. Making corrections e. File 8.5 i. [See LING 3470 – Bilingualism] 9. Language storing and processing a. File 9.3 i. Production errors 1. Anticipation a. Splicing from one tape  splacing from one tape 2. Perseveration a. Splicing from one tape  splicing from one type 3. Addition a. Spic and span  spic and splan 4. Deletion a. His immortal soul  his immoral soul 5. Metathesis a. Fill the pool  fool the pill 6. Spoonerism a. Dear old queen  queer old dean 7. Shift a. She decides to hit it  she decide to hits it 8. Substitution a. It’s hot in here  it’s cold in here 9. Blend a. Grizzly/ghastly  grastly 10. Language Variation [See LING 3470 – Language variation] 11. Language and Culture [See LING 3470 – Linguistic relativism] 12. Language contact [See LING 3470 – Pidgins & creoles] 13. Language change [See LING 3470 – Language change] a. File 13.3 i. Pronouncing home as [həʉm] indicates Australian/New Zealand accents ii. Trilled [ɹ] indicates Scottish accents b. File 13.4 i. Myself, yourself, hisself, theirself(s), etc. ii. I helped him in Appalachian is [Ah holp hiyim] c. File 13.5 i. I might could go  double modal d. File 13.6 i. Pissed in America: angry ii. Pissed in Australia: very drunk or angry 14. Animal communication a. File 14.1 i. Design features shared by all communication systems 1. Mode of communication 2. Semanticity & pragmatic function ii. Design features exhibited by some animal communication systems 1. Interchangeability 2. Cultural transmission 3. Arbitrariness 4. Discreteness iii. Design features not found in animal communication systems 1. Displacement 2. Productivity b. File 14.2 i. Bee communication, “Waggle dance” 1. Doesn’t show creativity ii. Bird communication 1. Doesn’t show discreteness iii. Primate communication 1. Lacks displacement and productivity 1. Semantics a. What it means when we call language ‘arbitrary’ i. No in inherent connection between sound and meaning 1. Dog, perro, canis, 개, 狗 b. Identify kinds of semantic shift/change i. Kleenex > facial tissue ii. Xerox > photocopy iii. Coke (Texas) > soda/pop iv. Bad, wicked, sick > cool v. Gay – full of joy, merry > wanton, lewd, lascivious > homosexuality (slur) > gay (community) c. Semantic relationships between words i. Synonyms 1. Beautiful, lovely, hot ii. Antonym 1. Finish > Start > Stop > Go iii. Hypernym 1. Vehicle iv. Hyponym 1. Airplane, scooter, car d. The difference between connotation and denotation i. Denotation 1. The denotation of a word or phrase is its literal definition a. The denotation is a representation of a cartoon heart ii. Connotation 1. The connotation of a word or phrase is the cultural implication that’s packaged with it. Cultural and/or emotional association a. The connotation is a symbol of love and affection e. Terms i. Hypernym 1. A word with a broad meaning that more specific words fall under a. Animals ii. Hyponym 1. A word of more specific meaning than a general term a. Dog, cat, rabbit, hamster iii. Synonym 1. Words that are similar to one another a. Good-looking, dapper, pretty, alluring iv. Antonym 1. Words that mean the opposite of each other a. Love, hate v. Pejoration 1. A word comes to mean something more negative a. Sely (Early 1200s) = happy, blissful, blessed b. Silly (1500s) = weak, feeble, insignificant c. Silly (present) = senseless, foolish vi. Amelioration 1. A word comes to mean something more positive a. Nice (1300s) = foolish, silly, simple b. Nice (1500s) = requiring or involving great precision or accuracy c. Nice (present) = kind, friendly, considerate vii. Broadening 1. A word with a specific meaning takes a more general one a. Thing (before) = assembly or council b. Thing (present) = anything viii. Narrowing 1. A word with a general meaning that takes a more specific one a. Litter (late 1200s) = a bed b. Litter (1300-1500s) = bedding c. Litter (<1500s) = animals on a bedding of straw 2. Pragmatics a. How language is sensitive to context i. “You should probably get professional help” 1. Needs help from a professional on a specific topic 2. Mentally unstable b. Grice’s Maxims (The Cooperative Principle) and their meanings i. Quality 1. Tell the truth 2. Don’t say things you don’t have evidence of ii. Quantity 1. Say as much as you need 2. Don’t leave things out or add things that are unnecessary iii. Relevance 1. Be relevant iv. Manner 1. Avoid obscurity and ambiguity 2. Be brief and orderly c. Terms i. Setting 1. There is a certain time to talk about a specific topic ii. Discourse 1. A conversation; connected series of utterances iii. Speech act 1. Things we say that do something a. Requests, commands, promises, congratulations, thanks, excuses, threats, advice, etc. iv. Implicature 1. The action of implying a meaning beyond the literal sense of what is explicitly stated a. She had a baby and got married i. Implying she had a baby first then got married v. Presuppositions 1. Implicit assumptions about the world that help us to interpret language a. Have you stopped beating your wife (yet)? 3. Linguistic Universalism a. What Universal Grammar (UG) means i. The ability to learn grammar is hard-wired into the brain; people are born with some knowledge of language b. What evidence supports the idea of UG i. Innate Parameter 1. We are born with parameters of language and minimal instances of input will allow us to figure out how to set the parameters for our own language (this is a subconscious process) a. There is a head-first or head-last parameter of language i. In English, phrases are head-first. A noun is at the head of a noun phrase, a preposition at the head of a prepositional phrase, etc. ii. In Korean and Japanese, phrases are head-last c. Terms i. Universalism 1. Language is merely a reflection of human thought, and so all languages are significantly similar in their conceptual categories 4. Bilingualism a. How bilingualism is normal i. Bilingualism is more common than monolingualism b. Ways in which bilingualism in beneficial i. Faster response on some cognitive tasks ii. Later onset of Alzheimer’s, dementia iii. Greater metalinguistic awareness > ease in learning additional languages 1. When you speak 2 languages, you don’t need a class to tell you language is arbitrary iv. Greater empathy & cultural awareness c. Why bilinguals code-switch i. Code-switching generally follows rules related to the structure of BOTH languages ii. Environment may determine code-switching 1. Family, Friends/peers, religion, employment, education, hobbies, government a. In India, Hindi at home, English at work iii. Generally use a particular language for particular purposes or in particular contexts d. Different kinds of bilingualism i. Sequential (Second language) 1. Occurs when a person becomes bilingual by first learning one language then another ii. Simultaneous 1. When both languages are learned at the same time e. Terms i. Bilingualism 1. The use of at least 2 languages by an individual ii. Critical period 1. A period when children learn languages completely through exposure and use (no instruction required) a. After this period, learning a language happens differently iii. Code-switching 1. The use of more than one linguistic code in a single conversation a. You need to be competent in BOTH languages in order to use code-switching 5. Language Variation a. How language varies across geography and society i. Language is always changing 1. When there is a big enough difference, it becomes 2 different languages 2. Mutual intelligibility is a decent standard b. What distinguishes a ‘language’ from a ‘dialect’ i. A language is a dialect with an army and a navy ii. Social and political power 1. Languages are usually official and written 2. Dialects are mostly spoken, unofficial and looked down upon a. Speaker of dialects refer to their speech as slang 3. Languages often borrow words for a variety of reasons a. These are called loanwords once they are in their new language b. Not just vocabulary i. Phonology ii. Morphology iii. Syntax c. How we employ different styles of speech for different purposes i. Intra-personal variation 1. Different styles or varieties of speech used by one person a. Informal speech with friends b. Formal speech with employer 2. It is a subset of inter-personal variation a. Different dialects or speech varieties used by particular social or regional groups d. How stereotypes of particular languages or styles develop i. There may be covert prestige associated with some varieties of speech that are otherwise stigmatized 1. Higher class varieties are often valued and considered ‘correct’ or ‘proper’ (overt prestige) 2. Social factors, race, and class are part of these language stereotypes e. Terms i. Language 1. The method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way ii. Dialect 1. A particular form of a language that is specific to a region or social group iii. Dialect continuum 1. A group of dialects where each varies slightly from their neighbors a. Everyone can still communicate (locally) iv. Diglossia 1. Speakers are able to use 2 related varieties of their language a. One language learned at home b. Another language learned at school or in society v. Style 1. A specific jargon or phrases used in different situations a. Informal speech with friends and family b. Formal speech with employer vi. Prestige 1. The level of respect for different types of languages and/or dialects a. Overt prestige = correct and proper languages, high respect b. Covert prestige = low respect for some languages 6. Linguistic Relativism a. Strong and weak versions of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis i. Weak version (relativism) 1. Language does influence in some way the way we think and view the real world, but it does not fully determine or constraint it ii. Strong version (determinism) 1. Language determines/constraints the way we think and view the real world b. Difference between linguistic relativism and linguistic determinism i. Linguistic relativism 1. Language influences perception ii. Linguistic determinism 1. Language constrains thought c. Experimental support for weak Whorfian effects i. Kay and Kepmton’s language study (1984) 1. They found that language is a part of cognition. In their study, English speakers’ perceptions were distorted in the blue-green area while speakers from Tarahumara–who lack a blue-green distinction–showed no distortion. However, under certain conditions they found that universalism of colour distinction can be recovered. d. Terms i. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis 1. The structure of a language determines a native speaker's perception and categorization of experience. 7. Pidgins & Creoles a. How pidgins develop; characteristics of pidgins i. Generally used for facilitating trade or similarly necessary communication ii. Impromptu constructions by their speakers 1. Don’t really have grammar 2. Speakers are trying to simplify their own language (or a familiar dominant language) in order to be understood iii. Highly variable (unstable) 1. Simplified phonology, morphology, syntax 2. Generally no recursion & little morphology iv. No one’s first language 1. Learned as a second languages by all speakers b. How creoles develop; characteristics of creoles i. When a child learns a pidgin as their first language, it becomes a creole ii. Creole grammar is generated by learners, not copied from other speakers 1. SVO order is common (often strict) 2. Analytic (or at least morphologically transparent) 3. Use of reduplication 4. Stable 5. Complex c. Difference between a pidgin and creole i. Pidgin 1. Used for trading or necessary communication 2. No one’s first language 3. Unstable & simple ii. Creole 1. Develops from a pidgin 2. First language 3. Stable & complex d. How creoles lend support to the idea of Universal Grammar i. Creole grammar is generated by learners, not copied ii. Structures that appear in creoles although they are absent in pidgins might come directly from UG 1. Questions, tense/aspect/modality, articles, to be, relative clauses e. Terms i. Pidgin 1. Simplified forms of language with no native speakers or stable grammar. They develop when communication is necessary but not shared language is available ii. Creoles 1. Full languages with stable grammars that develop when children learn a pidgin as their first language 8. Language Change a. What parts of language change over time i. Semantics ii. Syntax iii. Morphology iv. Phonology (& Phonetics) b. How languages in a language family are related to one another i. Through mutual intelligibility c. Terms i. Mutual intelligibility 1. Speakers of one understand speakers of the other ii. Language family 1. A group of languages related through descent from a common ancestor a. Latin Italian Spanish French Capra Capra Cabra Chèvre


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.