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OHIO / Engineering / BIOS 1300 / What is the study of anatomy?

What is the study of anatomy?

What is the study of anatomy?

Description

School: Ohio University
Department: Engineering
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology
Professor: Foster
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: BIOS_1300.pdf
Description: Week 1 Notes for BIOS 1300
Uploaded: 08/28/2016
7 Pages 63 Views 2 Unlocks
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BIOS 1300  


Anatomy is the study of?



Week 1

1.1

• Anatomy is the study of the structure of organisms and their  relationships to each other

• Physiology is the study of function

• There are different divisions of anatomy; gross anatomy and  microscopic anatomy  

o Gross Anatomy- Structures that are visible to the naked eye

▪ This includes inspection, palpation, auscultation,  

percussion, and dissection

• Inspection- simply looking at the body’s initial  

appearance.  

• Palpation- Feeling a structure with your hands

• Auscultation- listening to the natural sounds made  


Metabolism is the sum of?



by the body.  

• Percussion- Tapping the body, feeling for abnormal  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the stability of change?

resistance.  

• Dissection- Carefully cutting and separating tissues  

to reveal their relationships  

o Microscopic Anatomy- Study of anatomy using optical aids

▪ These are what we use when we cannot see something  with the naked eye

• Histology- The study of tissue

• Histopathology- Microscopic examination of tissues  

for signs of disease.  

• Cytology- The study of the structure and function of  

individual cells We also discuss several other topics like Historiography is a record of what?

• Ultrastructure- Refers to fine detail, down to the  


In biology, ultrastructure refers to?



molecular level.  

1.3

1.5

• Atom -> Molecule -> Macromolecule -> Organelle -> Cell -> Tissue ->  Organ ->Organ system -> Organism

o Organism- a single, complete individual  

o Organ system- a group of organs with a unique collective  function

▪ Circulation, respiration, digestion

2

o Organ- a structure composed of two or more tissue types that  work together to carry out a particular function  

o Tissue- a mass of similar cells and cell product that forms a  discrete region of an organ and preforms a specific function

▪ The body is composed of only four primary classes of  

tissue

• Epithelial, connective nervous, and muscular We also discuss several other topics like What are darwin's ideas on evolution?

o Cells- the smallest units of an organism that carry out all the  basic functions of life

o Organelles- Microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its  individual functions

▪ Mitochondria, centrioles, lysosomes  

1.6

• A collection of properties distinguishes living and nonliving things

o Organization, Cellular composition, metabolism, responsiveness  and movement, homeostasis, development, reproduction, and  evolution.  We also discuss several other topics like In cell theory, all organisms are composed of?

▪ Cellular composition- Living matter is always  

compartmentalized into one or more cells  

▪ Metabolism- the sum of all this internal chemical change

• Anabolism- relatively complex molecules are  

synthesized from simpler ones

• Catabolism- relatively complex molecules are broken  

down into simpler ones

▪ Responsiveness and movement- The ability of organisms  to sense and react to stimuli (changes in their  

environment)

3

▪ Homeostasis- the ability of organ systems to coordinate  the body function to maintain equilibrium when faced  

with an external disturbance

▪ Development- Any change in form or function over the  lifetime of the organism  

• Differentiation- the transformation of cells with no  

specialized function into cells that are committed to  

a particular task

• Growth- an increase in size  

▪ Reproduction- Organisms produce copies of themselves

▪ Evolution- Living species adapt to their new and changing  environments to survive

o Homeostasis examples

4 We also discuss several other topics like Is soil a natural entity of unconsolidated organic?

o o Gradient- a difference in chemical concentration, electrical  charge, physical pressure, temperature, or other cariable  

between one point and another

▪ Pressure gradient- from a region of high pressure to low  pressure  

▪ Concentration gradient- distribution of molecules is higher  on more side vs. the other side. The sides are often divided  by a membrane

▪ Electrical gradient- different voltage form one side to  

another. Difference in the amount of charged particles

▪ Thermal gradient- temperature differences  

Terminology

• Body Position

o Anatomical position- Position of body standing with palms  outward We also discuss several other topics like What is an empirical formula?

5

o Supine- Position of body lying face up

o Prone- Position of body lying face down

• Planes of Section

o Coronal plane/ frontal plane- A plane that passes side-to-side  through the body, dividing it into anterior and posterior

o Oblique plane- A slanted plane, that passes thought the body

o Sagittal plane- Plane that passes from front to back dividing into  right and left portions  

o Transverse plane- passes perpendicular and makes superior and  inferior portions  

• Directional Terms

o Anterior- toward front of the body

o Deep- Away from surface (inside body)

o Distal- Farther from trunk of origin

o Inferior- downward

o Superior- upward

o Lateral- away from midline of body

o Medial- toward midline of body

o Posterior- toward back of body

o Proximal-closer to trunk

o Superficial- toward surface of body

6

o

7

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