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AU / Nutrition / NTRI 2000 / Why are you so hungry?

Why are you so hungry?

Why are you so hungry?


Nutrition 8/28/16 7:42 PM

Why are you so hungry?

Chapter 1: Choosing what you eat and why?

Factors affecting food choices: 

• Social needs

• Culture/customs

• Costs

• Education

• Habits/routines

• Lifestyle

• Food marketing

• Food availability

• Psychological needs

• Flavor/texture/appearance

• Health concerns and knowledge

• Social network of family and friends

• Occupation/income

• Nutritious beliefs

• Early exposure to various people, places and events

What counts as a serving?

Why are you so hungry? 

• Hunger: physiological drive

• Appetite: psychological drive

Satiety: No longer a desire to eat, regulated by the brain If you want to learn more check out What does heat mean?

• Feeding center: cells signal us to eat

• Satiety center: cells are signaled and we stop eating

What is nutrition? 

• The science that links foods to health and disease

• It includes the processes by which the human organism ingests, digests, absorbs,  transports, and excretes food substances (IDATES)

What are nutrients? 

• Come from food

What are nutrients?

• Provide energy If you want to learn more check out What are elements in biology?
If you want to learn more check out What is the role of hunters and gatherers in the paleolithic age?

• Provide building blocks

• Vital for growth and maintenance

• Essential

Essential nutrient: Omission leads to decline; regain normal function when restored to the diet;  has specific biological functions (ex. Vitamin C)

Why study nutrition?

• Poor diet and sedentary lifestyle are risk factors for chronic diseases o Disease of heart

o Cancer

o Stroke

o Diabetes

o Accounts with ~ 2/3 of all deaths

The six classes of nutrients: 

• Carbohydrates: bread, pasta, rice

• Lipids: oils, chocolate

• Proteins: meats, eggs, fish

• Vitamins: C (oranges), D (sun), B-12 (animals)

• Minerals: sodium, calcium, potassium We also discuss several other topics like What is acclimatization in physiology?

• Water

Nutrient functional categories: 

• Provide calories

• For growth, development, and maintenance

• Regulates body processes


• Major source of calories

• Simple sugars

• Complex carbohydrates

• Dietary fiber


• Fats (solids) and oils (liquids)

• Do not dissolve in water

• Energy yielding (~9kcal/gm)

• Animal fats (solids)– saturated  

• Plant oils (liquids)– unsaturated

• Essential fatty acids (omega 3 and omega 6)


• Structural materials

• Energy yielding (~4 kcal/gm)

• Amino Acids

• Most Americans consume excess protein If you want to learn more check out What was the purpose of thomas jefferson writing the declaration of independence?


• Enable chemical reactions

• Fat soluble

• Water soluble

• Subject to cooking losses

• Yield no energy


• Inorganic substances

• Numerous functions in the body

• Not destroyed during cooking

• Major and trace minerals

• Electrolytes

• Yield no energy


• Numerous vital functions in the body

• Removes waste

• Majority of our body weight

• Recommended intake– 9-13 cups per day

• Found in foods

• No energy

Nutrient classes that provide energy: 

• Most carbohydrates– not fiber

• Protein

• Most lipids

Nutrient classes that promote growth/development/maintenance: • Proteins

• Lipids

• Some vitamins We also discuss several other topics like How does aldosterone affect sodium reabsorption?

• Some minerals

• Water

Nutrient classes that regulate body processes: 

• Proteins

• Some lipids

• Some vitamins

• Some minerals

• Water

Other components in foods:  

• Phytochemicals

o Chemicals found in plants

o Not considered essential nutrient

o May provide significant health benefits

o Found in fruits/vegetables

Transformation of energy: 

• Carbohydrate (4kcal/gram), protein (4kcal/gram), fat (9kcal/gram), alcohol  (7kcal/gram)–> energy sources–> build new compounds, nerve transmission,  muscular movement, electrolyte balance

What is a calorie? 

• Measurement of energy

• “amount of heat it takes to raise the temp of one gram of water by one degree  Celsius”

• 1000 calories=1kcal=1 (food) calories

Nutrition labels on test (calculator– mult. Choice)

• Sodium is a mineral–>no cal.

• Carbohydrate= 15g x 4 kcal/gram = 60 kcal

• Protein= 3g x 4 kcal/gram = 12 kcal

• Fat= 1g x 9 kcal/gram = 9 kcal

• Total = 81 kcal–> rounded down = 80 kcal

Contribution to total kcal:  

• One days intake = 1980 kcal  

• 290 grams of carbohydrates (4kcal/gm)–> % of kcal by carbohydrates (290 x 4)/1980  = 59%

• 60 grams of fat (9kcal/gm)–> % of kcal by fats (60 x 9)/1980 = 27%

• 70 grams of protein (4kcal/gm)–> % of kcal by proteins (70 x 4)/1980 = 14% Obesity in America: 

• Alabama– bad

• NJ/California– good

The typical American diet: 

• 16% of kcal as protein

o 66% from animal sources

o 10-35% advised

• 50% of kcal as carbohydrates

o 50% from simple sugars

o 45-65% advised

• 33% of kcal is fat

o 60% from animal fat

o 20-35% advised

Assessing our diets: 

• National health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES) • US department of health and human services

Healthy people 20/20: 

• Attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease/death • Achieve high equity

• Create social and physical environments that promote good health • Promote quality of life

Eating well in college: 

• The “freshman 15”

o Stressful situation

o University environment

o Peer pressure

o Alcohol

o Lack of exercise

o Lack of sleep

• Tips to avoid:

o Eat breakfast

o Plan ahead

o Limit liquid calories

o Stock fridge with healthy snacks

o Exercise regularly

o 8 hours of sleep

Nutrition 8/28/16 7:42 PM

Chapter 2: Guidelines for designing a healthy diet:

Philosophy that works: 

• Consume a variety of foods balanced by a moderate intake of each food


• Choose different foods


• Do not over eat any single type of food


• Control portion sizes

Eat from the 5 food groups: 

• Grains

• Fruits

• Proteins

• Vegetables

• Dairy

What counts as a serving? 

• Grains– 1 ounce

• Vegetables– 1 cup

• Fruits– 1 cup


• Eating more nutrient dense foods and beverages

• Fruits, veggies, whole grain, lean meats and water or juice

• Moderate: alcohol, saturated fats, and sugary drinks

• Matching your energy intake with energy expenditure

Nutrient density: 

• Comparison of vitamin and mineral content with number of kcals

• Empty calories

Energy density: 

• Comparison of kcal content with weight of food

• High-energy dense foods: Peanut butter

• Low-energy dense foods: lettuce

Desirable nutritional health: 

• Intake meets body needs

• Body has a small surplus


• Intake is below body needs

• Surpluses are depleted

• Health declines

• Metabolic processes slow or stop

• Subclinical deficiency

• Clinical symptoms


• Intake exceeds body’s needs

• Short term– few symptoms

• Long term– serious conditions, obesity

• Abuse of supplements– iron toxicity affects liver cells  


• Failing health from long-standing dietary practice that do not coincide with  nutritional needs

Measuring nutritional state: 

• Assessment:

o Anthropometric: body measurements

o Biochemical: blood tests

o Clinical: visible

o Dietary: surveys

o Environmental: occupation, education, access to food

Limitations of nutritional assessment: 

• Delayed symptoms and signs

• Symptoms due to different causes

Healthy habits to adopt: 

• Consume a healthy diet

• Control your weight

• Drink alcohol in moderation

• Exercise >/= 30 minutes a day

• Don’t smoke

Using the scientific method: 

• Observation

• Hypothesis generated

• Conduct research Experiments

• Findings evaluated by other scientists

• Follow up experiments conducted

• Accept or reject hypothesis


• Lab animal experiments

• Human studies

• Case-control studies

• Double-blind studies

• Peer reviews

• Follow up studies

• Observations

• Epidemiological

Dietary reference intake (DRI): 

• Ongoing and collaborative effort

• The food nutrition board of the institute of medicine

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): 

• “Recommended intakes of nutrients that meets the needs of almost all healthy people  of similar age and gender”; meets 98% of healthy people in a specific group Adequate Intake (AI): 

• Not enough info to set RDA

• Derived from intakes of people who appear to be maintaining health

Estimated Energy Expenditure (EER): 

• Not set higher than average need

• Takes into account age, gender, height, weight, and activity level

Tolerable Upper Level (UL): 

• Highest amount that is unlikely to cause adverse health effects

Daily Values

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