BIOL1107: Exam One Study Guide
BIOL1107: Exam One Study Guide BIOL 1107
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Brittany Ariana Borzillo
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Monday August 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1107 at University of Georgia taught by Norris A. Armstrong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/29/16
Biology Study Guide: T est 1 Important Terms and Concepts Ionic Bonding: formed between ions with opposite charges; an anion will transfer an electron to a cation and create a net neutral charge o Cation: positively charged ion, missing electrons o Anion: negatively charged ion, more electrons than in neutral state Covalent Bonding: electrons are shared between two atoms, stronger and more common than ionic bonds Polar Molecules: molecules with an electronegative pull to one component and away from another (e.g. in water, oxygen is an electronegative atom, so there is a pull of hydrogen’s electrons to the oxygen also known as a dipole), the electronegativity of the atoms which make up the molecule differs by a factor of more than 0.5 Non-Polar Molecules: the electronegativity of the atoms which make up the molecule differs by a factor of less than 0.5 Elements: unique forms of matter with specific chemical and physical properties that cannot be broken down into smaller substances by ordinary chemical reactions Compounds: contain atoms of more than one type of element Molecules: two or more atoms chemically bonded together Ions: charged elements, compounds, or molecules Isotopes: different forms of an element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons Hydrophobic Molecules: non-polar molecules such as oils and fats do not interact well with water and separate from it rather than dissolve in it Hydrophilic Molecules: A polar substance that interacts readily with or dissolves in water Amphipathic: having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts Solubility: a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent o Solute: the substance that will be dissolved o Solvent: the substance (often water) that will be dissolving Miscibility: the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution Concentration: measure of the amount of a sub- component (especially solute) in a solution; the ratio of the mass or volume of a substance (solute) to the mass or volume of the solvent or solution o Molarity Measure of concentration measured by moles of solute divided by liters of solution o Molality Measure of concentration measured by moles of solute divided by kilograms of solution o Weight % 2 Measure of concentration measured by moles of solute divided by moles of solution (quantity multiplied by 100) o Molar Ratio (X A Measure of concentration measured by moles of component (A) divided by moles of solution Dilution: to diminish the strength of solution represented by the equation M 1 1M V2 2 Functional Groups: a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a particular compound o Amine R-NH 2 Polar Hydrophilic Acts as a weak base in solution o Phosphate R-PO 3 Polar Hydrophilic Acts as an acid in solution o Hydroxyl R-OH Polar hydrophilic o Carboxyl R-CO 2 3 Polar Hydrophilic Acts as a weak acid in solution o Carbonyl R-CO Polar hydrophilic o Sulfhydryl R-SH Neither polar or nonpolar o Methyl R-CH 3 Nonpolar hydrophobic Dehydration Synthesis: monomers combine with each other using covalent bonds to form larger molecules; the hydrogen of one monomer combines with the hydroxyl group of another monomer, releasing a molecule of water, while at the same time, the monomers share electrons and form covalent bonds Hydrolysis: reverse reaction of dehydration synthesis; requires an input of water; breaks polymers down to monomers; after this process, monomers can be reused to form new monomers Monosaccharides: simple sugars, the most common of which is glucose, the number of carbons usually ranges from three to seven, an exist as a linear chain or as ring- shaped molecules 4 Disaccharides: two monosaccharides undergo a dehydration reaction Polysaccharides: A long chain of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds Starch: polysaccharide, the stored form of sugars in plants and is made up of a mixture of amylose and amylopectin, made up of glucose monomers that are joined by α 1-4 or α 1-6 glycosidic bonds Cellulose: the most abundant natural biopolymer; the cell wall of plants is mostly made of cellulose; this provides structural support to the cell; wood and paper are mostly cellulosic in nature. Cellulose is made up of glucose monomers that are linked by β 1-4 glycosidic bonds Glycogen: storage form of glucose in humans and other vertebrates and is made up of monomers of glucose, a highly branched molecule Chitin: polysaccharide-containing nitrogen; made of repeating units of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosamine, a modified sugar; a major component of fungal cell walls; fungi are neither animals nor plants and form a kingdom of their own in the domain Eukarya; makes up the exoskeleton in insects Glycosidic Linkage: covalent bond formed between a carbohydrate molecule and another molecule (including another carbohydrate) Saturated Fatty Acid: long-chain of hydrocarbon with single covalent bonds in the carbon chain; the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton is maximized Unsaturated Fatty Acid: long-chain hydrocarbon that has one or more double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain 5 Glycerol: an organic compound (alcohol) with three carbons, five hydrogens, and three hydroxyl (OH) groups Steroids: type of lipid composed of four fused hydrocarbon rings forming a planar structure Phospholipids: major constituent of the membranes; composed of two fatty acids and a phosphate-containing group attached to a glycerol backbone Micelles: structure where the hydrophilic phosphate heads face the outside and the fatty acids face the interior of this structure Cholesterol: most common steroid; mainly synthesized in the liver and is the precursor to many steroid hormones such as testosterone and estradiol, which are secreted by the gonads and endocrine glands; precursor to Vitamin D; the precursor of bile salts, which help in the emulsification of fats and their subsequent absorption by cells; necessary for proper functioning of the body; a component of the plasma membrane of animal cells and is found within the phospholipid bilayer Emulsifier: a substance which can be used to produce an emulsion out of two liquids that normally cannot be mixed together (e.g. oil and water) Pentose Sugar: a sugar molecule containing 5 carbon Nitrogen Base: simply a nitrogen containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base o Adenine, Thymidine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Uracil are nitrogen bases Bilayer: a membrane consisting of two molecular layers, such as th e cell membrane or the envelope of some viruses 6 ATP: the high-energy molecule that stores the energy we need to do just about everything we do Double Helix: coiled structure of a double-stranded DNA molecule in which strands linked by hydrogen bonds form a spiral configuration Adenine/Guanine: purine base that is a component of DNA and RNA (AT(U) and GC) Cytosine/Thymidine/Uracil: purine base that is a component of DNA and RNA (RNA takes Uracil while DNA takes Thymidine) Amino Acid: the monomers that make up proteins R-Groups: the rest of a molecule that is not a functional group o Non-Polar o Polar o Charged Nucleotide: a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group; form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids (e.g. DNA) 3’ 5’ Linkage: 5′ is upstream; the 3′ is downstream; DNA and RNA are synthesized in the 5′ to3′ direction Amino/Carboxy Ends: amino acids link to one another to form a chain by a dehydration reaction which joins the amine group of one amino acid to the carboxyl group of the next; thus polypeptide chains have an end with an unbound-carboxyl group, the C-terminus, and an end with an unbound amine group, the N-terminus Protein Structure o Primary: linear sequence of amino acids in a protein 7 o Secondary: regular structure formed by proteins by intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the oxygen atom of one amino acid residue and the hydrogen attached to the nitrogen atom of another amino acid residue o Tertiary: three-dimensional conformation of a protein, including interactions between secondary structural elements; formed from interactions between amino acid side chains o Quaternary: association of discrete polypeptide subunits in a protein alpha-helix structure (α-helix): type of secondary structure of proteins formed by folding of the polypeptide into a helix shape with hydrogen bonds stabilizing the structure beta-pleated sheet (β-pleated): secondary structure found in proteins in which “pleats” are formed by hydrogen bonding between atoms on the backbone of the polypeptide chain pH: measure of the concentration of hydrogen in a solution o Acid 1-6 molecule that donates hydrogen ions and increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution o Base 8-14 molecule that donates hydroxide ions or otherwise binds excess hydrogen ions and decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution o Logarithmic Scale 8 -log[H ]=pH Dissociation: when ionic compounds are added to water, the individual ions react with the polar regions of the water molecules and their ionic bonds are disrupted Equilibrium: condition in which all acting influences are balanced or canceled by equal opposing forces, resulting in a stable system Buffer: substance that prevents a change in pH by absorbing or releasing hydrogen or hydroxide ions Cis/Trans Unsaturated Fatty Acids: Lypoproteins: any of a group of soluble proteins that combine with and transport fat or other lipids in the blood plasma o Low Density the form of lipoprotein in which cholesterol is transported in the blood o High Density a lipoprotein that removes cholesterol from the blood and is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease Fiber: insoluble components of carbohydrates mostly made of cellulose 9 Simple Carbohydrates: made of just one or two sugar molecules, quickest source of energy, little to none gets stored Complex Carbohydrates: a polysaccharide (as starch or cellulose) consisting of usually hundreds or thousands of monosaccharide units Essential Amino Acids: amino acids not produced by the human body; histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine Essential Fatty Acids: fatty acids not produced by the human body; these basic fats, found in plant foods, are used to build specialized fats called omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids Complete Protein: a source of protein that contains an adequate proportion of all nine of the essential amino acids necessary for the dietary needs of humans or other animals Incomplete Protein: they are low or lacking in one or more of the amino acids we need to build cells Calorie: the energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water through 1 °C; food it measured in kilocalories Objective Understanding* Determine whether chemical bonds with hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorous will result in polar of nonpolar molecules. Determine whether biological molecules will be polar or nonpolar depending on the charges within them (e.g. amino acids and carbohydrates). 10 Use your understanding of molecules that are either polar or nonpolar to predict their physical properties (e.g. solubility, chemical interactions, electric charge). Predict the interactions of a molecule based on the chemical bonds that can be seen in molecules. Determine the solubility of a molecule in water and be able to describe why the molecule is soluble, insoluble, hydrophilic, or hydrophobic. Understand the difference between how an ionic molecule (a salt) is soluble and a covalent molecule (e.g. sucrose) is soluble. Describe and explain how the major functional groups would impact the structure and function of organic molecules. Explain why structure and physical properties impact the function of organic molecules. Explain how structure changes interaction between molecules. Draw a diagram that illustrates the basic mechanisms used to make and breakdown biological polymers. Explain the use of polymers to organic molecules and the process by which polymers are both created and destroyed. Understand how and why your body is able to metabolize one molecule and not another if they have the same chemical formula. Explain why phospholipids form structures in bilayers, micelles, and liposomes. Understand how fats are water soluble. Explain equilibrium and dynamic equilibrium, individually and when comparing to one another. Explain how weak acids and bases can interact with other molecules ionically. 11 Understand how the pH of a pure water solution and a buffered solution would change with the addition of increasing amounts of strong acid or base. Explain how pH changes impact interactions between molecules. Identify macromolecules on food labels. Determine caloric contributions of all of the macromolecules using information from food labels. Explain what good and bad carbohydrates and lipids would be and how/why they are categorized that way and impact the body. Explain the basic mechanism by which artificial sweeteners and fats work. *Disclaimer: Objective Understanding items have been paraphrased and derived from Dr. Armstrong’s Learning Objectives listed under our Unit Content by respective topic. 12
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