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TOLEDO / Biology / BIOL 2170 / What are atoms in biology?

What are atoms in biology?

What are atoms in biology?


School: University of Toledo
Department: Biology
Course: Fundamentals of Life Science: Biomolecules, Cells, and Inheritence
Professor: Deborah chadee
Term: Summer 2015
Cost: 25
Name: Biology 2170 Week One, Lectures 1 and Two
Description: Yellow highlights are definitions and important info, blue highlights are guaranteed to be on exam.
Uploaded: 08/29/2016
6 Pages 60 Views 3 Unlocks

a) Lecture 1 8/22/2016

What are atoms in biology?

Clicker Channel 41

Exams: Sept 12, Oct 5, Oct 26, Nov 16, Dec 15

First Homework due Weds Aug 31


a) All matter is composed of atoms

b) Atoms have volume and mass

I) Composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons

II) Mass of one proton or neutron= atomic mass unit (amu) or 1 Dalton (Da)

III)Mass of one electron= usually ignored


a) Pure substance containing only one kind of atom b) Elements are arranged in the periodic table  

I) The number of protons identifies an element

What are elements in biology?

II) Atomic mass is the number of protons + the number of  neutrons

c) Isotopes:

I) Forms of an element with different numbers of neutrons,  thus different mass numbers  We also discuss several other topics like What is the role of hunters and gatherers in the paleolithic age?
If you want to learn more check out What is acclimatization in physiology?

II) Radioisotopes are unstable, they give off energy from the  nucleus

(1) This radioactive decay transforms the atom (2) Energy can interact with surrounding material d) H, C, N, O,P makes up 90% of our mass and all if creations  mass. 

e) Atomic Mass=

I) Average of mass numbers of isotopes in their normally  occurring proportion


a) Describes location of electrons

What are isotopes in biology?

b) Regions where electron is found 90% of the time c) Have characteristic shapes and orientations, and can be  occupied by two electrons

d) Filled in specific sequence

D) Molecule: Two or more atoms bonded together

a) Chemical Bond: attractive force that links atoms together to  form molecules We also discuss several other topics like What was the purpose of thomas jefferson writing the declaration of independence?

b) Covalent Bond: atoms share one or more pairs of electrons,  so that their octet is filled

I) Can be single: share one pair

II) Can be double: share two pairs

III)Can be triple: share three pairs

c) Molecular weight is the atomic mass of each atom in the  molecule

E) Isomer:

a) Two molecules with the same chemical formula, but a  different spatial arrangement of atoms


a) a molecule made up of two or more elements in a fixed ratio G)Electron negativity  

a) The attractive force that an atomic nucleus exerts in  electrons

b) If one atom has more electronegativity, the electrons are  drawn to that nucleus

H) Hydrogen Bond

a) Attraction between the negative end of one molecule and  the positive hydrogen end of another molecule We also discuss several other topics like What is the primary cation in extracellular fluid?

b) Forms between

I) Water molecules

I) Ionic Bond

a) Ions: electronically charged particles when atoms gain or  lose electrons

I) Cations: positive

II) Anions: negative

b) Ionic bonds are formed by the electrical attraction of positive and negative ions

I) Forms salts

J) Chemical Reactions Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 3 objective lenses on a microscope?

a) Atoms bond or change bonding partners

I) Matter and energy are neither created or destroyed b) Energy: capacity to do work


a) Polar molecules that form bonds with water are hydrophilic

b) A solution is a substance (solute) dissolved in a liquid  (solvent). 

L) Mole

a) The amount of substance (in grams), the mass of which is  numericall equal to its molecular weight (mol=g/MW) b) One mole contains 6.02x10^23 atoms

c) M=mol/L If you want to learn more check out What are the community factors that promote health?

d) MW=g/mol

A) Acids

a) When they dissolve in water, they release hydrogen ions (H+) I) H+ ions can attach to other molecules and change their properties  (1) Affects ionization of molecules

(2) Protein folding can be affected by pH

b) Organic acids have a carboxyl group


(1) They are weak acids

B) Bases  

a) Release OH- ions

b) And can accept H+  

c) Compounds with amino groups are weak bases

C) pH

a) pH of water is 7

b) based on concentration of H+ 

c) living organisms maintain constant pH

d) buffer is a mixture of a weak acid and its corresponding base I) help maintain constant pH

D) Macromolecules

a) Only found in living organisms

I) Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids

II) Most are polymers of smaller molecules called macromolecules b) Macromolecule: polymers with molecular weights >1000 Da E) Functional groups:

a) Groups of atoms with specific chemical properties and consistent behavior I) Confers those properties when attached to large molecules

II) https://blackboard.utdl.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-5026565-dt-content-rid 17784622_1/courses/BIOL2170002201640/BIOL2170%202%29%20Macro molecules%2016F%20-%202%20spp.pdf

F) Polymers

a) Formed in condensation reactions

I) Also known as a dehydration reaction

b) Monomers are joined by covalent bonds

c) Polymers are broken down into monomers in hydrolysis reactions G) Protein

a) Functions of the approximately 23,000 human proteins

I) Enzymes

II) Cell structure

III) Protection


V) Signal transduction


VII) DNA regulation

b) Made from different amino acids

c) Polypeptide chain: single, unbranched chain of amino acids

I) A chain is folded into a specific 3D shape to form a functional protein II) Some proteins consist of multiple polypeptide chains known as subunits

H) Amino Acids

a) Amino acids have carboxyl and amino groups

I) They function as both acid and base

I) Carbohydrates

a) Molecules in which carbon is flanked by hydrogen and hydroxyl groups I) H-C-OH

II) Serve a structural function in DNA and chitin

b) Types

I) Monosaccharides:

(1) Simple sugars

II) Disaccharides

(1) 2 Simple sugars linked by glycosidic bonds

III) Oligosaccharides

(1) Three to 20 monosaccharides


(1) Hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides

(2) Starch, glycogen, cellulose, are made with glucose monomers J) Glucose

a) Cells use glucose (monosaccharides) as an energy source

b) Exists as a straight chain or ring form.

I) Ring is more common as it is more stable

K) Glycosidic Bonds

a) Monosaccharides bind together in condesations reactions to form glyosidic  linkages

I) Can be α or β

L) Lipids

a) Nonpolar hydrocarbons

I) Fats and oils for energy storage

II) Phospholids are cell membranes

III) Steroids have multiple functions

b) Fats serve as insulation in animals. Lipid nerve coating act ass electrical  insulation, oils repel water and prevent drying

M) Triglycerides

a) Fats and oils-simple lipids

b) Glycerol

I) 3 hydroxyl groups- an alcohol

c) Fatty acid

I) Nonpolar hydrocarbon with a polar carboxyl group

(1) The carboxyl reacts with a glycerol hydroxyl group to form an ester  linkage 

N) Saturated vs. Unsaturated

a) Saturated fatty acids

I) No double bonds between carbons

II) Solid at room temperature

III) Consumption of lipids with saturated fatty acids is associated with heart  disease

b) Unsaturated fatty acids

I) Some double bonds in the carbon chain

II) Monounsaturated

(1) One double bond

III) Polyunsaturated

(1) More than one

O) Phospholipids

a) Two fatty acids and one phosphate group bound to glycerol b) Phosphate group is hydrophilic

I) The head

c) Tails are fatty acid chains

I) Hydrophobic

P) Steroids

a) Multiple rings share carbons


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