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Study Guide for Exam 1 Sociolinguistics

by: Whimsicaldeer

Study Guide for Exam 1 Sociolinguistics Ling 3357

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Sociolinguistics (LING 3357-001)
Dr. Jon Amastae
Study Guide
sociolinguistics, Linguistics
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Whimsicaldeer on Monday August 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Ling 3357 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Jon Amastae in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Sociolinguistics (LING 3357-001) in Linguistics at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 08/29/16
StudyGuide Sociolinguistics Week 1 C. 1500  Around C. 1500 – Consolidation of small monarchies and marks the beginnings where countries reorganize themselves.  Unified countries now in modern times were not unified back in the 1500’s but each were a collection of smaller kingdoms come together.  An example of this can be seen Spain and Christopher Columbus, which is seen that he was receiving money from the Queen of “Castilla”. o At that time the country was in the middle of the “Reconquista,” where at that time the queen and Columbus had 2 common enemies, which were the Arabs and Muslims. o At that time, they were expelling Arabs and Jews, but during this time, the most important part was the fact that that the state was growing and expanding as it conquered back its areas and conquered new areas.  This created the developing of their language Politico-Historical Fundamentals  Country – (synonym for nation-state) meaning a group of people with a common identity  Language is an instrument of political conquest.  Spain refined its language’s grammar to use as a tool to incorporate people in the language. How does Bilingualism Happen?  Bilingualism is two languages in society and some number of that society speak these two languages.  Bilingualism could happen through the conquering of a people or kingdom, inwhich the conquered learn the language of the conquerors.  Bilingualism can also happen through immigration where a population occupies another population previously occupied.  Through trade, in which the people that trade their goods to others must learn the language of their clients in order to communicate to each other.  Exogamy (the marrying outside your group), which means marrying outside of your language. o Ex. Japanese man marries an American woman and their children, and sometimes wife, learns both languages of Japanese and English.  Imitation of Prestige can also be part of why bilingualism happens. o For example, the book “War and Peace,” where theRussian royalty followed after French customs and language, which brought the French language to Russia.  Some examples of bilingualism could be seen in border countries like the U.S. – Mexican border where people will be seen to speak both Spanish and English. What do we mean, “Bilingual Society”? Is everyone bilingual? Week 2  Question vs Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, statement “I speak Spanish to God…” a.) Interlocuter of language choice Patterns of Bilingualism  Language and population, history, ethnicity, race, gender, religion, ses, age, context of interaction Which language to use?  Interlocutor o Is it simply an individual or combination of …  Gender - males/females will speak differently in their language  Age - More likely to speak a language differently towards the elderly than younger siblings.  SES – language will change based on your status (those in higher SES speak differently than those in lower SES).  Ethnicity – if you are stereotypically Hispanic and you don’t speak Spanish, it tends to bring discomfort towards those that do around you or in your family.  Location – if your bilingual what language do you use the most at home? At school? Or in your neighborhood?  Topic –  Proficiency- Function Distribution  Complimentarity – LgA is used for B; Lg C is used for D as in geometry; 2 complimentary angles that add up to make a whole; in bilingual society that English A/C is used for some social characteristic/ situation B/D  Functions B,D (etc.) Can be defined by any of factors in preceding slides (interlocutor, etc.)  5 domains -> (domain of usage) 5 Principal Domains  Home -> one of the languages tends to be the language at home and then theoutside language is different.  School -> One language isfor school, not the other.  Neighborhood -> one outside of school, outside home.  Religion -> what is their practice?  Work -> can’t get a job in EP because they are not bilingual 2 Diglossia  Extreme cases of functional distrubtion are put together on Diglossia (functional distribution)  Looks at certain language situations  High-low allocation – attitudes that one language is inherently good and the other is bad o One kind of better / or good type of situation  Grammatical elaboration / simplification o If all languages are equal, how is one more complex than the other? Not possible o FOR EXAMPLE: Subj. Obj. Poss.  English: He Him His  Jamacian: Him Him Him -> (one set of pronouns used in all) o You never want to confuse number of words with number of concepts. o Fewer pronouns does not mean having fewer concepts. o For example; Paraguay – uses the Guarani language in (street; home) Spanish (government) o The major demographic generalization of Latin America; Central and Latin are conquest by Spanish of native America Attitudes are  Attitudes can be positive or negative  Chinese is considered to be a funny language to some people for example.  Another example is that in historic Greece, barbarians were considered people that did not speak the Greek language.  Another language attititude example is Raramuri is a prevalent language in Chihuahua, Mexico, but whatever these people speak does not rise as a language, seen less than a language. How do you find out people’s linguistic attitude?  Asking, observing, direct statements, behavior o For example, outside of class some may speak Spanish, but once inside class its only English The Matched Guise Experiment  Guise-> means appearance  The experimenters made a loop recording of 5-6 samples of speech in French, one of the English and French recordings were the same actual person fluent in both, the other speakers were different.  The tape was played to people, some to English and some French speakers  They needed to find which voices had some characteristics  What about the voice, they didn’t know about the bilingual  The audience were asked questions like which voices sounded like a lawyer, carpenter, or a college professor? 3  The experiements demonstrated social biases  The social pattern of time, one set of questions had to do with occupational status and personal quality such as listen to this voice, “do you think this person is honest?” or “do they sound like warm person? Cold person? Friendly?”  How complicated are attitudes, towards language Unidimension  The evaluative dimension o The degree to which something is regarded as good or bad  The solidarity dimension o The degree to which something is personally connected to you, you inner most values and feelings. o We listen to English voice and on the occupational status we say banker, lawyer, etc. o We listen to French we say plumber, carpenter, Janitor, unfriendly  We humans are complicated, what that means is that we can be hot and cold about the same thing at the same time  French speakers can say itmay not be as good as English, but it connects me to the extent that the people in the samples never figured out thedifferent voices was the same person.  It demonstrates that attitudes are incredibly strong. Week 2 What do language attitudes explain?  This is racial, ethnic, class, and regional, prejudices, for example, which region of the U.S. is regarded negatively? TheSouth’s Language. Bilingual Situations are  Stable – seems to persist  Transitional – meaning today you have bilingualism that resolves monolingualism  Mixed – elements of both  England 1066- 1362 o Normans, French Normandy province conquered England for 300 England was ruled was French and the dominant language was French. The anglo-saxons who had to get ahead in the life learned French o Because of this the English language was really changed o How did we get words similar to Spanish?  20% of English vocabulary is from saxon-german side. 80% somewhere else (a lot from romance languages)  Scotland, Ireland, Wales o Represented small kingdoms in larger one o Each spoke a related series of languages not made in the roots of English language o In Wales you still have quite a bit of bilingualism; Welsh and English o For a long time we had Dutch and England, German and English, French and English etc. 4 o What we see in the U.S. is transitional bilingualism  Pattern is 1,2,3 and the language is out  In this circumstance, first generation: Knows the language enough to get by  Second generation: Bilingual  Third generation: Monolingual in English Stable often characterized by…  Intergenerational transmission o Passed from parents to children o Will often obtain functional distribution Transitional Situations often characterized by…  Negative attitudes towards a language The role of social isolation/ intergration in maintenance shift  Castilla is the region of Madrid, Spain which means that it is the language of the country  The language was brought forth through “The Inquisition” forcing all non-believers to convert into their religion at the time.  Isolation often leads to maintenance  Integration leads to language loss (monolingualism) Shift = Death only sometimes  Don’t confuse shift with death, you can have shift without death  Genocide (a group just disappears) o An example is that 100 years ago we used to have English/ Italian, but the language experienced a shift in places like New York o Latin is not dead, just changed into other languages Language Preservation/ Revival  When a group ceases to speak a language they used to speak (shift)  Hebrew o Experienced a revival in the literal sense, brought back from the dead when they gained their own state and they needed a national language o 1948 the Israel sate was made and the language that became official that everyone could use was Hebrew. Maintenance / Shift in LRGV  People are expected to become bilingual to lose their language  What we have here is high context with the source o Being in contact with Mexico and having Spanish speakers like friends and family o Lowest level of television service more than half are in Spanish when on the border Correlation Social Factors vs. Language Factors 5  Language proficiency  We make a distinction of oral auditory language or use of  They say they’re good at speaking the bilingual language, but can’t read or write it as well as English Some surprising individual correlations  Non-hispanic positive attitudes toward Spanish o If kids began school in 1963, they had to deal with pure English, different social experiences from back then (1 Spanish generation) o They weren’t negative of the Spanish language backthen, but just the opposite, very much proud of bilingualism o Those with higher SES were more likely started in English or bilingual and more capable of speaking both languages simultaneously well Extra Consideration  Start kids in their native language  Initial literacy in bilingual education are in Spanish  Demographers say a generation is of 30 years What is a State?  Its got boundaries, formalized governmental entity.  In the modern world, a lot of states have trouble being nations…  Ex. Iraq, is atate that isn’t a single nation; what are the 3 primary nations? Sudani, Shiat, and Kurd (Iraq was created artificially by British)  Use and form of a particular language fostered through mostly informal socio-politico- economic dynamics  The U.S. constitution says nothing about a single language  There were German settlements in the 13 American colonies with their own cultures and back in the time of 1776, Benjamin Franklin feared the German language and desired greatly for the official language of the U.S. to be English and use English only.  Since 1980 o The issue on official language of the U.S. always seems to come back whether we need language legislation Arguments For  If we don’t all have on language we cannot have a functioning economy/ education system our world power will be threatened (which is the perspective of many) A Stand Off  U.S. is really working on getting rid of bilingualism  32 states 6


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