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DSC 101 Exam 1 Notes

by: Danielle Grek

DSC 101 Exam 1 Notes DSC 101

Marketplace > Arizona State University > DSC 101 > DSC 101 Exam 1 Notes
Danielle Grek
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All of the notes required from the lectures before Exam 1.
Design Awareness
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Grek on Monday August 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to DSC 101 at Arizona State University taught by Giard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.


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Date Created: 08/29/16
DSC 101 Notes Chapter 1  Artificial world: What we make (hotel, car, etc.)  Natural world: What we are given o Resource bank: water, stone, symbolism, and biomimicry)  Drought makes people hoard water  Glen Canyon Dam: keeps Colorado river from going into the sea of Cortez o Stone: used to make tools, places of importance, sculptures  Enukchuk: marker that can be seen from far away. Aids in herding of animals because it looks like a man  Communication: petroglyphs  Buildings: durable (showed prestige and status) o Symbolism:  Paris Metro was inspired by nature, used many curves  Sagrada Familia: finest example of curvature in a building  Gehry: designed the Disney Concert Hall (modern day comparable to Sagrada)  Louis Comfort Tiffany lamps: deliberate deviation from straight lines o Biomimicry: designs that mimic nature  Swimming fins: mimic webbed feet on animals  Flight: da Vinci’s flying machine mimics bird wings o The Artificial world is different from nature because it is designed  What is design? A lot of people are confused because o Design is a noun o Design is mysterious o Design isn’t a formula  Papnek: thought all men are designers  Albers: Design is to plan, organize and control. Main points:  Plan  Organize  Order  Relate  Control  Archer: Design is a goal seeking activity. Main points:  Goal setting  Prescription  In advance  Appointment  Original  Eams: Design is a method of action. Main points:  Method  Action  Depends  Constraints  Simon: Design is to devise courses of action aimed at changing an existing situation into a preferred one. o Today, design is ubiquitous  We have many different types of design (graphic design, fashion design, universal design, etc.) o Class definition: Design is a universal activity that humans all over the world undertake to find the means to change an existing situation into a preferred one. o The Designing Triad: Artifact and Context. 3 Players:  Designer  Maker  User  Tribal societies embody all 3 at once by designing, making and using them all by themselves  Players can be blurred together and not easy to identify  When the user becomes independent:  Surplus: when they become independent, grow food and domesticate animals they have a surplus of commodities, which are then used for trade  Demands: Vessels, tools, dwellings, and walls that were not needed before o Deliberate surplus: intentionally making extra for the purpose of selling/trading o In the triad, there are many interfaces to learn:  Designer/ user interface:  Anonymous interface: designer doesn’t know user  Statistical interface: data collected about users  Sampling interface: users have direct feedback on product (focus group)  User/ maker interface:  Economic interface: place in market based on price point  Distribution interface: artifacts must be made available to user (ex: Ikea)  Marketing interface: artifacts must conform to specific demographic  Marketplace interface: realization that users make their own decisions when acquiring artifacts  Maker/ designer interface:  Dependent interface: directly employed by maker  Independent interface: works for maker as consultant  Context/ artifact interface:  Micro-contextual properties: tangible (material, form, color)  Macro-contextual properties: not tangible (culture, climate, geography)  User/ artifact interface: relationship between consumers and product  Physical interface: how it physically fits the consumer (anthropometrics)  Psychological interface: working relationship (ergonomics)  Personal interface: emotional attachment (psychology)  Social interface: broad relationship or expectations of design (sociology and anthropology)  Designer/ artifact interface:  Design knowledge: ergonomics, manufacturing  Design skills: computer design  Maker/ artifact interface:  Resource interface: knowing what resources are needed  Production interface: capacity to make artifact  Need interface: the need of the user will be expressed  Availability interface: putting in place whatever’s needed to connect the user to the artifact  Design: o Human activity: everyone designs o Universal activity: happens everywhere o Designing occurred at least 3.4 million years ago o Designing activity culminates in an artifact but always occurs in context Chapter 2  Designing Triad: o Doesn’t explain how we come to know and integrate designing process or the artificial world o Culture: not biologically determined. It’s learned from our social group  Visual learning: occurs through images that provide info and ideas  Auditory learning: occurs through what we hear  Kinesthetic learning: learning by doing o Parts of the brain:  Left hemisphere: logical interpretation, language, mathematics and reasoning  Right hemisphere: holistic thinking, multi-sensory inputs and visual spatial skills (writers and artists use this part of the brain) o Communication: we hear or see something and act accordingly  Class definition of communication: a form of signal transmission, that is, a message is created, sent, received and responded to  Steps: Message  Output  Input  Response  Scenario #1: successful communication. Occurs in the correct order of steps as listed above. (ex: stop sign)  Scenario #2: message and output are created with no input, so no response occurs. (ex: an architect who creates several house models but the client cancels so they do not build the house) Steps: Message  Output / ____  Scenario #3: message  output  input, but the message is unclear/not understood  Scenario #4: message  output  input  response. But the response is not what the message intended. (ex: gift written on a box then sent to Germany. In German, gift means poison)  Seeing, listening and doing are the steps of successful communication o Context communication:  High-context: most of the info is either in the physical context or internalized in the person. (ex: Picasso painting or signs in a specific language)  Low-context: the mass of the info is vested in the explicit code. Less chance for individual interpretation (A sign with a picture of a dog instead of a sign written dogs allowed)  Edward T. Hall said that communication is on a continuum from high-context to low-context communication  Perception: what exists and what is known to exist o We are given vision, but we have to learn to see  Color constancy: we regularly compensate for color  Size constancy: the mind also compensates for size differences in photos  Shape constancy: we compensate for shape differences o Perception and compensation work hand in hand o Gestalt psychologists: interested in how people perceived the visual world  Figure ground relationship: every figure has an integral relationship to the ground, making things relative o Gestalt design focuses on these simple principals:  Proximity: the closer 2 or more visual elements are, the greater probability they will be seen as a group or pattern  Similarity: principal that allows us to see similar shapes, size or other similar elements as related  Continuity: when designs create continuous lines (they don’t look separated)  Closure: nearly complete familiar lines and shapes are more readily seen as complete (closed) than incomplete  Simplicity: complex visual elements are perceived as the simplest recognizable shape or shapes  The visual language is the communicative properties embedded in everyday things, especially in shape, form and color, that make up these everyday things and that lead the viewer to react in more or less predictable ways  6 visual elements: o Line: a path traced by a moving point o Shape: an outline or contour o Form: 3D shapes o Space: a blank or empty area o Texture: appearance or feel of a surface o Color: differing qualities of reflective light  6 design principals: o Unity: using design elements to create cohesion o Variety: continual change of elements o Balance: the distribution of elements (symmetrical or asymmetrical) o Emphasis: using elements as centers of attention o Rhythm: regularity of elements (Greek columns) o Scale: relative size of elements We never learn the visual language theoretically Chapter 3  Design is about people o Archology: philosophy of Palos Alowry  Architecture and ecology to be significant o Abraham Maslow: observed behavior or people  Deficit needs: needs that can be met  Being needs : provide a continuing driving force o Hierarchy of needs: -Being needs/ Self-actualization: truth, beauty, justice -Deficit needs/ Esteem needs: status and respect /Belongingness needs: friendship and brands /Safety needs: stability, protection (walls, cell phones) /Physiological needs: shelter, food and drink  Needs or wants? o Needs are universal but wants are local o Needs are biological but wants are cultural o Needs are innate, but wants are learned  Human preference has its foundation in needs and wants  Design made manifest in Tools, Structures and Signs, which are all extensions of people o Tools are everyday things  Extensions of muscular capabilities (hammer, tracker, bike)  Extension of sensory capabilities (binoculars, radar)  Extension of thinking capabilities (computers)  Course definition: tools are everyday things that are mobile and that are extensions of human capacities in the context of addressing human needs and wants o Structures are everyday things that are immobile and that serve to satisfy human needs and wants  Difference between tools and structures: mobility and immobility  In French, immeuble= immobile which means real estate/building  In French, meuble= mobile which means furniture which is movable o Signs are visual elements that constitute the visual language- either explicit or implicit- in everyday things  Explicit: clearly defines something (stop sign)  Implicit: doesn’t explicitly state a meaning (Mercedes= expensive/wealthy)  Examples of signs: petroglyphs, letterform and binary signs o Classify design as: tools, structures and signs to better comprehend the complexities of the artificial world


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