Chapter 1 & 2 Vocabulary
Popular in Human Sexuality
Popular in Psychology
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kirsten Notetaker on Monday August 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Lewis University taught by Lisa Brown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychology at Lewis University.
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Date Created: 08/29/16
Chapter 1 Vocabulary: Sexuality - a broad term that includes many facets of the way we experience our lives as sexual beings. Sexuality encompasses our sexual behaviors, feelings, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, and reproduction. It is influenced by physical, psychological, spiritual and cultural factors. Sexual health - a state of physical, emotional, mental, and social well-being related to sexuality that requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual responses, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and sex sexual experiences. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) - an infection that is most commonly transmitted through sexual contact, such as chlamydia, genital herpes, or HIV. Sexuality education - a broad term to describe education about human sexuality, which may include information about physical, emotional, and social aspects of sexual health and disease; as well as rights and responsibilities; identity; values and attitudes; and many other aspects of sexual behavior. Developed country - a country with financial, educational, and health standards that allow for higher levels of human well-being, as measured by the economic factors, life expectancy, and educational opportunities of the country. Developed countries include the United States, Canada, Australia, the countries of Western Europe, Israel, Kuwait, Japan, Hong Kong, and others. Biology - the science of life and of living organisms. Sexual dimorphic - an anatomical area that has a different form in males and females. Asexual reproduction - a method of reproduction in which a single organism replicates itself. Sexual reproduction - the creation of new generations by the fusion of egg and sperm. Sociobiology/evolutionary psychology - the study of how evolutionary forces affect our behavior. Natural selection - a process by which organisms that are best suited to their environment are most likely to survive. Traits that confer a reproduction advantage tend to be passed on, whereas maladaptive traits are lost. Mutation - a random change in the DNA sequence of a gene. Ethnocentric - the tendency to look at the world from the perspective of one's own ethnic group or culture, which you believe to be superior. Heterocentric - the assumption that everyone is heterosexual and that heterosexuality is the only natural, normal, acceptable, and superior sexual orientation. Androcentric - the emphasis of the male point of view, often to the neglect of the female. Psychology - the science of mind, emotions, and behavior. Libido - sexual desire or drive. Erogenous zones - areas of the body that are particularly sensitive to touch, and that may lead to sexual arousal when stimulated. Oedipal complex - the idea that men unconsciously want to eliminate or replace their fathers and have sex with their mothers. Electra complex - the psychoanalytic term used to describe a girl's romantic or sexual feelings toward her father. Id - the part of the unconscious mind that controls primitive drives such as those related to sex, food, and aggression. Ego - the part of the psyche that mediates the drives of the id and superego. Superego - our sense of morality, or conscience. Operant conditioning - the use of reinforcement and punishment to increase or decrease the likelihood of certain behaviors. Behavior modification - the psychotherapeutic treatment that uses the theory of operant conditioning to change maladaptive behaviors. Karma Sutra - an ancient Indian text, made up of poetry, prose, and illustrations, which contains practical advice for sexual pleasure, love, and marriage. Folkways - patterns of conventional behavior within a group. Mores - social norms or customs that embody the fundamental values of a group. Mores are more strongly enforced than folkways. Laws - a written collection of enforceable rules that govern a community. Culture - the set of attitudes, values, goals, and practices that is learned and shared by a relatively large group of people. Society - a group of people that share cultural aspects such as language, dress, and norms of behavior. Liminal - the threshold between two different states or stages. Age of consent - the minimum age at which a person can be considered a legally competent for consensual sexual relations. This age varies from state to state, and also may depend on other factors. Anthropology - the study of the origins, customs, and social relations of humans. Media - the tools used to deliver information; often referred to as "mass media" because they are designed to reach a very large audience. Chapter 2 Vocabulary: Sexologist - one who studies human sexuality. Sexologists may come from various disciplines, including biology, medicine. Psychology, sociology, anthropology, and criminology. Many sexologists are also therapists or educators. Validity - the extent to which findings accurately reflect the concept that they are intended to measure. Reliability - the extent to which the measurement of a test is consistent and accurate over time. Population - the group of individuals being studied. Sample - a subset of individual in the population. Random sample/probability sample - a sample in which each member of the population has an equal probability of participating. Representative sample - a sample that has similar characteristics such as age, sex, ethnicity, education, as the population from which it was drawn. Convenience sample - a sample that is not necessarily representative of the population, but that is easily accessible to the researcher. Sampling bias - the tendency for some members of the population to be over- represented and others to be excluded from a sample. Volunteer bias - the tendency for those who volunteer for research to be different in some way from those who refuse to participate. Research methods - a systematic approach to gathering information and evaluating the findings. Surveys - a scientific collection of date from people regarding their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Case study - an in-depth study of an individual or individuals, rather than a study that looks at a sample of the population. Generalization - the suppose that a specific example applies to the general public. Empiricism - the view that knowledge comes through experience and observation. Direct observation - a study in which the investigators do not manipulate the conditions, but only observe subjects in a particular situation and record and interpret the outcome. Participant observation - the researcher participates in the events being studied. Penile plethysmograph - a device that indirectly measure blood flow in the penis. Vaginal photoplethysmograph - a device that uses light to indirectly measure blood flow to the vagina. Observer effects - the effect that the presence of the observer has on a subject's behavior. Experiment - a controlled test of investigation, designed to examine the validity of a hypothesis. Also, the act of conducting an investigation. An experiment is the only way in which a cause-and-effect relationship can be determined. Hypothesis - a proposed explanation for facts or observations. Variable - anything that can vary or change, such as an attitude of behavior. Independent variable - the variable that is manipulated in an experiment. Dependent variable - the variable that is observed and measured and that may change as a result of manipulations to the independent variable. Control group - the group of subjects who are not exposed to the independent variable. Placebo - an inactive substance that resembles the treatment you are testing. Longitudinal study - a research study that involves repeated observations of the same group of subjects over a long period of time. This usually involves surveys or observations rather than experiments that determine causal relationships. Informed consent - a process by which a subject confirms his or her willingness to participate in a study after having been informed about potential risks and benefits. Confidentiality - discretion in keeping information secret. Single blind study - a experimental procedure in which the subjects do not know if they have received the treatment being tested. Double blind study - an experimental procedure in which neither the investigator nor the subjects know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group. Correlation - a casual, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relationship between two variables. Causation - when one variable causes the other. Methodology - the methods, procedures, and techniques used to gather information. Peer review process - the means by which experts in the field check the quality of a research study. Primary source - the original publication of a scientist's data, results, and theories. Fallacy of relevance - an argument that focuses on matters unrelated to the facts of the issue. Fallacy of insufficient evidence - an argument that doesn't provide sufficient evidence to support its conclusion. Egocentrism - the practice of regarding one's own experiences or opinions as most important.
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