Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide ANTHROP 2200
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Naomi Kolovich on Wednesday March 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTHROP 2200 at Ohio State University taught by Dawn Kitchen in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 245 views. For similar materials see Intro the Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 03/25/15
Physical Anthropology exam 2 Study Guide Living in a Group E 1 spread of disease 2 increase within group competition sharing resources 3 detection by predators Benefits 1 findingcatching food 2 decreased between group competition defending resources from other groups 3 protection from predators Different types of group protection 1 selfish herd protection stay in the middle safest 2 confusion effect all look similar scatter and confuse predator 3 many eyes hypothesis more likely to see predator 4 dilution effect decreased probability that I will be the one to be eaten 5 alarm calls neighbor sees it and warns me 6 mobbing together everyone attacks the predator and chases it away principle of anisogamy gametes not samequot Males should be COMPETITIVE in trying to mate females should be SELECTIVE in mating Resources distribution 9 female distribution 9 male distribution Females depend on resources in order to reproduce and males depend on females in order to reproduce Mating Systems Monogamy one male one female gibbons Polyandry one female many males marmosets amp tamarins they have twin babies need 2 fathers in order to raise them Polygyny one male many females Female Defense gorillas males defend females not resources Scramble Competition orangutans scattered females they re solitary creatures b c of the need for high quality fruit males move around to different females Resource Defense chimps females scattered but males are aggressive and patrol the communityquot Sexual Dimorphism males and females look different Males make themselves look better for competition with other males in mating with the females Evolution of Sight amp Dexterity 1 Lived in Trees need depth perception in order to swingleap from branch to branch and not fall to death 2 Eating fruits leaves color vision is needed in order to properly see which leaves fruits are good to eat 3 Eating insects dexterity opposable thumbs and depth perception are needed in order to catch the insects Characteristics of mammals Longer gestation period Body hair Live birth Mammary glands Larger brains than those of equal sized reptiles primates with the largest Heterodont dentition allows for variety of food Constant body temperature Binomal Nomenclature RULES 1 both are always given although genus is abbreviated after once mentioned in a document 2 genus is always capitalized but species never is 3 both are either underlined or italicized StrepsirhinesPromisians wet nosequot considered quotprimitivequot because of ancestral features Lemurs amp Lorises LORISES ALL NOCTURNAL Lorises asia slow moving big eyes Bush babies Africa big ears big eyes fast moving LEMURS ONLY ON MADAGASSCAR some nocturnal aye aye uses long finger like a woodpecker sifakas leapers ring tailed lemur female dominated society bamboo lemur endangered pigmy mouse lemur Tarsiers taxonomic oddity owl like Owl like strictly carnivorous eyes stuck in head swivel head small brain big eyes nocturnal HaplorhinesAnthropoids Platyrrhines NEW WORLD MONKEYS dental formula of 2133 located in central and south America outward facing nostrils prehensile tail quadrupedal Marmosets amp Tamarins twins polyandry Capuchin very smart monkey Howlers spider monkeys muriqui all prehensile tails Catarrhines OLD WORLD MONKEYS dental formula of 2123 Leaf eater monkeys each others closest relatives 1 Asia langurs amp funny nosedquot monkeys 2 Africa colobus Cheek pouch monkeys fruit eaters each others closest relatives 1 Asia macaques 2Baboons Apes STILL UNDER CATARRHINES Hylobatidae gibbons brachiate monogamous fruigivores Pongidae orangutan solitary frugivores Hominidae 1 gorillas vegetarians 2 chimpanzees aggressive 3 bonobos female interaction more loving 4 humans and extinct hominid relatives
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