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BIOL 1108K

by: rmcdaniel5 Notetaker

BIOL 1108K Soup 1109

rmcdaniel5 Notetaker

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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by rmcdaniel5 Notetaker on Monday August 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soup 1109 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Study in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 08/29/16
BIOL 1108K Exam 1 Study Guide (35 questions) 1) Central dogma (2-4 questions) Dogma: non-flexible, no evidence, ideology 1. Nature is machinelike 2. Matter is unconscious 3. Natural laws are fixed a. Constants i. Speed of light 4. Total mass/energy is unchanging in total quantity a. First law of thermodynamics b. Big bang 5. Nature is purposeless 6. Biological heredity is material in genes and epigenetics (regulation) a. Epigenetics: mechanisms by which the genome is expressed, rather than alteration of genetic code 7. Memories are in the central nervous system as material traces 8. Consciousness is all brain waves/activity 9. Psychic phenomena (telepathy) are all in your head 10. Mechanistic medicine is all that works, NOT complimentary alternative medicine (due to more evidence/research) 2) Conserved sequences A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a consensus sequence. Amino acid motifs are often composed of conserved sequences. 3) Features of transposons  small DNA sequences that can replicate and insert themselves into new positions in the genome  Ultimate parasite  make up about 45% of the DNA in the human genome  Jumping gene  Replication  Large % of our genome 4) C paradox Size ≠ complexity Disconnect between genome size and organismal complexity. Genome size doesn’t have bearing on complexity of gene. Human genome is about 1m. 5) Impossible to sequence entire human genome in one fell swoop 6) CpG Island a cluster of CpG sites on a DNA strand where cytosine is adjacent to guanosine; the “p” represents the phosphate in the backbone. The methylated state can change over time or in response to environmental cues, providing a way to turn genes on or of Methylation state affects transcription heavy methylation – inhibits transcription under methylations – allows transcription 7) DNA replication two parental duplex separates (A-T & G-C) 1 thing you do with DNA – cut the strand so you can read it 8) DNA ligase Enzyme that can repair (from the splicesomes) the break by using the energy in ATP to join the 3’ to 5’ 9) Transcription synthesis of RNA from a DNA template 10) Translation Cellular ribosomes create proteins Messenger RNA (mRNA)—produced by transcription from DNA—is decoded by a ribosome to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide 11) Non-coding aspects  most mutation 12) Mutation Nonsense – creates a stop codon that terminates translation; truncates (shortens protein) function is impaired  Cancer Synonymous mutation – Mutation in a codon that doesn’t alter the corresponding amino acid in the polypeptide. Changes base pair but brings out same protein or amino acid 13) Exon Sequence that is left intact in mRNA after RNA splicing; code for protein 14) Intron Sequence that is excised from the primary transcript and degraded during RNA splicing; non coding DNA; purpose to regulate 15) Phenotype produced by genotype and environment observable characteristics or traits, such as height, weight, eye color. Results from an interaction between the genotype (gene) and environment 16) Tandem repeat meaning that they are next to each other, or they may be dispersed throughout the genome Repeats often pose problems in DNA sequencing 17) Principle of segregation – alleles two alleles for a heritable character segregate (separate from each other) during gamete formation and end up in diferent gametes 18) Monohybrid cross 2 heterozygotes one parent having two dominant alleles and the other two recessives 19) Histone code the pattern of modifications of the histone tails that afects the chromatin structure and gene transcription 20) Alternative splicing a process in which primary transcripts from the same gene can be spliced in diferent ways to yield diferent mRNAs and therefore diferent protein products.  Example insulin in liver and skeletal muscle; skeletal muscles need more insulin that liver  90% of the human genes undergo this process 21) microRNA (miRNA) small, regulatory RNA molecules that can inhibit translation 22) small interfering RNA (siRNA) a type of small double-stranded regulatory RNA that becomes part of a complex able to cleave and destroy single-stranded RNA with a complementary sequence.  Small noncoding RNAs that degrade mRNA  destroys mRNA, catalyst 23) When a repressor protein binds to DNA, it prevents transcription of a gene


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