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Exam 3 Guide

by: Ally Lappe

Exam 3 Guide BSC 242

Ally Lappe
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ally Lappe on Wednesday March 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 242 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Gray in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 03/25/15
Chapter 8 Define genetics genome chromosome plasmid gene genetic code genotype and phenotype Genetics is the study of genes Genome is the complete set of genes for an organism Chromosome is a concentrated group of DNA strands that carries hereditary information Plasmids are small circular DNA pieces that can encode for dispensable genes such as toxins and antibiotic resistance Gene is a set of nucleotide bases that encode for a functional product Genetic code is all of an organisms directions for function Genotype is the gene language version of a trait Phenotype is the protein version of a trait outwardly expressed Draw the basic structure of DNA How does it differ from RNA DNA contains deoxyribose as its five carbon sugar while RNA contains ribose Both contain a phosphate sugar backbone with complementary base pairs in between them RNA is single stranded while DNA is double stranded Describe the general process of DNA replication In DNA replication a doublestranded parent DNA molecule is converted into two identical daughter molecules Topoisomerase or Gyrase relaxed the supercoiling of the chromosome while Helicase unwinds the double helix Single stranded binding proteins then attach to the empty hydrogen bonds to stabilize each strand Replication always continues in a 5 to 3 direction the end with the phosphate to the end with the hydroxyl group The leading strand is copied continuously by DNA polymerase The lagging strand takes more time and an RNA primer must initiate RNA polymerase to begin replication This small segment of RNA is then elongated by DNA polymerase which then digests and replaces the RNA primer DNA ligase joins these okazaki fragments together to form one solid strand DNA replication is considered semiconservative because each daughter has one parent and one new strand and bidirectional DNA polymerase can proofread and is very effective Describe the general process of transcription in bacteria What are the major differences in eukaryotic cells Transcription is the making of mRNA from a DNA template RNA polymerase binds to a promoter region of the DNA and RNA polymerase adds complimentary bases Termination occurs when RNA polymerase reaches a stop sequence Each mRNA codes for one product Mistakes often occur in transcription In prokaryotes transcription occurs in the cytoplasm but in eukaryotes this process occurs in the nucleus Describe the general process of translation What is the role of each major RNA type in translation Translation is the decoding of mRNA into a protein chain with the use of tRNA and rRNA rRNA assembles a 70s ribosome complex which initiates translation The mRNA chain is then pulled through the ribosome as tRNAs bring complementary amino acids to pair with codons on the chain This process occurs A to P to E site until the unit reaches a stop codon which terminates the strand Define operon promoter and operator Basically how do these work An operon is a segment of DNA which codes for a certain function A promoter is where RNA polymerase binds An operator is where repressor binds and inhibits RNA polymerase from binding no protein synthesized 10 11 12 13 14 15 What is the difference between induction and repression of gene expression Repression is typically a response to over abundance of an endproduct and uses regulatory proteins repressors to block the ability of RNA polymerase to initiate transcription of the genes to be repressed Induction is the opposite and turns on the transcription of genes Define mutation mutagen carcinogen genetic recombination A mutation is a change in the genetic material and may be neutral beneficial or harmful A mutagen is any agent that causes mutation A carcinogen is a mutagen typically chemical such as nitrous acid nucleoside analogs or frameshift mutagens Genetic Recombination is the ability of a cell to combine and change their DNA by use of a donor cell It is the exchange of genes between two DNA molecules Define mutations according to type missense silent nonsense and frameshift Missense mutations result in a change of the corresponding amino acid Silent mutations result in no change in the amino acids Nonsense mutations result in a nonsense stop codon Frameshift mutations are any that cause a shift in the reading frame of codons in multiples of threes such as insertion or deletion of a base pair How do nucleoside analogs work as mutagens Nucleoside analogs are similar to normal bases but have altered base pairing One of these may take the place of a T but instead of pairing with A it will pair with G 5 bromouracil Some antivirals and antitumors are nucleoside analogs AZT What damage do xrays do to DNA UV radiation Xrays and gamma rays ionizing radiation causes the formation of ions H that can react with the nucleotides and the DNA backbone to break bonds and can physically break the chromosome apart UV radiation causes thymine dimers where the two T s are connected by a bond and must be separated by light repair through photolyase emzymes What is the purpose of the Ames test Outline the general procedure The Ames test is used to detect carcinogens and is based on the observation that exposure of mutant bacteria to mutagenic substances may cause new mutations that reverse the effect of the original mutation What is the difference between transformation conjugation and transduction Transformation is an uptake of DNA from the environment Conjugation is the transfer of DNA that requires cell to cell contact Transduction is the transfer of DNA requiring a bacterial virus or bacteriophage What are the major characteristics of plasmids What types of genes are carried on Rfactors and why are these important Plasmids are small circles of selfreplicating dispensable genes These plasmids are often in many copies in the cell and can provide a survival advantage under certain conditions The genes on plasmids encode toxins antibiotic resistance bacteriocins and genes for metabolizing unusual compounds Basically what are transposons Transposons are jumping genes that can enter a cell and latch on then move around the DNA to configure it differently by way of recognition sequences Chapter 9 What is meant by genetic engineering Genetic engineering is the insertion or modification of genes to produce desired proteins that are not typically made Recombinant DNA Technology What are restriction endonucleases and what is their role in gene cloning Restriction endonucleases are used to cut specific sequences of both DNA and plasmids to provide the same sticky ends so the new gene may be inserted What are the main steps in cloning a prokaryotic gene A vector plasmid or bacteriophage is cut with a restriction enzyme DNA containing the desired gene is cut with the same enzyme to produce identical sticky ends The gene is then inserted into the vector to be taken up by the new cell Screening is done to identify cells that took up the desired gene then the cells are allowed to replicate to increase number Outline the steps of the polymerase chain reaction When is this a useful technique to use A polymerase chain reaction is used to quickly increase the number of cells to make the colonies large enough for analysis It is used to clone DNA sequence DNA diagnose genetic disease detect pahogens and in DNA fingerprinting A mixture is created of the DNA template 2 single stranded primers dNTPs Taq polymerase heat resistant and a reaction buffer The mixture is then headed at 94C for 1 minute to denature the DNA template into fragments The solution is then cooled to 50C and primers are added to bond with specific sequences of the DNA to be replicated for 2 minutes The solution is then reheated to 72C for 3 minutes while DNA polymerase extends the molecules This cycle is typically repeated 30 times with double the amount being produced each time List some applications of genetic engineering Genetic engineering is used to produce medicine vaccines and agricultural products What is DNA fingerprinting DNA fingerprinting is used to detect the specific way a DNA strand is lined up to detect pathogens Ex An outbreak of a bacterium is found and the suspected juice the people infected by juice and the people infected not by juice were all fingerprinted and the juice was found to be the cause What are some ethical concerns regarding the use of recombinant DNA technology One must avoid accidental release of substances Genetically modified crops must be made safe for consumption and for the environment Access to an individual s genetic information is also difficult to pass out to whom Chapter 13 l 2 Define a virus Describe the structure and function of the parts of bacteriophages and animal viruses 10 11 12 13 14 15 What is meant by Host Range and what determines this What are the major ways to culture animal viruses What are the pros and cons of each Basically how do you grow phage culture Describe what happens during each stage of the typical lytic cycle of a bacteriophage Describe the lysogenic cycle of a bacteriophage Describe the typical life cycle of a DNA animal virus What are the major steps in replication of plus minus and double stranded RNA viruses Compare and contrast the life cycles of bacteriophages and animal viruses How do enveloped viruses obtain their envelopes Describe the basic steps in the multiplication of retroviruses what is the role of reverse transcriptase What is an oncovirus How do these cause cancer Basically what is cancer What is the difference between a latent viral infection and a persistent viral infection What are prions List some diseases they cause What is the current model for how prions work


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