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UGA / Advertising / ADPR 3850 / What did columbus think he discovered?

What did columbus think he discovered?

What did columbus think he discovered?

Description

School: University of Georgia
Department: Advertising
Course: Public Relations
Professor: Micheal caccitore
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Public, relations, Pr, 3850, Lecture, 2, notes, 8/25, 8/30, uga, University, Of, and Georgia
Cost: 25
Name: Public Relations 3850 Lecture 2 Notes 8/25-30
Description: This is a completed copy of the Lecture 2 notes that we took in class on 8/25 and finished up on 8/30.
Uploaded: 08/30/2016
10 Pages 65 Views 1 Unlocks
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Public Relations 3850 Lecture 2 Notes


What did columbus think he discovered?



∙ History of PR:

o Ancient Beginnings:

 The Rosetta Stone (196 BC)

∙ Amounts to a press release of pharaoh  

(Ptolemy V) accomplishments

 Julius Caesar (~60 BC)

∙ Threw parades as a part of a campaign to fulfill

political ambitions

 The Church (~11th Century)

∙ Enlisting followers in the name of penance or  

forgiveness

o Colonial America (16th – 18th Centuries):

 PR as a means to promote settlement

 Struggle for independence


What was the purpose of thomas jefferson writing the declaration of independence?



∙ Ex: Boston Tea Party: “The greatest and best Don't forget about the age old question of How does aldosterone affect sodium reabsorption?

known publicity stunt of all time”

∙ Propaganda used to galvanize support for the  

Revolutionary movement

o Sam Adams:

 PR Specialist:

∙ Recognized power of the pen

o Used writing as a means of  

communicating about the importance of  

independence, and unity, and about the  

injustice of the colonies

∙ Recognized the power of special events and  

symbols

o He was behind the Boston Tea Party and  

understood the emotions such an event  


When did the first signs of government appear?



might arouse

∙ Used slogans

o “No taxation without representation”

∙ Used press releases and news leaks

o Wrote an account of the Boston Tea Party

before the event had even occurred

o Paul Revere delivered the account to  

newspapers as soon as the even  We also discuss several other topics like What are the 3 objective lenses on a microscope?

occurred

o Got news of battles through press leaks

 Objectives:

1. Justify the cause

2. Promote advantages

3. Arouse the masses

4. Neutralize opponents

5. Phrase issues clearly

o The Age of the Press Agent (1800s):

 The age of hype:

∙ Davy Crockett, Buffalo Bill, Annie Oakley

∙ Press agent tactics

∙ The master of the pseudoevent:

o P.T. Barnum (understood how to use PR to  

be successful)

∙ Used ticket giveaways and opinion leaders to  

ensure event success  

 Press Agentry: P.T. Barnum, Master of the Pseudo  

Event

∙ Joice Heth

∙ Tom Thumb

∙ Jenny Lind

∙ “Jumbo” circus elephants

o PR Grows as America Grows:

 PR was pivotal in the early growth of America

∙ Settling the American West

∙ Railroad promotion techniques:

o Free tickets to journalists If you want to learn more check out What are the community factors that promote health?

o Published brochures about fertility of land,

etc.

o The Rise of Politics:

 Political beginnings:

∙ John Beckley and Thomas Jefferson

∙ Amos Kendall and Andrew Jackson

∙ Teddy Roosevelt

∙ Etc.

∙ All the President’s Men:

o Thomas Jefferson and John Beckley:

 Beckley: Jefferson’s “eyes and ears” for public opinion  Jefferson rarely wrote himself, but urged others,  

including John Beckley to publicly counter the  

federalists in the press

∙ Jefferson urged Madison to attack the ideas of  

Alexander Hamilton, writing: “for God’s sake,  

my dear sir, take up your pen, select the most  

striking heresies, and cut him to pieces [sic] in  

the face of the public”

o Amos Kendall:

 President Jackson’s “Thinking Machine”

 A member of Andrew Jackson’s “kitchen cabinet”   Jackson was portrayed as a rugged frontiersman who  worked for the people

 He spoke ruggedly as well, so he dictated his ideas to  Kendall, who made them more palatable

 Kendall was “the President’s thinking machine, and his writing machine – ay, and his lying machine… He was  chief overseer, chief reporter […] scribe, accountant  general, man of all work – nothing was done without  the air of his diabolical genius” Don't forget about the age old question of What were the trustees rules for georgia colonists?

o Teddy Roosevelt:

 Changed government through PR

∙ Often used informal chats with reporters to  

anonymously get his ideas into the press

∙ Always issues press releases on Sunday in order  to capture Monday morning headlines

∙ Understanding the importance of press and  

positive relationships with the press, he  

created the first White House press office

o Woodrow Wilson and George Creel:

 Woodrow Wilson established the “Committee on Public  Information” in 1917, on which George Creel served  Committee was charged with changing anti-war  attitudes as U.S. was entering WWI

 The Creel Committee:

∙ Mailed out 6,000 news releases

∙ Generated 20,000 columns of newsprint each  week  

∙ Published an official daily with a circulation of  118,000

∙ Sponsored 75,000 speakers in small towns of  

America  

∙ Established a foreign language division that  

monitored foreign language newspapers and  

translated foreign documents

∙ Developed exhibits, films, and posters that  

traveled the country

∙ Creel and his committee regulated the press to  control war coverage We also discuss several other topics like How do different attitudes about women’s rights influence politics?

∙ He asked the newspapers seek approval before  printing news that he categorized as  

“dangerous”

o Ex: information about military  

maneuvers, threats to the president,  

questionable news that involved  

technical inventions and rumors, etc.

 Wilson also hired Creel to sell war bonds, enlist  soldiers, and to raise millions of dollars for welfare  through the Red Cross, resulting in fundraising  

becoming a successful element of PR

 After the war, an optimistic belief in the power of mass communication emerged

o Franklin D. Roosevelt:

 Used radio speeches to convey warmth, personality  and nonpartisanship

 Introduced and continued “fireside chats” on advice of  pollsters

 Louis M. Howe:

∙ His PR advisor

∙ Controlled FDR’s image

 Carl Byoir:

∙ Important figure in the campaign to fight  

infantile paralysis put forth by Roosevelt We also discuss several other topics like Can one be wrong about their judgment of beauty?

o Byoir designed fundraising events to  

make news (FDR Birthday Ball) and raise

money

o Byoir personally called every newspaper

publisher in the U.S. and asked him to  

nominate a local FDR Birthday Ball  

chairman (a tactic United Way has  

continued)

o “Dance so that a child may walk”  

became the slogan  

o Major American families all attended  

(Vanderbilts, etc.) and event raised $1  

million dollars

o Harry Truman and Arthur Page:

 Arthur Page (VP of Marketing at AT&T) wrote President  Truman’s announcement to the world of the dropping  of the atomic bomb on Japan

∙ The announcement was originally tasked to  

William Laurence of the NY Times, but he  

struggled at properly capturing a Presidential  

voice

 Arthur Page: The Page Principles of PR  

Management:

∙ Tell the truth

o Be forthright with information by letting  

the public know what’s happening

o Provide an accurate picture of the  

company’s character, ideals and  

practices

∙ Prove it with action

o Public perception is determined more so  

by what a person or organization does  

and less so by what they say

∙ Listen to the customer

o You must stay on top of what the public  

wants and needs

o Always keep top decision-makers (and  

employees) informed about public  

reaction to company products, policies,  

practices, etc.

∙ Manage for tomorrow

o Anticipate public reaction and eliminate  

practices that create difficulties

o Generate goodwill

∙ Conduct PR as if the whole company depends on it

o Corporate relations is a management  

function

o No corporate strategy should be  

implemented without first considering  

public impact

∙ Realize a company’s true character is expressed  by its people

o Every employee – active or retired – is  

involved with PR

∙ Remain calm, patient and good-humored

o Lay the groundwork for PR miracles with  

consistent and reasoned attention to  

information and contacts

o Cool heads communicate best during a  

crisis situation  

o Jim Hagerty: Advisor to Dwight Eisenhower  Jim Hagerty served as Press Secretary for the entirety  of Eisenhower’s time as President

 Instrumental in Eisenhower’s television ads (first  televised political ads) that depicted Eisenhower in a  Q&A session with normal citizens

∙ Eisenhower’s responses were actually taped  

separately, as were the “citizen” questions

 Eisenhower won over Stevenson, partly because he  had approximately $5m to Stevenson’s $100k to  

spend on advertising and PR activities

∙ Muckraking Journalists and PR in Activism:

o Muckrakers:

 Ida Tarbell

 Lincoln Steffes

 Upton Sinclair

o Activists:

 Abolitionists

 Women’s right advocates

 Prohibitionists  

o The growth of newspapers and the age of muckraking  journalists:

 Muckrakers were named by Teddy Roosevelt after the  character in the novel “Pilgrim’s Progress”:

∙ “The man with the muckrake, who did not look  

up to see the celestial crown but continue to  

rake the fifth.”

 This type of journalism became very popular as it:

∙ Generated public response

∙ Created follow-up work as subjects of  

investigation often responded to the journalist  

claims

 Ida Tarbell (The History of the Standard Oil Company;  McClure’s magazine, 1902)

∙ This piece kicked off the era of muckraking  

journalism and using the press to expose  

wrongdoings

∙ Revealed the unfair business practices of John D.

Rockefeller to squeeze out competitors

∙ The articles put Rockefeller on the defensive and

he called in the help of Ivy Lee

 Lincoln Steffens wrote a series titled “The Shame of  the Cities,” which documented corrupt government  

practices in U.S. cities

 Ray Stannard Baker wrote about labor problems,  

including child labor and the economic status of  

African Americans

 Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle in 1906

∙ Conveyed plight of immigrant workers in  

Chicago’s packing houses and documented  

unsanitary conditions within

∙ Led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drugs  

Act of 1906 that regulated activities of  

manufacturers

∙ Fight for your right to freedom…

o Abolitionists used:

 Public lectures and heavy reliance on moral arguments  Political lobbying

 Fund-raising activities (National Anti-Slavery Bazaar) to fund newspapers and other anti-slavery publications,  including reading materials for children

 Publication of slave narratives to build moral  

arguments against salvery

∙ …Your right to vote…

o Women’s Suffrage:

 Used traditional lobbying tactics like petitions and  

organized face-to-face meeting where they targeted  

their messages to politicians  

 Held parades and public speaking events that  

challenged notions of how women should behave in  

public

 Picketed the White House and garnered media  

attention through arrests

∙ …And the right not to party?

o Prohibition:

 Political and religious groups used lobbying and  

messaging tactics to bring about Prohibition in 1920

 Prohibitionists appealed to nativist ideas about  

America, arguing saloons where were immigrants  

corrupted politics

 Meanwhile, ‘wets’ (opposed to prohibition) failed to  take the campaign seriously before it was too late

 Eventually repealed due largely to reasons of crime  and the economy

∙ Modern PR Comes of Age:

o Henry Ford:

 Positioning publicity always goes to those who do  

something first

 Accessibility: organizations must always be accessible  to the press; no subject was off limits with Ford

∙ The First PR Counselor; Ivy Lee:

o Georgia roots

o Founded Parker and Lee in 1904

o “Declaration of Principles”

 The birth of modern PR

 Principles that he shared with the media to counter  rising hostility toward PR

o Largely responsible for the popularity of the press release  o Ivy Lee’s contributions:

1. Promoting the idea that business and industry should  align with public interests

2. Ensuring the support of top management  

3. Maintaining open communication with journalists

4. Humanizing business and making it relevant to  

workers, community, consumers

∙ The Father of Modern PR; Edward L. Bernays: o A Broadway press agent before WWI

o Joined the Creel Commission during the War

o Opened his agency with his wife Doris Fleishman in 1919 o The nephew of Sigmund Freud and a great believer in the use  of psychology in forming public opinion

o In 1923, he published Crystallizing Public Opinion, which laid  down the rationale for PR as a function of management and  introduced the concept of two-way PR

 Advocated a research-based approach that involved  accepting feedback from target audiences for mutually  beneficial communication

∙ The First In-House PR; Westinghouse:

o Worked to promote alternative current (AC) over Edison’s  direct current (DC)

o Edison employed scare tactics to direct people away from  Westinghouse’s AC

 Edison published a booklet outlining the dangers of AC  and the names of people killed by AC electrocution  

o Westinghouse disputed such assertions and published a  booklet, Safety of the Alternating System of Electrical  Distribution in October 1889

o Westinghouse system eventually won out

∙ The First PR Firm; The Publicity Bureau:

o Established in 1900 by George Michaelis  

o First client: Harvard University

o 1906: began work for our nation’s railroads to oppose  government regulation

 Railroad campaign failed and bureau went out of  

business

∙ A Brief History of PR; PR Expands in Post-War America: o Rapid growth in all areas of PR

o Growth followed the development of mass media

o Growth was aided by evolving research methodologies and  techniques

∙ Four Models of PR:

1. Press Agentry/publicity:

 One-way communication

 Typically through mass media

 Oftentimes exaggerated or otherwise distorted  

information for solely advocacy purposes

 Not research-based

 P.T. Barnum then

 Sports, theater, music and film today

2. Public information:

 One-way communication

 Typically through mass media

 Not necessarily advocacy-based, but part of journalistic  ideal of accuracy and completeness of information

 Involves some fact-finding research

 Ivy Lee then

 Government and non-profits now

3. Two-way asymmetric:

 Two-way communication through scientific persuasion  techniques

 Help the communicator better understand the audience  for persuasive purposes  

 Research used to plan strategies and evaluate those  strategies

 Edward L. Bernays then

 Marketing and advertising firms today

4. Two-way symmetric  

 Two-way communication for mutual understandings  Formative research used to understand public  

perceptions of the organization

 Evaluative research to understand how PR tactics  

impacted audience understanding

 Edward L. Bernays then

 Educators and professional leaders today

o

o

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