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UA / Nutrition and Food Sciences / HE 361 / How does vasopressin reduce water loss?

How does vasopressin reduce water loss?

How does vasopressin reduce water loss?


School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Course: Nutritional Biochemistry
Professor: Amy ellis
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Water, homeostasis, kidneys, Nutritional, and biochemistry
Cost: 25
Name: Water and Body Fluids
Description: These are key notes that will include key concepts that will be on the quiz on 8/31
Uploaded: 08/30/2016
2 Pages 38 Views 1 Unlocks

WATER AND BODY FLUIDS Lecture 4 and 5  

How does vasopressin reduce water loss?

Three Basic Processes in urine formation  

∙ Glomerular filtration 

o where the blood is filtered by the nephron by the glomerulus into the Bowman’s  capsule 

∙   Tubular reabsorption

o Materials that need to be in the blood are reabsorbed into the blood stream  through osmosis and with carrier mediated transport

o Renal threshold­ the maximum amount of solute that can be transported using  carrier mediated transport

o After this point glucose, blood proteins, ketone bodies and bile among other  things should not be in the filtrate

∙   Tubular Secretion 

o Removal of waste through renal tubule to be excreted in urine 

What is the primary cation in extracellular fluid?

o Hydrogen, Potassium and other selected solutes 

o When worrying about renal failure the kidneys fail to properly secrete solutes so  things like potassium intake need to be closely monitored

Fluid Balance 

∙ Hypothalamus has the thirst center which regulates fluid intake 

∙ Vasopressin/ Anti­diuretic hormone­ reduce the amount of fluid lost in the urine o ADH released when the body has higher demand for water and creates more  concentrated urine 

o Alcohol inhibits ADH

Taking apart electrolytes 

∙ Primary extracellular ions are Na+(cation) and Cl­(anion)

∙ Primary intracellular ions are K+(cation) and HPO42­(anion)

How does aldosterone affect sodium reabsorption?

Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 3 objective lenses on a microscope?

∙ Hypo­prefix meaning low 

∙ Hyper­ prefix meaning high

∙ Nat­pertaining to sodium

∙ Kal­ pertaining to potassium 

∙ Phos­ pertaining to phosphate  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the role of public health in the identified health issues in your community?

Electrolyte Balance

∙ Aldosterone stimulates sodium reabsorption and prevents excessive loss of sodium  o Helps maintain the small acceptable range of sodium in the blood

o Reabsorption of sodium causes excretion of potassium 

Acid/Base Balance 

∙ Acids are proton DONORS

∙ Bases are proton ACCEPTORS

∙ Blood has a narrow pH range in which life can be sustained of 7.35­7.45 o Alkalosis­ pH too high in blood

 Respiratory­ too much CO2 expulsion

 Metabolic­ too much acid is lost

o Acidosis­ pH too low in blood

 Respiratory­ too much CO2 retention

 Metabolic­ too much acid bicarbonate loss  If you want to learn more check out What is the relationship between cause and effect?
Don't forget about the age old question of Who founded georgia and why did he seek to start a new colony in north america?
Don't forget about the age old question of What distinguishes art from non-­art?
If you want to learn more check out What is the standardized set of activities that accomplish a specific task, such as processing a customer’s order?

∙ Buffers help maintain narrow pH goal and avoid pH fluctuation 

o Bicarbonate is the most important

 H2CO3H+ + HCO3­

 Carbonic acid Hydrogen ions and bicarbonate

 Used to avoid excess CO2 in the blood (acidosis)

 Acidic blood is neutralized with secretion of hydrogen ions and alkaline  blood is neutralized with bicarbonate 

o Phosphate and plasma proteins act as buffers as well 

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