WC107, Final Exam Study Guide
WC107, Final Exam Study Guide WC107
Popular in Central European Nations
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Date Created: 08/30/16
• Part 1: Geography • I. Origins of Central Europe • 4th century AD, Emperor Diocletian (Romans) • empire reaches Britain, Spain, Africa, Egypt, Italy, Istanbul, and Germany • wants to divide the empire (East and West) • each divide will have its own caesar to lead men into battle • for military protection on the border • bureaucratic- administrative purposes • A) West • 4th-6th centuries AD (age of the Barbarians), the west takes a lot of hits from the Barbarians • 5th century AD (year 476)- Rome is conquered; ending in the Western Empire’s downfall • 6th-8th centuries AD, rise of the Carolingian Empire • the Franks settling in Gual (now known as France) • Charles Martel- founding father of the Carolingian Empire and Franks • Battle of Tours- Martel defeats Muslims on the South side of the mountain range near the Iberian Peninsula attempting to bring the religion to Europe • Pippin (son of Martel)- soldier that expands the C. Empire and gave territory (Papal States) to the Vatican • has a son, Charles aka Charlemagne (Charles the Great); continues expanding the C. Empire (political power shifts north and takes Europe) • 9th century AD (year 800) Christmas Day, Charlemagne is crowned Emperor of (the newly named) the Holy Roman Empire • 1. establishes Christendom- Charlemagne declares Catholic faith the official religion of his empire • 2. to become a ruler/political authority, you must get the Papal blessing by the Pope • 9th-12th centuries AD, Pacification Stage • Barbarian Tribes begin to settle down, form communities and nations, nations become political units (Roman Catholic, spoke Latin) • 11th Century document- “Europa Occidens” (Western Europe) • still holds true today • B) East • 5th century AD, (when Rome is conquered) Constantinople declares itself the second Rome (Egypt, Middle East, Turkey, and Central Europe) • lasts longer than the West • 11th century AD (year 1054), the Great Schism • the Catholic Church splits between the Latin based Church centered in Rome and the Eastern Orthodox (Bisotine) Church centered in Constantinople (the two mix in the middle- Central Europe) • did not want to share power with the Pope; has Patriarchs (leaders of each state; no pope) • doctrinal differences of the Trinity • 15th century AD, 1. Constantinople is conquered by the Ottoman Empire (Muslims) and changes the name to Istanbul and 2. arrival of Russia (declares itself the 3rd Rome) as a power, also declare themselves as the Protector of the Eastern Orthodox Faith • East Roman Empire is now gone • “Europa Oriens” (Eastern Europe) • C) Central • 15th-18th centuries AD, Age of Empires • Big Four- Austrian, Prussian, Russian, Ottoman Empires • Central Europe- Polish, Bulgarian, Hungarian Empires- in 18th century AD they get conquered by the Big 4 • 17th century AD (year 1648)- Treaty of Westphalia • officially ended the 30 Years War • National Sovereignty as part of international legal concept; what happens in one’s own state is a part of their own internal affairs • ends Christendom (Pope is no longer a political authority) • 19th Century AD- Poland is gone, and divided up amongst Russia, Prussia, and Austria • no Central Europe, only East, West, or Southern Empire • D) Treaty of Versailles (year 1919), series of treaties (self- determination) • ends WWI • destroyer of empires (the Big 4) • (re)creates Central Europe (by the Allies) • leading cause for WWII • revisionism- Germany and Russia revise the geography of lands • E) Inter War Years (years 1919-1939), at the end of this begins WWII • 1. external dimension • central Europe and the Germans • 2. internal dimension • Nazis and Soviets are growing, but Central Europe doesn’t act to combine their powers (weaknesses) • external dimension • Germany was never touched by WWI, war was in the heartland of France • they were affected in the military, not economically • How was the creation of central Europe advantageous to the Germans (for Hitler’s plan for world domination)? • 1. created a buffer against the spread of communism • 2. created frail neighbors to its east (no worries about a two- front war) • 3. tempted the Soviets and the Nazis to collaborate with each other (the buffer keeps them from feeling threatened by each other) • no other countries wanted anything to do with either country, so they decided to corporate with each other • Aug. 1939- Nazi-Soviet Pact: “We will not go to war with each other for 10 years and we will corporate with one another.” • they then carved up the Baltic countries (central countries) • Stalin kept all negative media away from Hitler • 4. because of the buffer (which led to Germany and Russia making a pact), it frustrated western efforts to get the Soviets to resist Nazi aggression • it attributed to WWII • internal dimension • central Europe does not combine its powers; they were very weak in between the Nazis and Soviets • causes for weaknesses • 1. Irredentist Claim- where/when a territory historically or ethnically is related to one political unit but under the political control of another and they (the original territory) want it back • 2. Ethnic Disputes- comes from the control of the ‘other’ political units treating a country’s ethic relations badly • 3. everyone had perceived enemies on their borders (including Germany and Russia) • 4. Economy of central Europe was highly agriculturally based during the depression (80-90%); this is very undeveloped (lack of industry); making unemployment rates skyrocket (up 50%), leaving people starving to death • made countries vulnerable to Nazi Germany • although the economy was booming after two years under Hitler, it caused the extermination of the Jews • 5. Politics- every country in central Europe reverts from democracy back to a dictatorship (except for Czechoslovakia, which eventually disappears) • II. Differences • B) civil society- a dense network of nongovernmental association and groups established for the autonomous pursuit of diverse socioeconomic interests and prepared to rebuff state efforts to seize control of these activities; and yet at the same time must be recognized and protected by the state in order to survive. • there is law, yet one has the right to be protected • there is privacy of one’s own home (private space); cannot be violated • once one goes out into public, the government regulates your activity and behavior (public space) • civil society is the space in between the private life and public • state must recognize the line and not overstep their boundaries, but also protect that line • EX. independent media, religious/charitable organizations, business lobbies, labor unions, universities, non-institutionalized movements for various social causes • this deals with the relationship that civil society has with democracy • civil society is necessary but not sufficient for democracy • must have this to have a democracy (rights and privileges) • must have something a little more than civil society to have a democracy (ex. elections) • Europe: the west vs. the east • west- have an understanding and a notion of civil society through the enlightenment period (through the era of political thought); to limit power of monarchies (the state now works for you) • understandings come out of the Catholic Church • east- only a limited civil society space in comparison to public space, AND the government can cross that boundary if they so choose; people have no protection of their rights and liberties (they work for the state) • never had a tradition of civil society • religion still promotes the “subject” mentality (you serve the state which gets its rules from God) not the “citizen” mentality • III. Physical Geography of Central Europe • 3 regions • 1. north- Polish plains • the crossing field for all armies due to its extreme flatness, crosses all the way towards the Netherlands • 2. center- Danubian Basin • rolling hills, plains, rivers (very diverse) • 3. south- Balkan Peninsula • very mountainous, better for protection but hinders economic development; people on one side of a mountain can speak a different language, have a different religion, and dress differently than people on the other side • Part 2: Conceptual Analysis • I. Dual Transition (ch. 15-16 in White) • 2 dimensions • 1. political- everyone is going towards democracy from a communist system • A) must have free, fair, frequent, competitive elections - F3C elections • B) must set up a functioning parliament (with debates and discussions) • C) must set up a democratic constitution (and actually live accordingly to it) • 2. economic transition- going from a “command” (communism) economy to a “capitalist/free market” economy • A) command economy- the state runs the economy; the state decides who makes what, for who, and for how much $$$ • B) free market- the consumer runs the economy (supply and demand) • less demand, price goes down • more demand, price goes up • government has only little say in the matter, for regulations • private property becomes private concerns of the citizens • run own business, own a house or car • II. Democracy • Minimalists definition: a political system in which the leaders of the government are chosen through regular elections based on multiple candidacies and secret balloting, with the right of all adult citizens to vote • four determining characteristics that must be present for a democracy to be in place • Components • freedom of expression • freedom to form and join organizations (civil society) • free and fair elections • competitive elections • right to vote (universal suffrage) • alternative sources of information • eligibility for public office • right of political leader to compete for support • institutions for making government policies depend on votes and other expressions of preferences • III. Democratization- process of becoming a democracy • 4 criteria • A) F3C elections • B) Accountability • C) Civil Society • D) Establish the rule of law- nobody is above the law • Formula • 1. revolution in central Europe; communists loose • 2. within 3-6 months occur the first F3C elections at the National Level • 3. give citizens civil and political liberties • 4. create governing institutions • 5. develop a healthy, thriving civil society (approx. 20 years) • V. Democratic Consolidation (the big D) • When most major social groups expect that government leaders will be chosen through competitive elections and regard representative institutions and procedures as their main channel for processing claims on the state (no longer have to fear the return to an autocratic government) • last part of democratization • Measures: a country should meet most of these 6 measures • 1. Two-Turnover Test: a democracy may be viewed as consolidated if the party or group that takes power in the initial election at the time of the transition loses a subsequent election and turns over power to those election winners, and if those election winners then peacefully turn over power to winners of a later election • formula: party Awins -> party B wins, and gets power peacefully - > either party Acomes back or a new party C comes into power • there is typically a 3/multiple party system, we have a dual party system (so this only shows the winners, but there could be an anti-democratic party that doesn’t have much support) • *all parties must be pro-democratic • all parties must accept a loss peacefully • *this formula should happen within a 20 year period or more (this represents that a full generation has gone through this new system); this gives time for each party and for the people to understand how to be a political party and how to campaign properly • 2. Low public support for anti-system parties or groups • aka. anti-democratic • 3. High public commitment to the fundamental values and procedural norms of democratic policies • people must turn to the government to solve their problems • EX. go to the police for justice, not to a mafia boss • 4. Elite commitment to democratic norms • politicians must be committed to democracy • corruption scandals will erode democracy • 5. New democratic constitution • civil and political unities • amendments • outlines the rules of the game between citizens and government • 6. Stabilized political party system • are the parties today the same as the beginning? • stability comes when a party sticks around; not one that shows up for one election and then is done • the people need to fully know who their political parties are • VI. Political Culture: the widely shared beliefs, values, and norms concerning the relationship between citizen and government. • citizens have certain things they must do (EX. pay taxes) and the government must make decisions on changes that the citizens may want • Romania • Transition from communism to democracy • 1989; not a member of the warsaw pact • 1. only country where the communist regime was violently overthrown by the people (specifically, Ceausescu, the dictator) • 2. the regime (even at the end) will use extreme brutality • 3. the least radical transformation in central Europe • Ceausescu was extremely oppressive (no sense of civil society; approx. 20 years) and therefore, there was no one to fill his position after the people kicked him out • therefore, the communist continued to run the government • Ceausescu • came to power in 1965 (elected by communist parliament) • his 3 stages of rule: • 1. the Reformer Stage- reforming stalinism; lighten up the secret police, will have some freedoms, opens up the economy • his policy- liberalization from above • only lasts until 1971- Romania managed to achieve a certain degree of sovereignty from the soviet union (they wanted to industrialize but the soviet union wanted them to be agriculture; forces let them transform) • develops ties with China • 2. 1971, Ceausescu takes a trip to China- China showed him parties (they were going through a cultural revolution) but not the millions of people who died due to this, and so he wants to do the same in Romania • Parliament says no; causes the next stage • 2. NeoStalinist Stage- wants a cultural revolution; purges anyone who does not agree with the revolution; uses the secret police (securitate); causes a high degree of nepotism • Political Executive Committee (PEC)- neutralizes parliament; they want Glosnost and Perestroika (they were purged) • giving all political power to himself; Stalinism (except he does open up the country to the world; no isolation) • 3. 1980s, the Stage of Decay- people are becoming demoralized (brutality), economy is collapsing (the only thing keeping it from completely falling is the foreign aid from the west), and Ceausescu becomes paranoid (starts to go crazy) • continues to purge due to his paranoia; passes irrational laws every day • Beginning of the End, late 1980s • strikes began; police brutality suppressed them, Ceausescu purges • November- Ceausescu is reelected as General Secretary of the Communist Party • December 16th, 1989 (done in 10 days)- protests and demonstrations break out; protests met with extreme brutality; brutality met with protests; once again met with brutality (secret police open fire) • 12/21- Ceausescu makes a speech; crowd below starts to jeer him (by whistling); government cuts the broadcast; more protests and brutality • 12/22- violent storming of the Parliament building; Ceausescu and wife escape by helicopter • they land at a military base, the executive officer let Ceausescu attend exercises • 12/24- ship Ceausescu back to Bucharest; put on trial for crimes against humanity; found guilty and sentenced to capital punishment (execution via firing squad) • 12/25- Ceausescu and wife were publicly executed (even on TV) • leaves behind no one in power; various factions want power; causes mini civil war • remaining communists party fills the void • New Era of Politics • 1st Stage- Authoritarianism • where most of the political power is concentrated in a few individuals (the communist party) • change name to the National Salvation Front (NSF); leader is Ian Iliescu (fame from Ceausescu’s first stage, the reformer stage), was friends with Ceausescu, kept his mouth shut in order to survive the purges • Iliescu starts to open up the system for voices; known as the Counsel • reaches out to the opposition, lets them have a say (but not let them run things) • are not round table negotiations • 2nd Stage- Enduring Authoritarianism, first election (within 5 months) • May of 1990 • not exactly F3C • for parliament and presidency • Iliescu becomes the president with 85% of the vote • parliament is bi-cameral, lower house (NSF) gets 67% of the seats, upper house (NSF) gets 75% of the seats • no one else was knowledgable enough in leadership (portrays how weak civil society was under Ceausescu) • questionable if these are reformer communists (they are still communist) • write up a ‘democratic’constitution • securitate (secret police) is still present • structure of the government • executive- split into 2 positions, between the President (head of and speaks for the state) and Prime Minister (head of government, run the ministries) • president is directly elected by the people, serves for 4 years for 2 terms • prime minister is selected by the majority party (so he is a member of the NSF), no term limit • parliament is known as the national assembly • lower house= the chamber of deputies; consists of 343 seats (15 are reserved for ethnic minorities; the hungarians); most power in parliament • upper house= the senate; consists of 143 seats • both chambers have 4 year terms (president and every member of parliament come up for election all at the same time) • election of 1992, due to the adoption of a new constitution • presidency is won by Iliescu; in parliament, (the NSF splits) and one portion is called the Democratic National Salvation Front (DNSF), wins both chambers • in 1993, DNSF changes name to Party of Social Democracy (PSD) • solid majority for both parts of the executive branch; still have a spoils system and the secret police is still in place; have the mentality that the people are servants to the state • dual transition is moving very slowly • 3rd Stage- Democratic? 1996 • watershed elections- Iliescu and PSD looses; coalition of opposition political parties, Democratic Convention of Romania (DCR), wins • the people want the transition to move faster • Constantinescu wins the presidency; pushes forward on the dual transition (shock transition) • unemployment and inflation is high • go through 3 prime ministers due to the drastic and quick changes • 2000 election- the PSD wins, Iliescu is back in presidency (by super majority) • 2004 election- new party, the Truth and Justice Alliance made up of multiple parties; PSD wins plurality but not majority • nationalistic, right wing • lack of social trust between the people and the government; they stop voting, they turn towards undemocratic alternatives (mafia) • 2008- PSD is back • 2012- the Social Liberal Union (USL) wins • coalition of parties; includes the PSD • Big D? • almost 20 yrs, not all parties are fully pro-democratic (social distrust), no elite commitment (lots of corruption), need to revise the constitution (the people didn’t show up to vote on a new one) • NO, most likely a little d because people do want to change to democracy and it is a peaceful change • Bulgaria • not a creation of the Treaty of Versailles; gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1878 and recognized as a sovereign nation • a royal/military dictatorship; a monarchy; but had a parliament, a constitution that limited the monarchs power, universal male suffrage (some elements of democracy) • an authoritarian regime • Democratic Legacy • 1919- starts with democracy • major political party- the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union Party (BANU) is the democratic party; wins elections, takes over parliament • 1923- the leader of BANU is assassinated; dictatorship takes power again • 1931- BANU wins again • 1935- coup (overthrowing of gov), dictatorship wins • WWII • stays out of this war until 1944 • Germans move in and bring the Holocaust • Red Army takes complete control by 1946; Stalin promises elections • 1946- BANU and allies win 1/3 of the seats • US signs a peace treaty with Bulgaria • communists arrest the leader of BANU, declare him an enemy of the state, and execute him • US recognizes the communist gov. of Bulgaria (nobody ever knew about Bulgaria or where it was; if anybody knew anything, they were suspicious) • communists take complete control (Stalinism) • 1954 (Stalin died a year earlier)- new communist leader, Todor Zhivkov, is a reformer and anti-stalinist • communism with a smile • Cold War- Bulgaria is very passive; no Warsaw pact invasions • under Zhivkov: • freedom of speech (small meetings, no public demonstrations) • some opposition groups formed • free elections • urbanize and educate • there will be a middle class; some small businesses and privately owned farms • lightens up secret police • better standard of living • maintains the social contract • late 1980s- economic decline • 1985 Glasnost and Perestroika; Zhivkov likes this and comes up with his own • 1987- July Concept • call for bureaucratic economic renewal • political reforms- allow pluralism, open up the system • unleash forces that he can’t control • opposition groups start to publicly strike and protest • society disintegrates • massive purges take place for those who support this document • blames the Turks for the problems in society • oppression and persecution of the Turks (Bulgarian Nationalists) • though they were the entrepreneurs, the middle class, the ones with the money • sends word to Turkey to open the borders (iron curtain) and it’ll show that the Turks don’t want to leave Bulgaria (Zhivkov thinks he’s treating the Turks well) • the Turks do it; within 6 months, over 300,000 Turks from Bulgarian go home (5% of the population) • these were the people helping the economy... • Zhivkov goes crazy • Nov 10, 1989- Bulgarian communist party accepts Zhivkov’s “resignation”; he is purged • this is the day the Berlin Wall fell • basically surrenders; this is the end of communism • Peter Mladenov (the former prime minister) is put into power (a reformer) • leads Bulgaria in the dual transition • Dual Transition with Mladenov • The Union of Democratic Forces (UDF)- coalition of dissonant groups; lead by Zhelev • Decommunization- part of the dual transition process; how to deal with the communist legacy • 1. to focus on the communists- take to court for violation against human rights • including the secret police • let most people run away to be private citizens (it was the easiest way) • taking people to court could open up wounds (citizens ratting on friends and family members) • 2. to focus on communism as an ideology • institutions- privatize land and give back to farmers, get rid of the secret police, open up society, make a functioning parliament, update to a democratic constitution • this one tended to be more favored; done more often; Zhelev liked this one • Parliamentary Electoral History (for Prime Minister) • January 1990- Bulgarian communist party has a big convention and make the decision they would lead the dual transition • changed name to Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) • Round Table Negotiations- members of the opposition involved (get ready for first elections) • June 1990- first F3C elections has a product of the round table negotiations (was within the first 6 months) • BSP wins- devoid of Marxism; pro-democratic • threshold level of 4% • UDF and BANU join and play the role of the minority opposition • 1991- write first constitution • structure of government: • Executive • president (head of state) and prime minister (head of government) • president- 5 year terms, elected by the people • prime minister- 4 year terms • Legislature • prime minister- 4 year terms • Legislature • unicameral • 240 deputies • proportional representation • 4 year terms • UDF splits into UDF Movement Party • Fall of 1991- new elections due to a new constitution • UDF movement wins 34.5% of the vote, BSP wins 33%, the Movement for Rights and Freedoms wins 8% (MRF) • MRF joins UDF and win the majority • Fall of 1994- corruption collapses the government • December 1994 election- BSP wins • 1997- BSP dissolves the government and calls for new elections • thinks they’re going to win; but there are fixed terms • UDF wins • 2001 election- the National Movement wins • old King’s son comes home and makes a party- the National Movement Simian Party • Simian II becomes prime minister • BSP never makes it over the 4% threshold level (they disappear) • also have a Presidential election this year- the candidate from the BSP wins • 2005 election- coalition for Bulgaria wins • the leading party of this coalition- BSP • 2009 election- Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria (GERB) wins • 2013- BSP of a coalition wins • Democratic Consolidation? • approx. 18 years • yes to a constitution • not much party stability • yes to pro-democratic • questionable elite commitment • members of European Union and NATO • Medium D • Albania • fun facts • breaks off from Ottoman Empire, not a creation of the Treaty of Versailles, becomes independent in 1913 Versailles, becomes independent in 1913 • the tension- making irredentist claims (wanting land bank); nation states; has a traditional culture (tribal based society) through clans (created clan warfare) • a southern front in WWI; it is said this is where the war was lost • Treaty of Versailles (after WWI) re-recognizes Albania • it was a “failed state”- has no functioning or a limited central government; stays this way until 1924 • no democratic legacy • 1924- Fan Noli (orthodox bishop); attempts to turn Albania into a fully functioning state; not very good at this, only last 6 months, and a coup occurs • coup leader- Ahmet Zog, very successful at pulling Albania out of its failed state status; sets up a nationalize bureaucracy/national police and a central government, writes a constitution, has a parliament, has a judiciary (but overrules its’rulings) • is a dictator • needs outside help, turns to Italy (Mussolini, 1930’s), a fascist society; receives aid • until April 1939- Mussolini annexes Albania (idea came from the Nazis)... Zog flees the country and Albania looses its sovereignty to Italy • 1939- WWII • National Liberation Movement (NLM)- a group of fascists that are fighting the communists • Albania also occupied by Germany, and fighting Albanian Nationalists groups • 1943- Mussolini pulls out of Albania and from the war • 1944- the fascists leave (Wehrmacht) • Joseph Tito is the leader of an opposition group in Yugoslavia, called the Partisans (communist opposition against the Wehrmacht) • supports NLM and continues to so so even after Wehrmacht pulls out • communists take over • Red Army never makes it here; this is why the communists never had to hold elections due to a lack of promises to allies • first country in central Europe (to use communism), and last to switch back over (in 1941) • Hoxha- leader of Albanian communist party • tension in the party between Hoxha and Xoxe • Xoxe- wants to make Albania part of Yugoslavia (the 7th province); along with Tito with Tito • 1948- Tito / Stalin Rift; there is tension • its Tito and Xoxe and Stalin and Hoxha • Stalin wins and cuts of Tito; Hoxha declares Xoxe (and friends) enemies of the state and executes them • massive purges start to occur • Goals • 1. maintain an independent and sovereign Albania • 2. strengthen the communist rift (control) over Albanian society • 3. modernizes economic deprivation and agricultural collectivization • sets up a brutal police, has periodic massive purges, outlaws religion and destroys churches • no private businesses or small family owned farms; complete isolation from the west • very controlling; no civil society; largely centralized • Hoxha takes complete control; he is a Stalinist • in charge for the next 40 years; longest serving communist dictator (until he dies) • he is brutal • in the end, he turns to the Chinese for aid; and as the Chinese people were starving, they were sending wheat to Albania • modernize Albania along the Stalinist model of economic development (deprivation and agricultural collectivization) • NO private property anywhere in Albania • complete control; no revolutions here • 1985- Hoxha dies; Alia becomes new leader of Albania • Alia- very important in foreign diplomatic affairs; appointed as PM • Hoxha trains this guy for years • a very smooth transition • Alia • inherited a people who were demoralized and fearful, an isolated country, a corrupt bureaucracy... a broken country • thinks they need Glasnost and Perestroika (reforms) but reluctant because: • 1. does not want to question Hoxha’s legacy; he was very loyal to Hoxha • 2. if he was going to need this, he was going to need support from Albanian communist party and bureaucracy • 3. it was scary to the Albanian people; they thought it would cause instability • only made slight and slow reforms (piecemeal reform) • does begin to open up Albania to the west; west sends aid • only made slight and slow reforms (piecemeal reform) • does begin to open up Albania to the west; west sends aid • unfortunately, they become indebted to western banks • Nov 1990: Alia creates this series of reforms called Strengthening Democracy (though they aren’t a democracy) • glasnost and perestroika- opening up of the political system • Dec 1990: (a whole year after central Europe has start dual transitions) • college students protest in the streets; workers then join (secret police are trying to shoot at and arrest people, but they cannot control them) • government looses control; Alia and the party surrenders (giving in but still in charge vs. resigning- leaving) • first main political party of the opposition- The Democratic Party (DP) • people are still fleeing and the economy is crashing • have an election in a highly charged society • March 1991: first elections • Electoral History • March 1991: first elections • Albanian Communist Party change their name to the Albanian Socialist Party (ASP) and win this election • opposition is very weak • unicameral Parliament (the People’s Assembly) consists of 250 seats; the ASP wins 169 of these seats (more than 2/3; can do whatever they want) • the Democratic Party wins 75 seats • they draft a new, provisional constitution • March 1992: new elections • because the government cannot handle the country (fallen economy and revolting people) • unicameral Parliament drops to 140 seats • the Democratic Party and its allies win 100 seats (more then 2/3) • DP in power for 4 years • 1995- DP passes a law (“The Genocide Law”) that states that if you were a top ranking communist official, a member of the secret police, or a secret police informant, you could not run for a political position/office until Jan 2002 • the ASP were all of these people... • no one will remember them by then • this makes it a one party system (this is not democracy) • a form of decommunization; focus on the communists • 1996: DP win 122 out of 140 seats; ASP wins 10 • April 1997: the Albanian economy (banking system) collapses • April 1997: the Albanian economy (banking system) collapses • it was a pyramid/ponsy scheme- an illegal scheme of return investments (as long as people keep feeding into the system) • the banks were doing this with each other • the whole thing collapsed; half of Albanian people lost their savings • the government did not have the wherewithal to fix this • Albania becomes a failed state. • people are fleeing and dying again • European Union- Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSC) come to the rescue • reestablish the rule of law • June 1997: another election in a highly charged political environment • ASP wins • 1998: the few of the DP that had won seats leave Parliament (not a single member of the DP are sitting in Parliament until 1 year later) • 2001: ASP wins (but not overwhelmingly) • 2005: DP wins (barely) by a coalition government • 2009: DP wins again (barely) with a coalition government (Alliance of Changes) • 2013: ASP wins • Democratic Consolidation? • barely • little D or little A • Yugoslavia (“south”-Yug; “land of the southern slavs”-slavia) • creation of the Treaty of Versailles • 6 provinces: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia • Bulcan Peninsula- very mountainous • WWII • Germany invades Yugoslavia (Germany’s southern flank) in the Spring of 1941 • the Wehrmacht (works with Ustasa) • the Opposition: • major leader of opposition forces- Joseph Tito, leader of the Partisans (backed by the west) • Partisans are made up of the ethnic groups of Yugoslavia; they are the communists • against the German fascists • managed to overcome 125,000 german soldiers • another opposition group- the Cetniks (the Serb nationalists) • managed to overcome 125,000 german soldiers • another opposition group- the Cetniks (the Serb nationalists) • Serbia- biggest of Yugoslavia and the highest population • another group- the Ustasa (ethnic Croats) • 1944: Wehrmacht pulls out of Yugoslavia as the Red Army moves towards Berlin • Ustasa looses their base of support • Cetniks are too small; therefore, Tito consolidates all power • Red army never makes it to Yugoslavia • 1945: Tito takes over (compete power) • allows some elections to take place (not because of Stalin) • 90% vote to the communists; Tito is beloved • he starts massive industrialization, purges the opposition, sets up a secret police (no KGB), cult-like, agricultural collectivization • Stalinist; does not want to antagonize Stalin (does what Stalin wants him to do) • Stalin is jealous of Tito; he is suspicious of him • has to be a strong leader in order to stabilize the hatred between the countries • 1947-’48: Tito is realizing that Stalin has a strategy to take of Yugoslavia • it is a front line country, and has access to the Adriatic sea • wants Tito to allow red army bases in the country, to allow the KGB to work in the country, to allow soviet handymen to teach him the communist ways • Tito says no... • Stalin shot the messenger. • The Stalin-Tito Rift • Truman decides to provide aid (Martian Plan Money) to the communist countries because he knew Stalin would say no (and look bad, causing the Cold War) • Tito managed to hold Stalin’s power to a limit, and was receiving western aid • Stalin cuts off all ties, and shuts down the border between eastern Europe and Yugoslavia • red army forces prepare to invade Yugoslavia • Tito was able to resist because of 1. the support of the west (diplomatic and aid), 2. the Yugoslavs People’s Front (Yugoslavia’s communist party), and 3. the backing/support of the Yugoslav people (rather Tito than Stalin) • could not have survived without all of these three things; Stalin would have taken over would have taken over • but he is reminded that he is a communist... • Tito’s explanation- the capitalists will become communists one day anyway, why wait to take their money? (a marxist theory) • Yugoslavia becomes the most free communist region and remains a sovereign state during the Cold war • free banking, media, traveling and tourism, ect. • Tito and Stalin throw threats back and forth, and Tito calls Stalin’s bluff • Stalin isolates Yugoslavia but does not invade it • Titoism: 3 main components • Self-Management: Yugoslavia manages their own affairs; need no help from the soviet union • typically, when a country said they wanted to do it their way, Stalin sent in Warsaw Pact forces • Nonalignment: Yugoslavia will be neutral in the Cold War; not members of the Warsaw Pact or of NATO (not belonging to the west or the east) • this way if WWIII breaks out, Yugoslavia will sit it out • Federalism: a federal system (power divided between a central government and subdivisional governments) is set up • 6 sub-governments, one for each sovereign state • solution to the competitive nationalism between each state; to keep a semi-peaceful unity • 3 Great Debates (Tito): pendulums • expand, maintain, restrict • sovereign government (states have power, confederacy), federalism, central government (all power to central gov) • north (more capitalistic, better economy), economy, south (command economy; doing poorly) • Does Tito distribute economic help to North or South? • North gets better return • South complains until it gets help but then the North complains • needs balance • Tito manages all of these balances • left side of Teeter-Totters are reformers • right side of teeter-totters are hardliners, commies
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