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Final Study Guide

by: Ally Lappe

Final Study Guide BSC 216

Ally Lappe
GPA 3.93
Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. Fluker

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Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. Fluker
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ally Lappe on Wednesday March 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 216 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Fluker in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology II in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 03/25/15
Male Reproductive System Main learning outcomes l Identify the most fundamental biological distinction between male and female Men s urinary and reproductive systems are one while females are separate l Define primary sex organs secondary sex organs and secondary sex characteristics Primary sex organs are those that produce gametes testes and ovaries Secondary sex organs are the others involved that are necessary for reproduction Secondary sex characteristics are features that further distinguish the sexes and play a role in mate attraction facial hair breast enlargement voice pitch Explain the role of the sex chromosomes in determining sex Males produce half X cells halfY Depending on which sperm fertilizes the egg the zygote will be male XY or female XX Explain how the Y chromosome determines the response of the fetal gonad to prenatal hormones The SRY gene on the Y chromosome codes for the protein testes determining factor that initiates the development of the testes Testosterone is secreted around 8 to 9 weeks while stimulates mesonephric ducts to develop into the male anatomy while secreting mUllerianinhibiting factor causing degeneration of the paramesonephric ducts l Identify which of the male and female external genitalia are homologous to each other Head of penis and clitoris Penis and labia minora Scrotum and labia majora l Describe the descent of the gonads and explain why it is important The gubernaculum guides the descent of the testes through the inguinal canal around 7 months This is required to maintan proper temperature for spermatogenesis l Describe temperature regulation in the scrotum Three mechanisms regulate testes temperature the cremaster muscle is made of internal abdominal oblique muscle and contracts when cold to draw testes upward and relaxes in warm temperatures to lower testes The Dortos muscle is a layer of smooth muscle beneath the skin which contracts to wrinkle scrotum and hold it close to the body in cold temperatures to reduce heat loss The pampiniform plexus is a system of veins which wrap around the penile artery to draw heat from the oxygenated blood to further regulate temperature l Describe the pathway taken by a sperm cell from its formation to its ejaculation naming all the passages it travels Seminiferous tubule rete testis efferent ductules head of epididymis sperm mature tail of epididymis vas deferens ampulla ejaculatory duct urethra State the names locations and basic functions of the male accessory reproductive glands The seminal vesicle secretes into the ejaculatory duct 60 of semen The prostate glad secretes a milk secretion into the prostatic urethra which makes up 30 of semen Finally the bulbourethral gland secretes a slippery uid directly into the urethra which protects the sperm by neutralizing urine acidity and lubricates the head of the penis 10 l Understand meiosis and the outcome of this cell division l Describe the sequence of cell types in spermatogenesis and relate these to the stages of meiosis Spermatogonia 2n Type A and B daughter cells 2n Type B cells 2n primary spermatocyte 2n secondary spermatocyte 1n spermatids 1n l Describe the composition of semen and functions of its components 60 seminal vesicle uid 30 prostatic uid 10 sperm and spermatic duct secretions Stickiness of semen promotes fertilization through the clotting enzyme proseminogelin and seminogelin which entangles sperm and keeps it from draining out 20 to 30 minutes later serine protease breaks down seminogelin and lique es semen so it may travel and fertilize Prostaglandins thin the mucus of cervix stimulating peristaltic waves in uterus Semen requires elevated pH to 75 and sugar energy sources to prompt mitochondria of agellum l Describe the blood and nerve supply to the penis The internal pudendal penile artery enters the penis and divides into two subsections The dorsal artery travels under the skin dorsally and supplies blood to the skin fascia and corpus spongiosum The deep artery travels through the core of the corpus cavernosa and its dilation causes an erection The dorsal nerve and internal pudendal nerves lead to the integrating center in the sacral spinal cord where both autonomic and somatic motor bers carry impulses Sympathetics induce erection by special senses and thoughts while the parasympathetics induce erection by direct stimulation Explain how these govern erection and ejaculation Fig 2718 Erection 5 due to parasympathetic triggering of nitrous oxide secretion causing dilation and lling of arteries The sympathetic system stimulates peristalsis in emission to propel semen through ducts then semen in the urethra activates somatic and sympathetic re exes to stimulate muscle contractions for expulsion During the resolution phase sympathetic signals constrict the internal pudendal artery to reduce blood ow resulting in detumescence accidity Other more detailed questions to help you study l Which substance does the SRY gene code for It codes for testesdetermining factor which initiates development of the testes Secretion of testosterone and mUIIerianinhibiting factor How does SRY testesdetermining factor and testosterone contribute to sexual differentiation In other words what do these substances do to a sexually undifferentiated individual When testosterone is secreted at 89 weeks the mesonephric ducts begin to develop into the male anatomy while the testes secrete mUIIerianinhibiting factor to degrade the paramesonephric ducts l Which kinds of neurons associated with the penis or clitoris are activated when you think or engage erotically To which regions of the central nervous system do these neurons send signals about arousal Both autonomic and somatic motor bers carry impulses from the integrating center When you think erotically the sympathetic nervous system sends signals and the parasympathetic system is induced by mechanical stimulation l Does the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous system control arousal eg engorgement erection lubrication of penisclitoris The excitement phase is enduced by the parasympathetic triggering of nitric oxide NO secretion which causes dilation of deep arteries and lling up with blood l Which kinds of neurotransmitters are involved in relaxing arterial smooth muscle in the penisclitoris to stimulate arousal Parasympathetic nitrous oxide NO Which kinds of neurons associated with the penisclitoris will trigger orgasmejaculation The sympathetic neurons stimulate peristalsis to propel semen through the ducts as glandular secretions are added then this semen activates somatic and sympathetic re exes which stimulate muscular contractions for expulsion What 3 things act to regulate temperature in the scrotum What do each of these things do The cremaster muscle contracts in cold to draw the testes up and relaxes in warm weather to lower them The Dartos muscle contracts to wrinkle scrotum and draw testes closer to the body to conserve heat when in cold conditions The pampiniform plexus wraps the penile artery to draw heat from the blood supply entering the testes l Although estrogen is involved in development of female reproductive traits during puberty why is estrogen not directly responsible for female fetal development Females are created in the absence of androgens rather than the presence of estrogen as estrogen is present in both male and female differentiation What are the 3 main events during spermatogenesis Remodeling of the large germ cells into smaller motile units reduction of chromosome number by half and shuf ing and crossing over of genes for genetic variation Can you describe the steps of spermatogenesis in detail see notes A spermatagoonium is divided into two parts by mitosis A and B Type B daughter cell is 2n and grows into a primary spermatocyte This primary cell then undergoes Meiosis l resulting in a 1n secondary spermatocyte Meiosis ll then further changes this cell into a spermatid What happens during spermiogenesis A tailed sperm from spermatids is produced Acrosomal enzymes are packaged into an acrosome from the golgi complex within the spermatid Microtubules then arrange to form a agella while mitochondria rapidly multiply and position themselves along the newly formed agella Excess cytoplasm is then removes to increase streamlined motility How does semen promote fertilization Can you describe the neural control of male stages of excitement orgasm and resolution see g 2718 Semen promotes fertilization by clumping together due to brinlike proseminogelin and seminogelin produced by prostatic semen This clot helps it from being expelled from the vagina until in 2030 minutes muscular contractions induced by semine protease can make the spermatozoa motile for activity The pelvic nerve excites the area by parasympathetic signals then efferent sympathetic signals induce orgasm Orgasm propels semen into the urethra when efferent sympathetic and somatic signals initiate expulsion of the semen Finally efferent sympathetic signals induce resolution What are the male and female gonads Gametes Male testes produce spermatozoasperm Female ovaries produce oocytesovums What happens to unused sperm Where are sperm stored and how long They are stored in the epididymis tail for 4060 days then are reabsorbed if unused l During Meiosis I which process creates new genetic combinations Crossing over of tetrads during Prophase l I Why is Meiosis I called reduction division Because at the end of Meiosis l the gamete is haploid 1n What happens in Meiosis ll How many cells result from Meiosis ll The cell divides in half without replicating 4 daughter cells produced Chapter 28 Study Guide Describe the structures of the ovary uterine tubes uterus and vagina The ovaries are almond shaped and are set in the ovarian fossa of the posterior pelvic wall There is a tunica albuginea capsule an outer cortex where germ cells develop an inner medulla occupied by arteries and veins but lacks ducts because each egg develops in its own follicle The uterine tubes are paired canals about 10cm long from the ovary to the uterus It is highly muscular and lined with ciliated cells folded into longitudinal ridges The uterus is a thick muscular chamber that is pearshaped with a fundus curvature body and cervix It is made up of an endometrium myometrium and perimetrium The endometrium stratum functionalis sheds each month while the stratum basalis stays to regenerate new lining The vagina is a 10cm muscular tube with vaginal rugae ridges and mucosal folds hymen It contains no glands l Identify the ligaments that support the female reproductive organs Ovarian ligament broad ligament suspensory ligament and round ligament Name the hormones that regulate female reproductive function and state their roles Puberty is triggered by rising levels of GnRH gonaotrophicreleasing hormone which stimulates the pituitary to produce folliclestimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone FSH stimulates ovarian follicles to secrete estrogen progesterone inhibin and androgen Estrogens are feminizing hormones such as estradiol estriol and estrone Estradio stimulates vaginal metaplasia growth of ovaries and growth hormone secretion Progesterone primarily acts on the uterus preparing it for pregnancy These suppress FSH and LH secretion through negative feedback and create the menstrual cycle l Describe the principal signs of puberty l Describe the hormonal changes of female climacteric and their effects The principle signs are thelarche which is the onset of breast development by estrogen progesterone and prolactin Pubarche the appearance of pubic hair sebaceous glands and axillary glands by androgens from ovaries and adrenal cortex Menarche is the rst menstrual period by leptin stimulation of gonadotrophin secretion Climacteric begins when there are about 1000 eggs left so less estrogen and progesterone is secreted resulting in atrophy of vagina uterus and breasts Cholesterol rises bone mass decreases vaginal infections become more common skin thins vessels constrict and dilate and hot ashes occur l Define and describe menopause and distinguish menopause from climacteric Menopause is the actual cessation of menstruation while climacteric is a change in hormone secretion before menstruation l Describe the process of egg production oogenesis and relate it to stages of meiosis As the fetus is growing the female germ cells arise from the yolk sac and colonize gonadal ridges The cells differentiate into oogonia and multiply by mitosis until the 5th month These then transform into primary oocytes and arrest in Meiosis Most degenerate by atresia before the female is born In adolescence egg development resumes FSH stimulates monthly cohorts of oocytes to complete meiosis l Each oocyte divides into two haploid cells The larger of the produces cells is now a secondary oocyte and will proceed through Metaphase ll then arrests If this egg is fertilized it will complete Meiosis II The smaller of the haploid daughters is the rst polar body and is a way of discarding one set of chromosomes l Describe changes in the ovarian follicles folliculogenesis in relation to oogenesis Folliculogenesis begins as a primordial follicle primary oocytes within which are concentrated in the ovarian cortex to await development Next are primary follicles which have larger primary oocytes but their follicular cells are still in a single layer Secondary follicles contain larger secondary oocytes and the follicular cells are not strati ed granulosa cells There is a zona pellucida which is a layer of glycoprotein gel and a theca folliculi which is connective tissue to form a brous husk Tertiary follicles occur when granulosa cells begin secreting follicular uid which pools to create an antrum Mature Graa an follicles are then produced each month which is destined to ovulate l Describe the hormonal events that regulate the ovarian cycle The follicular phase extends from the beginning of menstruation until ovulation day 114 There is a selection wndow of 5 days where one follicle is selected to mature and ovulate FSH stimulates continued growth and the secretion of estradiol from the granulosa cells During the ovulation stage the mature follicle ruptures Estradiol stimulates a rush of Luteinizing hormone which makes an oocyte complete meisosis l and rapidly grow to ovulate a secondary oocyte The uterine tube prepares to catch the oocyte and swells as the mbriae envelop the ovary to ciliate the egg into the uterine tube The third phase is luteal postovulatory phase day 15 to 28 If pregnancy does not occur the follicle becomes the corpus luteum by LH stimulation to secrete estradiol and progesterone 10 fold increase in progesterone is most important which prepares the uterus for the possibility of pregnancy Too much estrogen and progesterone have a negative feedback on the pituitary and the corpus luteum begins involution shrinkage into corpus albicans scar tissue As the ovarian hormones cease FSH levels rise to stimulate new follicles l Describe how the uterus changes during the menstrual cycle The endometrium builds up and then breaks down Proliferative phase secretory phase premenstrual phase and menstrual phase Proliferative phase is the layer of endometrial tissue rebuilding by secretion of estrogen by follicles In the secretory phase the endometrium thickens more in response to progesterone from corpus luteum after ovulation and endometrium secretes glycogen for nutritious bed The premenstrual phase is a period of endometrial degeneration due to falling progesterone levels menstrual uid forms The menstrual phase is the discharge of uid l Describe the female sexual response at each phase of intercourse During excitement the uterus stands more superiorly blood ow increases and vagina dilates At plateau the uterus is erected and the cervix is withdrawn from the vagina lower onethird of vagina constricts penis At orgasm the orgasmic platform contracts rhythmically and uterus exhibits peristaltic contractions other sphincters constrict At resolution the uterus returns to original position Compare and contrast the female and male responses List the major hormones that regulate pregnancy and explain their roles Estorgens progesterone human chorionic gonadotrophin and human chorionic somatomammotrophin are all primarily secreted by the placenta Human chorionic gonadotrophin is secreted by blastocyst and placenta and is detectable in home pregnancy kits lt stimulates the growth of the corpus luteum Estrogens are secreted by the corpus luteum until the placenta takes over gradually at week 12 They cause tissue growth in fetus and mother Progesterone is secreted by the placenta and corpus luteum and suppresses secretion of FSH and LH preventing follicular development during pregnancy and thickens endometrium by preventing menstruation Human chorionic somatomammotrophin is secreted at 5 weeks by placenta and its effects are similar to growth hormone but weaker and allows more insulin for the fetus l Describe a woman39s bodily adaptations to pregnancy Morning sickness constipation and heartburn due to reduced intestinal motility and pressure on stomach Metabolism increases in second half of gestation Blood volume and cardiac output rises 30 Tidal volume increases 40 Progesterone increases the sensitivity of chemoreceptors to carbon dioxide due to pressure on diaphragm making her 02 hungry Water and salt retention Glomerular ltration rate increases l Identify the physical and chemical stimuli that increase uterine contractility in late pregnancy Braxton Hicks contractions are weak and occur throughout gestation false labor Parturition is the process of giving birth by true labor contractions As progesterone falls uterine contractions increase and estradiol increases also stimulating these As pregnancy nears full term more oxytocin is released and more OT receptors are made l Describe the mechanisms of labor contractions The head of the fetus pushes the cervix leading to secretion of oxytocin stimulating contractions to push fetus downward Name and describe the three stages of labor Diation is the longest stage and is the widening of the cervical canal and thinning of cervix to 10cm Water breaks Expulsion stage begins when the head enters the vagina The placental stage is when uterine contractions continue causing placental separation l Describe the physiological changes that occur in a woman during the weeks following childbirth This is called the puerperium and everything stabilizes are organs return to pregravid state There is involution of the uterus by autolysis by lysomes in the uterus Breast feeding helps by suppressing estrogen and stimulating oxytocin l Describe development of the breasts in pregnancy l Describe the shifting hormonal balance that regulates the onset and continuation of lactation Proactin promotes milk synthesis every time the infant nurses for the next hour to make milk for the next feeding l Contrast colostrum with breast milk Colostrum is thinner and watery and contains one third less fat Contains lgA to protect baby from gastroenteritis Discuss the benefits of breastfeeding Supplies antibodies clears infant intestine of meconium bile and has proper nutrients Other more detailed questions to help you study What are the female gonads called l Which ligaments anchor the floating ovaries in place To where do these ligaments anchor the ovaries What is the functional difference between the cortex and medulla of the ovary In other words what does each of them function to do Where are ovarian follicles located What distinguishes primary follicles from granulose cells What is the antrum How can you easily identify a Graafian follicle What is the corpus luteum And what is its main function What are the functions of the fallopian tube Which mechanisms does the fallopian tube use to prevent oocytes from dropping into the peritoneal cavity Hint the mbriae and infundibulum are involved What are the main functions of the uterus What is the cervix Where is it located What is the function of mucus secretions from the cervical canal What are the 3 layers of the uterine wall Which kinds of tissue are they composed of What are the 2 main layers of the endometrium What are their funcUons What are the main functions of the vagina Where is the urethra located relative to the vaginal ori ce What does the abundance of dendritic cells in the vagina have to do with the transmission of sexual diseases What is the mons pubis l The labia majora and labia minora are homologous to which male reproductive characteristics To which male characteristic is the clitoris homologous What is the vestibule Which two openings does it contain l Which characteristics does the clitoris share with the penis at least 3 l Which glands are modified to become mammary glands What is the basic composition of milk Why is it important for women to breast feed instead of giving kids quotcow s milkquot for example With respect to oogenesis what are 2 novel characteristics about female meiosis Can you describe the process of meiosis and female oocyteovum development What happens during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle and for how long does this phase typically last How about the luteal phase l Approximately when does ovulation occur What are the characteristics of the menstrual proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle Which hormone is secreted in high levels during the proliferative phase Which hormone is secreted in high levels during the secretory phase Chapter 29 Study Guide Describe the process of sperm migration and fertilization Egg must be fertilized within 12 to 24 hours of ovulation within the distal one third of the uterine tube What two layers of the ovum does the sperm need to penetrate for fertilization to occur It must penetrate the granulosa cells then the zona peucida How is the acrosome of the sperm involved in this penetration Two acrosomal enzymes facilitate penetration hyaluronidase and acrosin Hyaluronidase digests the hyaluronic acid that binds together granulosa cells while acrosin is a protease to digest membranes What is the acrosome reaction Exocytosis of the acrosome releasing enzymes Explain how an egg prevents fertilization by more than one sperm Fast block binding of the sperm open Na channels which depolarize the membrane to inhibit attachment of any more sperm Slow block involves secretory cortical granules below the egg membrane which releases an in ow of Ca2 to stimulate cortical reaction in which the zona peucida swells pushing any remaining sperm away with an impenetrable fertilization membrane The super cial layer of the trophoblast fuses with the endometrium and grows into the uterus as the endometrium reforms around the cell ball This stimulates the corpus luteum to secrete estrogen and progesterone ceasing menstruation Embryogenesis then occurs and is the arrangement of blastomeres into three primary germ layers ectoderm mesoderm and endoderm l Describe the stages of prenatal development and defining characteristics of each Ceavage involves the rapid growth in cell number of the zygote into a morula and blastocyst Implantation begins as the blastocyst attaches to the uterine wall 6 days after ovulation l Describe the formation and functions of the placenta The placenta forms from the chorionic villi and trophoblast Nutrients diffuse from the mothers blood through the placenta into the fetal blood The placenta nourishes excretes respirates provides endocrines and provides immunity Explain how the conceptus is nourished before the placenta takes over this function It is nourished by uterine milk trophoblastic nutrition and placental nutrition Uterine milk is glycogen rich and is secreted by the uterine tubes and endometrial glands before implantation Trophoblastic nutrition is the consumption of endometrial decidual cells Progesterone causes the decidual cells to multiply and accumulate glycogen lipids and proteins As conceptus burrows into endometrium the syncytiotrophoblast digests them and supplies nutrients Only nutrition for rst week after implantation l Describe the embryonic membranes and their functions The amnion is a transparent sac around the embryo which lls with uid to protect the embryo from trauma temperature uctuations and infections The yolk sac contributes to the formation of the GI tract blood cells and future egg or sperm cells Allantosis is an outpocketing of the yolk sac which is the foundation for the umbilical cord and eventually becomes the urinary bladder The chorion is the outermost membrane and has villi for oxygenation of fetal blood l Identify the major tissues derived from the primary germ layers The endoderm forms most of the digestive and respiratory tracts The mesoderm differentiates into a loose fetal connective tissue mesenchyme which gives rise to muscle bone and blood The ectoderm forms the integuement cutaneous glands and nervous system Know major events of prenatal development at 4 12 20 and 28 weeks 4 weeks Vertebral column and nervous system begin to form limbs are small buds heart beats at 22 days no eyes nose or ears 12 weeks Eyes developed nose and ears present limbs formed digits with ngernails fetus swallows amniotic uid and produces urine movements but weak liver produces bile sexes can be distinguished 20 weeks ne hair lanugo cheeselike covering vernix caseosa brown fat forms bent in fetal position and crowded movements strong ultrasounds to determine sex 28 weeks eyes fully open eyelashes formed full head of hair upside down position testes begin to descend typically viable if born


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