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Exam 1 Guide

by: Ally Lappe

Exam 1 Guide BSC 216

Ally Lappe
GPA 3.93
Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. Fluker

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Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. Fluker
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ally Lappe on Wednesday March 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 216 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Fluker in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology II in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 03/25/15
Chapter 18 Study Guide Can you name at least 3 major functions of blood and provide examples 1 Transport oxygen wastes and signaling molecules hormones 2 Protection against blood loss and infection 3 Regulation of body temperature pH and uid volume What is a formed element Any of the 7 cells in blood Erythrocytes Platelets Eosinophils Neutrophils Basophils Lymphocytes and Monocytes What is plasma What types of things are dissolved in plasma Pasma is the liquid portion of the blood It contains water proteins nutrients electrolytes nitrogenous wastes hormones and gases Three major categories of plasma proteins albumins blood pressure ow and uid balance globulins antibodies and brinogen clots Why is blood not a typical connective tissue It is the only liquid connective tissue What are the 3 primary cellular components of blood Erythrocytes heaviest Leukocytes and platelets buffy coat and plasma lightest Approximately what volume of blood does plasma occupy Pasma is approximately 55 of the total blood volume Do erythrocytes have nuclei No What is the bene t of erythrocytes being attened l The have a large surface area to volume ratio which is ideal for ef cient gas exchange What is hemoglobin What is it composed of speci cally What is its func on Hemoglobin is what binds with oxygen It is composed of four protein chains Globins Each polypeptide chain is bound to a heme group and each heme contains one iron atom These iron atoms can then bind reversibly with one molecule of oxygen What is hematopoiesis Hematopoiesis is the production of blood especially its formed elements Where is most of the red bone marrow located Mostly in axial skeleton girdles epiphyses of humerus and femur Can you describe the process of erythropoiesis including the types of stem cells from which erythrocytes are derived what commitment means what happens during the different phases when they eject the nucleus and why it s important to know how many reticulocytes are being produced Hemopoietic stem cells become colonyforming units CFUs which are committed to becoming erythrocytes These cells then become Erythroblasts which multiply and synthesize hemoglobin then discard their nucleus The new cell is called a Reticulocyte and still has ribosomes There are typically 05 to 15 reticulocytes in your blood Can you explain why it s important to maintain proper erythrocyte counts in the blood Maintenance of proper erythrocyte count is crucial in avoiding hypoxemia oxygen deprivation or viscosity too many RBCs Which hormone is responsible for maintaining blood oxygen homeostasis eg correcting for hypoxemia How does the process of maintaining blood oxygen homeostasis work Erythropoietin EPO is crucial in maintenance because it stimulates bone marrow to manufacture more RBCs when the count is low Anytime a drop in RBCs occurs a negative feedback loop ensues the kidney produces erythropoietin to stimulate marrow which increases RBC count in 3 to 4 days How are erythrocytes destroyed Where does the iron go What are the heme pigments transformed into and where do they go for excretion Erythrocytes typically live for 120 days then break up in the liver and spleen The iron is removed from the heme and recycled Heme is degraded into bilirubin and lost in feces or urine What is anemia and can you distinguish between the major types Anemia is a decrease in blood s oxygen carrying capacity and is often caused by kidney failure or dietary de ciency Three main categories Inadequate erythropoiesis or hemoglobin synthesis hemorrhagic anemia blood loss or hemolytic anemia premature rupture Nutritional anemias can occur due to insufficient iron ingestion or absorption Pernicious anemia is a result of poor vitamin 812 absorption and protein synthesis Do leukocytes possess nuclei and organelles Yes What is the main role of leukocytes Leukocytes are necessary to combat diseases derived from bacteria viruses parasites toxins and cancerous cells What is diapedesis and how does it relate to the primary function of leukocytes Diapedesis is the ability of WBCs to travel out of capillaries into tissues as an in ammatory response What is positive chemotaxis and how does it relate to leukocyte behavior Chemotaxis is the movement of leukocytes to areas where they are needed as a result of chemical cues released by damaged cells How can you identify granulocytes under the microscope Granulocytes are sphere shaped and larger than RBCs with lobed nuclei What are the 3 major types of granulocytes Their functions 1 Neutrophils phagocytize bacteria and release antimicrobial chemicals 2 Eosinophils phagocytize antigen antibody complexes allergens etc and release parasite destroying enzymes 3 Basophils secrete histamine which increases blood ow ad secretes heparin which prevents clotting and allows WBC mobility What are the 2 major types of agranuloctyes Their functions 1 Lymphocytes destroy cancer cells viral infections and foreign cells activate other cells of the immune system secrete antibodies and serve in immune memory 2 Monocytes differentiate into macrophages which phagocytize huge pathogens and debris and activate other cells of the immune system Which types of chemicals trigger leukopoiesis Which type of primary stem cell gives rise to ALL leukocytes Hemopoietic stem cells Which type of secondary stem cell gives rise to granulocytes and monocytes Myeloblasts and monoblasts give rise to these Which type of secondary stem cell gives rise to the lymphocytes Lymphoblasts How does the differentiation process differ for granulocytes and monocytes Granulocytes have many different steps while monocytes change little to completion How does the differentiation process differ for monocytes and lymphocytes One type of monocytic CFU makes one type of monocyte One lymphocytic CFU differentiates into three kinds of lymphocytes What are platelets Which hormone triggers their development What kind of stem cell are they derived from What is unique about the megakaryocyte Platelets are cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes The hormone thrombopoietin initiates megakaryocyte formation These develop from the same hemopoietic stem cells as the others but undergo repeated DNA replication without cell division Also the megakaryocyte is attached to the capillary and breaks off pieces into the blood stream De ne hemostasis Hemostasis is the clotting of blood What is the rst step of hemostasis What exactly is a vascular spasm and how does it prevent blood loss Step 1 is a vascular spasm or a constriction of the damaged vessel By constricting les blood is able to escape How does a platelet plug form What s the role of collagen Tissue damage exposes collagen bers to which platelets attach and coagulate What is the general series of events that promotes brin mesh formation beginning with the platelet plug and ending with a brin clot After the plug forms clotting factors are released and the formation of brin is catalyzed by thrombin The brin then forms a mesh which traps RBCs from escaping Why is important to understand your blood type If given the wrong type of blood you will die What is the antigen agglutinogen What is the antibody agglutinin An antigen is present on the RBC and is used to distinguish self from foreign matter Antibodies bind to antigens and mark them for destruction in a transfusion mismatch What types of antigens and antibodies are found in people with A B AB and 0 blood types A have a antigens and B antibodies B have b antigens and A antibodies AB has a and b antigens and no antibodies O has no antigens and A and B antibodies If asked whether a certain blood type eg A could be donated to a person with another blood type eg AB would you be able to tell me if they are compatibleand why Yes Could you do the same as in the above bullet when adding Rh antigens into the mix Oui Can you describe why it is important to consider Rh factors in couples that plan to have a child If there is a possibility of an Rh child being born from a Rh woman there is a chance of Rh antibodies forming so that the next time they have a child the mother s body could attack the fetus Chapter 19Required Reading Section 191 All I Section 192 All but save detailed identification of structures for the LAB Most important to know terms and understand blood ow through heart Section 193 All Section 194 All Section 195 SKIP Section 196 SKIP Chapter 19 Study Guide What is the medial thoracic cavity in which the heart sits Mediastinum between the lungs What is the membranous sac surrounding the heart Pericardium Where are the parietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium located Around the heart The visceral pericardium lines the heart while the parietal lines all the surrounding organs and bones What is the function of serous membranes and associated uid The serous membrane and uids allow movement without friction Can you identify the right and left atria and ventricles of the heart Oui Which internal structures divide the right and left atria and ventricles nterventricuar septum divides the halves The interatrial septum divides the atria lWhich external structures can you use to delineate the atria from the ventricles The atria are smaller and are at the top near the aortic arch Which external structures can you use to delineate the two ventricles of the heart The left ventricle wall is much thicker because it needs more force to push blood throughout the heart Do atria receive or discharge blood Atria receive blood Starting at the right atrium can you describe the ow of blood through each structure of the heart ending at the aorta Right atrium tricuspid right ventricle pulmonary arteries lungs pulmonary veins left atrium bicuspid left ventricle aorta From which veins does the right atrium receive blood And where are these veins bringing blood from The superior and inferior vena cava these veins bring blood from throughout the body From which veins does the left atrium receive blood And where are these veins bringing blood from From the pulmonary veins bringing oxygenated blood from the lungs Do ventricles receive or discharge blood Discharge Where does the right ventricle pump blood to To the lungs Where does the left ventricle pump blood to To the systemic circuit What are the papillary muscles Where are they located They are located on the oor of ventricles and are attached to chordae tendineae to prevent ipping of valves Starting at the right ventricle can you take me through the pulmonary and systemic circuits of blood ow Yes What is the primary difference between arteries and veins Arteries ow away from the heart and veins go towards it What are the differences in anatomy between the left and right ventricles Why The left ventricle is larger and thicker than the right because it requires more force to pump blood through the whole body Why must the heart have its own set of coronary arteries and veins To provide the heart itself with oxygenated blood Which arteries branch from the left coronary artery Anterior interventricular branch circum ex branch and left marginal branch Which arteries branch from the right coronary artery Right marginal branch and posterior interventricular branch lnto which atrium does the coronary sinus empty Right atrium Which vessels merge into the coronary sinus Great cardiac vein middle cardiac vein and left marginal vein What causes myocardial infarction Why is it important to catch artery blockage before a heart attack occurs It is caused by the interruption of blood supply to the heart from a clot or fatty deposit It needs to be caught quickly because it can cause muscle cell death within minutes that cannot e rebuilt In which direction does blood ow within the heart Down What is the primary function of the atrioventricular AV valves To prevent blood owing back into the atria Where are the AV valves located What is the main anatomical difference between the tricuspid and mitral valves The AV valves are located between each atria and ventricle The tricuspid has three cusps and the bicuspid mitral has two Which of the AV valves is located between the right atrium and right ventricle Tricuspid Which of the AV valves is located between the left atrium and left ventricle Bicuspid mitral What is the function of the papillary muscles and chordae tendinae heart strings To hold the valves in place and prevent them from ipping inside out Can you describe how the AV valves operate to prevent blood back ow into the atria Yes Where are the semilunar valves located The semilunar valves are located in both pathways out of the heart the aorta and the pulmonary trunk What is the primary function of the seminlunar valves To prevent back ow of blood Which of the semilunar valves is located between the left ventricle and the aorta Semilunar aortic valve Which of the semilunar valves is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery Semilunar pulmonary valve How can cardiac muscle be distinguished from skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle has intercalated discs striations What is the function of intercalated discs Desmosomes Gap juncUons ntercaated discs are where contractions occur Desmosomes prevent cardiocytes from being pulled apart Gap junctions allow ions to ow between cells to stimulate neighbor cells What is the bene t for cardiac muscle of having lots of mitochondria It can produce a lot of ATP for energy How can the heart contract independent of nervous stimulation and in a coordinated manner Due to its pacemaker cells What are the 5 locations for autorhythmic cardiac cells Are autorhytmic cardiac cells contractile What is their main function Sinoatria node atria atrioventricular node AV bundle and purkinje bers All are contractile and they coordinate the heart to beat together Which ion leaks through open channels in the autorhythmic cardiac cells to generate a slow depolarization current the pacemaker potential Na without compensationg ow of K Which ion is responsible for the rapid rise in membrane potential action potential associated with muscle contraction Ca2 Can you take me through the series of events involving authorhythmic cardiac cells that is responsible for propagating impulses from the SA node to the ventricles Kinda Why is the propagation of impulses delayed at the atrioventricular node The signal is slowed due to thin cardiocytes with fewer gap junctions which allows the ventricles to ll before contracting In addition to the authorhythmic cells which other factors in uence heart contraction eg the rate and force with which the heart contracts The sympathetic system speeds heartbeat and the parasympathetic system slows it Which heart behavior does the Pwave of an EKG correspond to The ring of the SA node the atria depolarize and contract Which heart behavior does the QRS complex of an EKG correspond to Ventricuar depolarization ST segment represents blood movement Which heart behavior does the T wave of an EKG correspond to Ventricuar repolarization and relaxation Can you tell me which authorhythmic regions are associated with the Pwave and QRS complex of an EKG SA node through AV bundles and purkinje bers What is systole The highest force contraction What is diastole Relaxation stage


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