New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Intro to Psychology Ch1

by: Courtney Collier

Intro to Psychology Ch1 PSYC 107

Courtney Collier
Texas A&M

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover what will be on the next exam
Introduction to Psychology
Jack Bodden
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Introduction to Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Collier on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 107 at Texas A&M University taught by Jack Bodden in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Texas A&M University.

Similar to PSYC 107 at Texas A&M


Reviews for Intro to Psychology Ch1


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/30/16
Chapter 1  ● 1.1  ○ Psychologists study people AND animals  ○ Psychology’s 4 primary goals  ■ Description­observing a behavior and noting what is happening, where it's  happening, to whom it's happening to and under what circumstances.  ■ Explanation­ explain why is it happening  ■ Prediction­ determining when it will happen again in the future  ■ Control­ change  a behavior from an undesirable one to a desirable one.  ● 1.2  ○ Objective introspection  ■ Wilhelm Wundt ​ father of psychology) did this.  ■ Analyze the content of ones mind  ■ Process of objectively examining and measuring your own thoughts and  mental activities.  ■ Objectivity is important because scientists need to remain unbiased.  ○ Structuralism  ■ Edward Titchener​ (Wundt’s student) did this.  ■ The structure of the mind,​ every experience can be broken down into its  individual emotions and sensations.  ○ Functionalism  ■ William James (​Harvard prof) did this.  ■ “Stream of thought” vs. elements of the mind  ■ How the mind allows people to function in the real world­ how people  work, play, and adapt to their surroundings.  ■ No longer a major perspective in psychology.  ● 1.3  ○ Gestalt Psychology   ■ The focus on studying whole patterns instead of small pieces of them  ■ Gestalt psychologists: People naturally seek out patterns (“wholes”) in  available sensory info.  ○ Sigmund Frued’s theory of psychoanalysis  ■ Believes personality is formed in the first 6 year​  if there were  significant problems, those problems must have begun in those early  years.  ■ Freudian psychoanalysis­ ”Insight therapy” based on Freud’s ideas  treating fear and anxiety.  ○ Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov)  ■ A reflex could be caused to occur in response to a formerly unrelated  stimulus. (A dog salivating when a bell is rung experiment)  ○ Behaviorism (John B. Watson)  ■ Focus only on observable behavior.  ■ Fears are learned only through experiences.  ■ Goes along with Pavlov  ■ Watson believed all behavior is learned and Freud believed behavior  stems from unconscious motivation.  ■ Counterconditioning­ Mary Cover Jones study to “cancel out” phobic  reactions like the baby and the white rat.  ● 1.4  ○ Seven Modern Perspectives in Psychology  ■ Psychodynamic Perspective (Frued)  ● The unconscious mind and its influence over conscious behavior  and on early childhood experiences.  ● Emphasis on the development of a sense of self and less on ​  . Social and interpersonal relationships, and other motivations  behind a person's behavior.  ■ Behavioral Perspective​ .F. Skinner)  ● Behaviorism  ● Continued research in classical conditioning.  ● Skinner developed operant conditioning, explains voluntary  behavior is learned and when behavioral responses are followed  by pleasurable consequences then they are strengthened.  ■ Humanistic Perspective (Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers)  ● The view that people have the freedom to choose their own  destiny and strive for the achievement of their full potential.  ● Exists today as a form of psychotherapy aimed at  self­understanding and self­improvement.  ■ Cognitive Perspective  ● Focuses on how people think, remember, store, and use info.  ● Memory, learning, intelligence.  ■ Sociocultural Perspective  ● Combines social and cultural psychology.  ● About the effect people have on each other.   ● Cross­cultural research­ the contrasts and comparisons of a  behavior or issue are compared between two or more cultures.  ■ Biopsychological Perspective  ● Human and animal behavior is seen as a direct result of events in  the body.   ● Kinda like cognitive neuroscience.  ● A part of neuroscience.  ● Hormones, heredity, brain chemicals, tumors, and diseases are  biological causes of human behavior.  ■ Evolutionary Perspective(Charles Darwin)  ● Biological, mental traits shared by ALL humans  ● 1.5  ○ Psychological Professionals  ■ Psychologist­ has no medical training but has a doctorate degree  ■ Psychiatrist­ has a medical degree and is a physician who specializes in  the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.  ■ Psychiatric Social Worker­ is trained in the area of social work and usually  possesses a masters degree in that discipline.  ■ Licensed Counselors­ has a masters degree in a psychological field,  family counseling, marriage counseling.  ○ Psychologists that don't do therapy  ■ May do research, teaching, designing equipment and workplaces and  developing educational methods.  ■ Those who research can do basic or applied research.  ■ Basic research­ research for the sake of gaining scientific knowledge.  ■ Applied research­ research aimed at answering real­world practical  problems.  ● 1.6  ○ Scientific Method and its 5 steps  ■ A system for reducing bias and error in the measurement of date.  ■ 1. Perceiving the questio​​ otice something interesting  surroundings for which​ ou would like to have an explanation.  ■ 2. Forming a Hypothesis​  Based on your initial observations of what's  going on in your surroundings,​ ou form an educated guess about the  explanation for your observation​   ■ 3. Testing the hypothesi​  To test you could either ​do a controlled  experiment, make more detailed observations, or do a survey.  ■ 4. Drawing Conclusions­​  After you have the results of your hypothesis  testing you will find that either your hypothesis was supported or it wasn't.   ■ 5. Report your Results​ Let researchers know what you found after you  get your results and they can tell you if they got the same results or not.  ​ ■ Confirmation Bias­ a kind of selective perception, when people notice only  things that agree with their view of the world.  ​ ■ Empirical Question­ A question that can be supported or disproved by  gathering real evidence.  ● 1.7  ○ Descriptive Methods  ■ Observational, Case Sudies, Surveys, Cross­sectional & longitudinal  ■ Naturalistic Observation  ● I​nvolves watching animals or people in their natural environments.  ● Allows researchers to get a realistic picture of how behavior  occurs because they are actually watching that behavior in its  natural setting.   ● Disadvantage, observer bias, the observer has a particular opinion  on what they want to see so they only recognize that behavior.  ● Disadvantage, each natural setting is unique and will never be the  same multiple times so ​researchers don't have any kind of control.  ■ Laboratory Observation  ● I​nvolves watching animals or people in an artificial but controlled  environment.  ● Allows the researcher to control everything in the laboratory.  ● Disadvantage, artificial situation that might result in artificial  behavior.  ■ Both methods of observations can lead to the formation of hypotheses  that can later be tested.  ● 1.8  ○ How case studies and surveys are used to describe behavior.  ■ Case Studies  ● One individual is studied in great de​  researchers try to learn  everything they can about that individual.  ● Advantage, the tremendous amounts of detail it provides, also the  only way to get certain information.  ● Also good ways to study things that are rare.  ● Disadvantage, researchers can’t apply results to similar people  because people are unique,​  also case studies are vulnerable to  bias.  ■ Surveys  ● Researchers will ask a series of questions about the topic they are  studying either in person, on the telephone, on the internet or with  a questionnaire​    ● Usually the questions are the same for everyone taking the  survey.  ● Advantages, researchers can get really private info and  tremendous amounts of data from hundreds of people at once.  ● Disadvantages, people aren't always going to give researchers  accurate answers, people might give answers that are “socially  acceptable” instead of their actual opinions.  ● Representative Sample: selected sample of subjects from a larger  population of subjects.  ● 1.9   ○ Correlational Technique  ■ A statistical technique, a particular w​ rganizing numerical  information so it is easier to look for patterns in the info.  ■ Correlation­ a measure of the relationship between two or more variables.  ■ Correlation Coefficient­ represents the direction of the relationship and its  strength.  ■ Positive Correlation: Variables related in same direction. (As one goes up  the other will go up)  ■ Negative Correlation: Variables related in opposite direction. (As one  goes up the other will go down)  ■ A correlation will tell researchers if there is a relationship between  variables, how strong the relationship is, and in what direction the  relationship goes.  ■ Correlation does not show causation.  ■ Factor Analysis: a class of procedures that allow the researcher to  observe a group of variables that tend to be correlated to each other and  identify the underlying dimensions that explain these correlations.    ● 1.10  ○ Steps involved in designing an experiment.  ■ Selection  ● Researchers select subjects they want to use in their experiments,  the best method is randomly through a “population” selected.  ■ The Variables  ● Researchers decide which variable they want to manipulate and  the variable they want to measure to see if there are any changes.  ● Independent Variable­ variable that is manipulated during the  experiment, the participants do not affect this variable at all.  ● Dependant Variable­ response of the participants to the  manipulation of the independent variable.   ■ The Importance of Randomization  ● Random assignment of participants to one or the other condition is  the best way to ensure control over other interfering variables.  ● 1.11  ○ How the Placebo and Experimenter effects cause problems in an experiment?  ■ The Placebo Effect  ● The expectations and biases of the participants in a study can  influence their behavior.  ● Placebo­ a “fake”, participants aren't given an actual substance  like in a medical research they may be given a sugar pill instead of  the medicine being tested.  ● Placebo effect­ when participants are given a placebo but they  show changes because they believe they were given the real  medicine that was being tested.  ■ Experimenter effect  ● The experimenter has bias and gives hints to the participants as to  how they are supposed to respond such as wording of questions  or body language.  ● The behavior of the experimenter can cause the participant to  change his or her response pattern.  ■ Ways to control these effects.  ● Single­blind study­ the participants are “blind” to the treatment  they receive.  ● Double­blind study­ Neither the participants nor the person  measuring the data know who got what.   ● Quasi­experimental designs­ generally do not have true control  groups. Often compare already existing groups such as two  classrooms being taught by different teaching strategies.  ● 1.13  ○ Ethics of Psychological Research  ■ Guidelines for Doing Research with People  ● 1. Peoples rights come first, research second.   ● 2. Researchers have to explain the study to the participants in  detail so they know exactly what they’re getting into.  ● 3. If researchers withhold information about the experiment from  the participant for purposes of the experiment they have to tell  them the information after its done.  ● 4. Participants may withdraw from the study at any time.  ● 5. Participants must be protected from risks or told explicitly of  risks.  ● 6.Investigators must debrief participants, telling the true nature of  the study and expectations of results.  ● 7. Data must remain confidential.  ● 8. If for any reason a study results in undesirable consequences  for the participant, the researcher is responsible for detecting and  removing, or correcting, these consequences.   ■ Animal Research  ● Researchers do many things to animals they cant do to people.  ● With animals the focus is on avoiding any unnecessary pain or  suffering.  ● 1.14  ○ Critical Thinking  ■ Means making reasoned judgements.  ■ 4 basic criteria for critical thinking.  ■ 1.There are very few “truths” that do not need to be subjected to testing.  ■ 2. All evidence is not equal in quality.  ■ 3. Just because someone is considered to be an authority or to have a lot  of expertise does not make everything that person claims automatically  true.  ■ 4. Critical thinking requires an open mind. 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.