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Exam 3 Guide

by: Ally Lappe

Exam 3 Guide BSC 216

Ally Lappe
GPA 3.93
Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. Fluker

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Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. Fluker
Study Guide
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Popular in Anatomy & Physiology II

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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ally Lappe on Wednesday March 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 216 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Fluker in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology II in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 03/25/15
Chapter 23 Study Guide Name and locate the 6 organs of the urinary system Kidneys 2 ureters 2 bladder urethra List functions of the kidneys in addition to urine formation Eiminates wastes regulates BP and pressure regulates osmolarity secretes renin secretes erythropoietin regulates acid base balance synthesizes calcitrol and gluconeogenesis in starvation I Name the major nitrogenous wastes and identify their sources Urea and ammonia from degredation of proteins uric acid from nucleic acid catabolism and creatinine from creatinine phosphate catabolism l Define excretion and identify the systems that excrete wastes Seperation of wastes from body uids and their elimination performed by the respiratory integuementary digestive and urinary systems Describe the location and general appearance of the kidney The kidney is convex and concave Renal hium on concave surface is where vessels and nerves join kidney They are located retroperitoneally between dorsal body wall and parietal peritoneum Right kidney is typically lower due to crowding of liver I Understand the external and internal features of the kidney as it relates to blood and uid ow Seeninlab l Trace the flow of blood through the kidney Figure 235 Aorta renal artery segmental interlobar arcuate interlobular afferent arteriole glomerulus efferent arteriole papillary ducts OR vasa recta interlobular arcuate interlobar renal vein inferior vena cava l Trace the flow of fluid through the renal tubules First paragraph of page 904 ltrate Glomerular capsule tubular uid PCT nephron loop DCT urine collecting duct papillary duct minor calyx major calyx renal pelvis ureter bladder urethra l Describe the process by which the kidney filters the blood plasma including the relevant cellular structure of the glomerulus Glomerular ltration creates a plasmalike filtrate of the blood tubular reabsorption removes useful solutes from ltrate tubular secretion removes additional wastes and water conservation returns water to blood to concentrate wastes The ltration membrane in glomerulus includes fenestrated endothelium where the cells are highly permeable basement membrane glues endothelium and capsule together and ltration slits with podocytes to not allow large molecules to pass Explain the forces that promote and oppose filtration and calculate the ltration pressure if given the magnitude of these forces blood hydrostatic pressure BHP of blood is high 60 mmHg due to large afferent and small efferent and is the primary means of pushing solutes and water from blood through ltration membrane Hydrostatic pressure within capsule itself is low 18 mmHg and tends to push water back into glomerulus Colloid osmotic pressure COP of blood is about 32 mmHg same as other parts of body and the proteins in glomerular blood tend to pull water back into glomerulus 601832 net 10mmHg OUT l Describe how the nervous system hormones and the nephron itself regulate ltration Renal autoregulation is the ability of nephrons to adjust their own GFR without external control due to myogenic mechanism which is the tendency of muscle to contract when stretched for continuous control and tubuloglomerular feedback which is a mechanism by which the glomerulus receives feedback and adjusts for uctuation in BP l completed by the juxtaglomerular apparatus where macula densa sense variations and secrete a paracrine to stimulate JG cells juxtaglomerular cells which when stimulated dilate or constrict arterioles and mesangial cells which constrictor relax capillaries by gap junctions from MD and jG Sympathetic control is by SNS and adrenal epinephrine which constricts the afferent arterioles to reduce GFR and output by redirecting blood from kidneys Hormonal control by the reninangiotensinaldosterone mechanism which allows angiotensinogen II to restore uid volume and BP by thirst vasoconstriction and sodium and water retention l Describe how the renal tubules reabsorb useful solutes from the glomerular ltrate and return them to the blood Reabsorption occurs transcellularly through epithelial cells and paracellularly in between cells Water carries dissolved solutes in between cells by solvent drag These items are then taken up by peritubular capillaries Symports bind Na to another solute and antiports pull Na into cell while pumping out H into tubular uid Na K Cl transcellularly potassium magnesium urea and phosphate paracellularly with water Describe how the tubules secrete solute from the blood into the tubular uid Secretions to remove waste and balance acids and bases secrete H and bicarbonate Renal tubule extracts chemicals from capillary blood and secretes them into tubular uid I Describe how the nephron regulates water excretion The nephron loops primary function is to generate salinity gradient Thick segments reabsorb 25 of Na K and Cl by active transport and diffusion NaCl remains in the tissue uid of renal medulla Explain how the collecting duct and antidiuretic hormone regulate the volume and concentration of urine The DCT and collecting duct reabsorb water salt and are regulated by aldosterone atrial natriuretic peptide ADH and parathyroid hormones Antidiuretic hormone ADH is secreted in response to dehydration and makes the collection duct more permeable to water so more water can be taken back up by blood Because eof the high salinity of the medulla as the CD passes through water is driven out of the tubule through osmosis thus concentrating the urine 4x Explain how the kidney maintains an osmotic gradient in the renal medulla that enables the collecting duct to function The nephron loop acts as a countercurrent multiplier by continually recapturing salt and returning it to the medulla which multiplies salinity in the medulla Water passes through the descending limb carrying with it salt The ascending limb is impermeable to water and Na K and Cl are actively transported out of the tubule into the medulla Urea is also recycled between the collecting duct and the nephron loop adding to salinity gigs531 ETllajl HumemaH l l 39jJfiqgll39i39l in Fullrlw u39 llclulgi39 I lijl39 EIIIaL uIr I uiH g Mum salt is n nfinuall y atltlmi by th F39E39i39 39 iATha mum that 39 is pumpndl utiuli th asmrtd im limb tl1 Haitiar than lE 39F is in the mnal medullla I The higher llha umi ariiy afthia Eil39ilF i the llTlEiIE unfair MESS liha de candimg lirn bl by EmuEiE H Hro THE saltinrtilEI uid In the a nnnding lirn lini the more salt than in mulla pumps in tia liha EIGF TlhEl maria waterlihat the demanding limbtl1ia Ealltiair th ilruitl s thalt I39EITFI39lElilI39IEi il39ll liha tubular Figure 2331 Other more detailed questions to help you study Can you describe at least 2 differences between cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons Cortical nephrons are more common and the efferent arterioles carry blood to peritubular capillaries Juxtamedullary nephrons are fewer and efferently carry blood to vasa recta instead of peritubular capillaries these maintain salinity gradient in the medulla Why is blood pressure very high in the glomerulus compared to other capillaries Blood pressure is higher because the afferent arteriole is much larger than the efferent due to the need of a large force to lter blood through the ltration membrane It has a large surface area and high BP within glomerulus that results in high net ltration pressure Where is the juxtaglomerular apparatus located and what are the 3 special kinds of cells that it is made of It is located at the very end of the nephron loop where it has just reentered the renal cortex Macula densa cells sense variations in ow and secrete a paracrine to stimulate JG cells into dilating or constricting arterioles Mesangial cells connected to these by gap junctions receive paracrines and constrictor relax capillaries What 3 structures is the filtration membrane composed of Fenestrated endothelium of glomerular capillaries basement membrane which glues together endothelium and capsule and ltration slits visceral membrane which have podocytes that form a barrier allowing only small particles through What substances will easily pass through the filtration membrane What substances will NOT Pass easily water electrolytes glucose amino acids fatty acids vitamins urea uric acid and creatinine Will NOT blood cells plasma proteins large anions proteinbound minerals and hormones and molecules gt 8nm What are the three forces39 that generate a glomerular net ltration pressure of 10 mmHg Can you describe these 3 forces blood hydrostatic pressure BHP of blood is high 60 mmHg due to large afferent and small efferent and is the primary means of pushing solutes and water from blood through ltration membrane Hydrostatic pressure within capsule itself is low 18 mmHg and tends to push water back into glomerulus Colloid osmotic pressure COP of blood is about 32 mmHg same as other parts of body and the proteins in glomerular blood tend to pull water back into glomerulus 601832 net 10mmHg OUT How are sodium ions transported from kidney tubule to the peritubular capillary Symports bind to Na and another solute and antiports are NaH that pulls NA into cell and pumps out H NaK pumps then pump Na into extracellular uid to be picked up by peritubular capillaries I How is Aldosterone Natriuretic peptides ADH and PTH involved in Tubular Secretion Aldosterone retains salt and water to maintain blood volume and pressure by acting on thick segment of loop DCT and collecting duct to reabsorb more Na and secrete more K Atrial natriuretic peptide is secreted by the atria in response to high BP and results in secretion of more salt and water thus decreasing BP Antidiuretic hormone is secreted in response to dehydration and makes the collecting duct more permeable to water Parathyroid hormone is secreted in response to calcium de ciency hypocalcemia and increases phosphate content to lower calcium content in urine through CaK pump Can you describe the neural control of urination both involuntary and voluntary nvountary stretch receptors detect lling of bladder and send signals to the spinal cord which relays signals to bladder via parasympathetic bers in pelvic nerve Efferent signals excite the detrusor muscle and the internal urethral sphincter is relaxed for urine to be released Voluntary Micturition center in pons receives signals and if it is time sends them to the spinal interneurons which excite detrusor and release urine If not time the pons excites spinal interneurons which keep external sphincter tight to retain urine and when the time is right the pons stops secreting hold signals and the sphincter relaxes Chapter 24 De ne buffer and write chemical equations for the bicarbonate buffer systems A buffer is any mechanism that resists change in pH by converting strong acids or bases to weak ones Physiological buffers are systems that control output of acids bases or C02 such as the urinary system and respiratory system Chemical buffers are substances that bind to H to control the amount of H ions in solutions Bicarbonate buffer system C02 H20 ll H2CO3 ll HC03 H carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions I Discuss the relationship between pulmonary ventilation pH of the extracellular uids and the bicarbonate buffer system Increased C02 and decreased pH stimulates pulmonary ventilation while an increased pH inhibits it C02 is constantly produced by metabolism and must be removed or added to body uids to maintain pH Explain how the kidneys secrete hydrogen ions and how these ions are buffered in the tubular uid Renal tubules secrete H into the tubular uid to be expelled from the body instead ofjust binding it to other chemicals Other more detailed questions to help you study What is the normal pH range of human blood and tissue uid 735 to 745 What determines the pH of a solution The amount of H ions in the solution High H is acidic low is basic How does a chemical buffer work A chemical buffer is a substance that binds H or releases it and can restore pH in seconds Bicarbonate phosphate and protein systems are all chemical buffers How does the bicarbonate buffer system act to lower pH And increase pH To lower pH the kidneys excrete HCO3 into the blood To raise pH kidneys excrete from the body H and the lungs excrete C02 If we remove C02 from a solution does it become more acidic or alkaline It becomes more alkaline Why can the kidneys neutralize more acids and bases than other buffer systems Because H binds to bicarbonate ammonia and phosphate buffers in urine and these are actually excreted from the body instead of simply becoming bound to other molecules Other systems only reduce concentration Chapter 25 Study Guide Describe the enteric nervous system A nervous network in the esophagus stomach and intestines that regulates digestive tract motility secretion and blood ow It functions completely independently of the CNS The enteric nervous system contains sensory neurons that monitor tension in gut wall and conditions in lumen Submucosal Meissner plexus in submucosa controls gland secretion of mucosa and controls movements of muscularis mucosae Myenteric Auerbach plexus parasympathetic ganglia and nerves between two layers of muscularis interna which control peristalsis Mesenteries are connective tissue sheets that suspend organs from the abdominal wall so they may contract freely and prevent intestines from becoming twisted They provide passage of vessels and nerves and contain lymphatic vessels l Describe the process of mastication and swallowing Mastication breaks down food to be swallowed and exposes more area to digestion enzymes Short myenteric re exes stimulate parastaltic contractions of swallowing l Describe the composition and functions of saliva Functions include moistening starch and fat digestion cleansing of teeth inhibition of bacterium dissolving molecules so they can stimulate taste buds and forming bolus to aid in swallowing Saliva is hypotonic and mostly water It contains salivary amylase starch lingual lipase lipids mucus lysozymes to kill bacteria immunoglobulin A which inhibits bacterial growth and electrolytes l Describe the neural control of salivation and swallowing Short myenteric re exes are stretch or chemical stimulations that act throughout the myenteric plexus to stimulate parastaltic contractions for swallowing Long vagovagal re exes are parasympathetic stimulation of digestive motility and secretion l Identify the secretions of the stomach and state their functions Gastric juice is secreted by the gastric glands and is mainly water HCI and pepsin The ve main secretions are HCI pepsin gastric lipase intrinsic factor a gylocprotein for absorption of 812 and chemical messengers suc as hormones paracrines and peptides Explain how the stomach produces hydrochloric acid and pepsin HCI is produced by parietal cells and contains carbonic anhydrase CAH H is pumped into gastric gland by HK ATPase pump and carbonic acid HCO3 is exchanged for CI via chloride shift HCI activates pepsin Pepsinogen is a zymogen inactive form secreted by chief cells that becomes pepsin active form when HCI removes some amino acids Pepsin digests dietary proteins into shorter peptide chains l Describe the contractile responses of the stomach to food Food stretches the stomach activating a receptiverelaxation response so it can relax to hold more food The stomach then begins peristaltic contractions controlled by pacemaker cells in the longitudinal layer of the muscularis externa Typical meal emptied in 4 hours l Describe the three phases of gastric function and how gastric activity is activated and inhibited The cephalic phase is controlled by the brain gastric by the stomach itself and intestinal phase by small intestine Cephalic phase the stomach responds to sight smell taste or thought of food ad inputs converge on the hypothalamus to stimulate enteric nervous system to secrete gastric juices Gastric phase swallowed food activates activity by stretching stomach and by increasing pH Acetylcholine histamine and gastrin stimulated gastric secretion 23 occurs in this phase Intestinal phase duodenum responds to arriving chyme and initially enhances secretion only to inhibit is immediately l Describe the digestive secretions and functions of the liver gallbladder and pancreas The liver secretes bile which helps in digestion The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile The pancrease is both endocrine and exocrine and secretes insulin and glucagon as well as pancreatic juice for digestion Pancreatic zymogens trypsinogen is converted to trypsin which digests proteins Chymotrypsinogen is converted to chymotrypsin and digests proteins Procarboxypeptidease converts to carboxypaptidase by trypsin to digest more protein Explain how hormones regulate secretion by the liver and pancreas I State how the mucosa of the small intestine differs from that of the stomach and explain the functional signi cance of the differences Tissue layers are modi ed for nutrient digestion and absorption Large surface area is needed for effectiveness and is achieved by circular folds villi and microvilli l Define contact digestion and describe where it occurs Contact digestion is where chyme must contact the brush border for digestion to occur This in ensured by intestinal churning l Describe the types of movement that occur in the small intestine Segmentation is movement in which stationary rings constrict along the intestine regulated by pacemaker cells It purpose is to mix and churn not to move it Peristalsis is a gradual wave movement of contents downward l Describe the locations of carbohydrate protein fat and nucleic acid digestion Name the enzymes involved in the digestion process see powerpoint ow chart Carbohydrates are digested in the mouth and small intestine by salivary amylase pancreatic amylase and brush border enzymes in the small intestine Proteins are digested in the stomach and small intestine by pepsin pancreatic enzymes and brush border enzymes Fat is digested in the small intestine by pancreatic lipase are emulsi ed by the detergent action of bile salts Nucleic acids are digested in the small intestine by pancreatic ribonuclease and deoxiribonuclease and brush border enzymes l Describe how each of the above is absorbed by the small intestine see powerpoint ow chart Carbs glucose and galactose by cotransport with sodium fructose via facilitated diffusion then transported to liver via hepatic portal vein Proteins are absorbed as amino acids via cotransport with sodium and enter capillary blood in the villi to be transported to liver Fats enter by diffusion and are combined with proteins and are transported via lymph in the thoracic duct Nucleic acids are transported via membrane carriers and absorbed into capillary blood via villi to liver I State the physiological significance of intestinal bacteria Bacterial ora digest cellulose and other undigested carbohydrates and help in the synthesis of vitamins B and K Discuss the types of contractions that occur in the colon Haustral contractions occur every 30 minutes and are a form of segmentation Mass movements occur one to three times a day and are triggered by gastrocolic and duodenocolic re exes lling of the stomach Explain the neurological control of defecation Firming of the rectum stimulates contraction of the rectum and relaxation of internal anal sphincter Voluntary relaxation of external sphincter called Valsalva maneuver increases abdominal pressure to force feces out Other more detailed questions to help you study What is the primary function of the alimentary canal gastrointestinal tractwhich organs are associated with this canal The primary function of the alimentary canal is the movement of nutrients The mouth pharynx esophagus stomach and intestines are involved What types of accessory organs participate in the digestive process Accesory organs include the teeth tongue salivary glands liver gallbladder and pancreas Can you walk me through the 5 stages of the digestive process Ingestion selective intake of food digestion mechanical and chemical breakdown into a usable form absorption uptake into cells of the tract and into blood and lymph compaction absorbing water and consolidating indigestible residue and defecation elimination of fecesL l Define peristalsis How does it work Peristalsis drives bolus down esophagus It is a wave of muscular contraction that pushes the bolus ahead of it and is involuntary It ensures you can swallow regardless of body position l Define segmentation How does it work It is a movement in which stationary ringlike constrictions mix and churn material Pacemaker cells in muscularis externa set the rhythm I What39s the difference between a short and a long reflex Short re exes are stimulations by stretch or chemicals that activate peristalsis Long re exes are stimulated by the parasympathetic system I Which body cavity do all of the digestive organs sit in Abdomen What is a serous membrane and which kind of serous membrane is associated with digestive organs The serous membrane lines the cavity to reduce friction Mesenteries are connective tissue sheets that suspend the organs to allow contraction and prevent twisting of intestines and contain many vessels The mesentery of small intestines hold many blood vessels and the mesocolon anchors colon to posterior body wall What is the difference between the visceral and parietal peritoneums The visceral peritoneum lines the organs while the parietal lines the entire outside cavity What is mesentery Can you name at least 3 functions of the mesentery A connective tissue sheet that suspends the stomach Allows contraction free movement and holds viscera in proper relationship What are the 4 layers that you will find in organs of the alimentary canal Mucosa submucosa muscularis externa and serosa What is the function of the myenteric nerve plexus The submucosal nerve plexus Myenteric plexus is composed of parasympathetic ganglia and nerves between the two layers of the muscularis interna and controls peristalsis and contractions The submucosal plexus in the submucosa controls gland secretion and movement of muscularis mucosae What does the epiglottis do Keeps food from entering the respiratory tract What is the tongue39s main function in the digestive process lt compresses food against palate to form bolus and push it posteriorly l Which of the salivary glands is most susceptible to myxovirus mumps Can you distinguish the salivary glands based on their method of excretion duct no duct The parotid gland is susceptible to mumps which is an in ammation due to a virus The lingual labial and buccal glands secrete small amounts of saliva at a constant rate The parotid submandibular and sublingual glands are connected to the oral cavity by ducts Where do the parotid submandibular and sublingual glands empty their products Parotid into upper cheek submandibular into the side of the lingual frenulum near the incisors and the sublingual empties posterior to the papilla of the submandibular duct What is saliva composed of What are the functions of its components Amylase lipase mucus lysozymes kill bacteria immunoglobulin A inhibits bacterial growth and electrolytes What are the functions of the upper and lower esophageal sphincters The upper sphincter remains contracted when not swallowing to exclude air from the esophagus physiological not anatomical sphincter The lower sphincter prevents stomach contents from regurgitating and protects mucosa from stomach acid Can you describe the 5 steps of swallowing Tongue compresses food to form bolus Bolus passes into pharynx Upper sphincter contstricts to pass bolus downward Peristalsis drives bolus down Lower sphincter relaxes to admit bolus into stomach l Describe the buccal and pharyngealesophageal phases of deglutition swallowing The buccal phase is voluntary and consists of the tongue forming bolus accumulation of food and entrance into laryngopharynx The pharyngoesophageal phase is involuntary and consists of the tongue blocking the oral cavity the soft palate rises to blose nasal cavity muscles pull the larynx up to meet epiglottis then bolus is driven down and enters esophagus What is the importance of oblique smooth muscle located only in the stomach It performs more forceful contractions What are the 5 main secretions of the stomach HCI pepsin gastric lipase intrinsic factor a glycoprotein and chemical messengers l Within the gastric glands what is the function of the mucous neck cells parietal cells chief cells and enteroendocrine G cells Mucous cells secrete mucus parietal cells secrete HCI intrinsic factor and ghrelin hunger hormone chief cells secrete gastric lipase and pepsinogen most numerous and enteroendocrine G cells secrete hormones and paracrine messengers to regulate digestion How is HCI made what are its functions H is pumped into gastric gland by HK ATPase pump then HCO3 is exchanged for CL in the chloride shift from blood plasma It activatespepsin and lingual lipase breaks connective tissues and plant cell walls ique es food into chyme converts ferric ions Fe3 to ferrous ions Fe2 and contributes to nonspeci c disease resistance by destroying pathogens How is pepsin made Functions Chief cells secrete pepsinogen inactive zymogen which has some amino acids striped by HCL to become pepsin which digests dietary proteins into shorter peptide chains What is a zymogen A digestive enzyme secreted as inactive proteins Amino acids must be removed to become active What are 3 mechanisms that the stomach uses to prevent corrosion of itself due to the very acidic environment The mucous coat is highly alkaline tight junctions prevent juices from seeping through and digesting connective tissue and epitheial cells live only 3 to 6 days then are replaced l Which nerve stimulates stomach activity Where in the brain does this nerve originate The vagus nerve originates in the pons l Does the sympathetic nervous system inhibit or stimulate gastric secretion lnhibits gastric secretion Stress response redirects function to extremities for ght or ight l Which hormone produced by enteroendocrine cells stimulates enzyme and HCI secretion Gastrin and secretin Can you distinguish between the cephalic gastric and intestinal phases of the digestive process Cephalic by brain senses stimulate secretion gastric by stomach swallowed food activate gastric activity by stretching and increased pH intestinal by small intestine duodenum initially enhances secretion then immediately inhibits it What are the 3 divisions of the small intestine Duodenum jejunum and ileum l Which sphincter controls the flow of bile and pancreatic juice into the duodenum Hepatopancreatic sphincter What are adaptations of the small intestine for purposes of enhancing absorption of nutrients lncreases surface area by intestinal crypts of circular folds villi and microvilli What is the primary function of the large intestine To eliminate feces by defecation How can you identify the large intestine 3 characteristics that distinguish it from other organs in your digestive system It s square lt reabsorbs water and salts can digest cellulose and synthesizes vitamins B and K Does NOT chemically change the residue What is the role of commensal bacteria in our large intestine They digest cellulose and other undigested carbohydrates and synthsize vitamins B and K How does the defecation reflex work Filling of the stomach and duodenum stimulates motility of the colon and moves residue for several centimeters with each contraction


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