Theories of Personality Exam 1 Study guide
Theories of Personality Exam 1 Study guide PSYC 3570
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Tuesday August 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3570 at Auburn University taught by Elissa Hack in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views.
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Date Created: 08/30/16
Exam 1 study guide Introduction Know the general differences between each approach to studying personality and what type of research they conduct o Psychoanalytic The aim of psychoanalysis therapy is to release repressed emotions and experiences, i.e. make the unconscious conscious. commonly used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. o Trait This approach assumes behavior is determined by relatively stable traits which are the fundamental units of one’s personality. Traits predispose one to act in a certain way, regardless of the situation. This means that traits should remain consistent across situations and over time, but may vary between individuals. It is presumed that individuals differ in their traits due to genetic differences. o Biological Inherited; predispositions, genes consider how genes affect behavior. believes that most behavior is inherited and has an adaptive (or evolutionary) function explain behaviors in neurological terms, i.e. the physiology and structure of the brain and how this influences behavior. o Humanistic emphasizes the study of the whole person (know as holism). Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior, not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving. Humanistic psychologists believe that an individual's behavior is connected to his inner feelings and selfimage. The humanistic perspective centers on the view that each person is unique and individual, and has the free will to change at any time in his or her lives. suggests that we are each responsible for our own happiness and well being as humans. o Behavioral/social learning All behavior is learnt from the environment: people have no free will – a person’s environment determines their behavior. We learn new behavior through classical or operant conditioning. Behaviorism is primarily concerned with observable behavior, as opposed to internal events like thinking and emotion o Cognitive scienitific study of the mind as an information processor Exam 1 study guide Cultural differences o Individualistic vs. Collectivistic cultures Individualistic o Western societies (all research basically comes from here) o All about you, independence, uniqueness Collectivistic o Concerned about belonging o Cooperation over competition o About the greater good You can assume since this is the shortest section it will probably have many question in which you are given a research question and you have to figure out what psychological approach would be the most appropriate based upon what you know of the various fields and their focuses. Research Methods The two different forms of conducting research and when which is appropriate to utilize given the situation. Know what kind of research you should use given a certain situation. o Hypothesis testing Hypothesis: formal prediction about the relationship between two or more variables that is logically derived from theory Replication and support Experimental Variables o Independent variable: determines how the groups in the experiment are divided Manipulated by the experimenter Also known as the treatment variable We have control over this o Dependent variable measured by the investigator and used to compare experimental groups Also known as outcome variable Going to answer the question Depends on what was manipulated Replication Tests the research within a different population Helps to determine whether an effect is generalizable To increase accuracy and validity and to see consistency in results File Drawer problem Exam 1 study guide o Investigators publish and report research only when they find significant effects o Failed attempt at replication makes researcher to decide something has gone wrong Leads research being stored in a file drawer and never reported o Case study Indepth evaluation of individuals o Observation & taking detail notes A research records the person’s history, current behavior, and changes in behavior in great detail. o Done in psychotherapy, humanistic, & behavioral Limitations o Generalization o Determining cause and effect Nothing is being manipulated o Subjective judgments Huge issue in Freud’s work Bias towards the answer you want Strengths o Offers specific insight into an individual’s life Get info we couldn’t get if we test a large group o Can generate new hypotheses o Appropriate for rare cases o Gives insight to treatments If it works with one person it could work for another. Gives a starting point for psychologists o Demonstrate possibilities Be familiar with the different components and variable that make up a study and how they relate to one another. o Theory a general statement about the relationship between constructs or events Can be very broad or very narrow o Hypothesis formal prediction about the relationship between two or more variables that is logically derived from theory o Replication and support o Independent variable determines how the groups in the experiment are divided Exam 1 study guide o Dependent variable measured by the investigator and used to compare experimental groups Know what constitutes a good theory. o 2 things that make a good theory Parsimonious: the simplest explanation is the best So it can be generalized A lot easier to test Useful: hypotheses that can be tested. That various types of validity and given a scenario be able to identify the specific validity Face validity Test looks like its testing what its testing Questions received correspond with what you’re testing Congruent validity Does it highly correlate with other tests measuring the same thing? Discriminant validity Tests should have very low correlation with tests looking for something completely different Behavioral validation Tests predict behavior Example: If they score high on extraversion on a personality test then they should be extraverted in the “future” What significance means and its relation to correlation, and cause and effect. o Statistical Significance The difference between two averages is large enough to consider that it was not cause by chance but reflects a true difference between two observations o P value Must be less than .05 There is less than 5% that this was caused by chance 95% certainty that this was result of manipulation bigger the sample size easier it is to get in the 5% range o Effect size General indicator of how important that pvalue is o Correlation Coefficients Statistical test that helps understand the relationship between two measures Exam 1 study guide o How they correspond to each other. NOT SHOW CAUSE AND EFFECT Statistical data is reduced to a single number that ranges from 1.00 to 1.00 o Sign doesn’t matter for strength. Just depends how close it is to 1 or 1 The differences between the types of variables discussed. o Independent variable: determines how the groups in the experiment are divided Manipulated by the experimenter Also known as the treatment variable We have control over this o Dependent variable measured by the investigator and used to compare experimental groups Also known as outcome variable o Going to answer the question Depends on what was manipulated The difference between reliability and validity o Reliability The extent to which a test measures consistently o Validity The extent to which a test measures what it was designed to measure **A TEST CAN BE RELIABLE & NOT VALID** Psychoanalytics Difference between each portion of the topographic and structural models and how they relate to one another. Topographic Model Personality is divided into different levels of awareness Limited had no structure Conscious: Thoughts a person is currently aware of Constantly changing. What we think about on a day to day basis or in our mind at that specific moment Preconscious: Retrievable information Easily reachable/remembered Exam 1 study guide Example: what we ate for breakfast Unconscious: Thoughts that cannot be easily brought into awareness Except under extreme situations Determines our behavior Freud thought this could only be brought out through hypnosis Structural Model Divides personality into the id, the ego, and the superego Id: Personality structure at birth o Actions are based on pleasure principle and wish fulfillment o Unconscious, no control o Selfish instincts/motivations Concerned about satisfies own needs. Example: babies want what they want when they want it Ego: Satisfies id impulses, but takes into consideration the realities of the world (socially acceptable) o Actions are based on reality principle o Impulse control Keeping unconscious under control for safety reasons Superego: Represents society’s values and standards o Provides ideals to determine if a behavior is virtuous o Powerful superego leads to moral anxiety o Moral restrictions on what can/cannot do o Can be over or under developed depending on parenting style (how your parents raised you) Over perfectionist Under immature. Lacking morals. (ie theft, promiscuity) How various aspects of Freud theories can affect our daytoday interactions. For example how would a disruption in our ego affect our behavior? o With an underdeveloped superego we would lack morals causing us to make reckless decisions like theft o Allowing our Id come out to play can put ourselves and the people around us in danger Be familiar with all defense mechanisms, be able to give an example of each, what age they arise, and which are better than others. Also be able to apply to a scenario. Repression Active effort by the ego to push threatening material out of consciousness Requires ego to expand a constant amount of energy to control/ignore id Exam 1 study guide Freud believes we only have a certain amount of psychic energy. So repression isn’t good because it takes up a lot of energy which then cant be used to perform everyday functions in life Trying not to think or remember traumatic event Most important according to Freud Sublimation Channeling threatening unconscious impulses into socially acceptable actions Productive in nature Getting mad at someone going to the gym to burn steam rather than punching someone in the face because that’s not socially acceptable Using less psychic energy because ego isn’t trying to control id. Its taking impulses & channeling it in healthier way Displacement Channeling impulses to nonthreatening objects Displaced impulses do not lead to social rewards Taking anger out on a friend rather than the person you’re actually mad at Denial Refusal to accept that certain facts exist Extreme form of defense Makes a person less realistic Old man refusing to accept that his wife died. Still buying her gifts, talking to her picture pretending she’s alive Impairs social functioning Most immature defense mechanism Reaction formation Acting in a manner opposite to threatening unconscious desires Proving unconscious wrong Intellectualization Removal of emotional content from the thought Helps bring difficult thoughts into consciousness without anxiety Example: If a wife thinks about their husband dying in a car accident the ego intellectualizes it saying they were pondering the importance of seat belt safety Projection Attributing unconscious impulse to other people Frees a person from the perception that he/she is the one who holds a certain thought Example: Thinking spouse was having an affair because you were thinking of having an affair Exam 1 study guide Know the psychosexual stages, when they arise, and what fixation is as well as how it affects adult behavior from each stage. o Fixation Stagnation of psychic energy Results when a child is unable to move through a particular stage Oral stage First 18 months of life Primary erogenous zones Mouth, lips, and tongue Feeding problems can result in fixation and development of an oral personality Example: Having issues feeding with a bottle, breast feeding Fixation leads to an Oral personality Example: a smoker, and alcoholic, binge eater Anal stage Primary erogenous zone Anal region Children are toilet trained Traumatic toilet training can result in fixation and development of an anal personality Example: o Being anal or uptight (orderly, stubborn) o Overly generous Phallic stage Ages 3 to 6 People start discovering bodies, notice sexuality Key developmental stage Primary erogenous zone Penis or clitoris Oedipus (boys)/ Electra (girls) complex Children develop a sexual attraction for their oppositesex parent Freud believed oedipal complex will never disappear. o Men with aggressive personalities are displacing his unconscious competitive feelings for his father onto other people Boys develop castration anxiety Fear Father will sever sexual feelings for his mother and castrate him. Causes them not to have desire for his mother anymore Girls develop penis envy Girls notice they don’t have a penis like boys. Feeling inferior and jealous Eventually the children repress their desire for their oppositesex parent Latency stage Sexual desires abate Boys and girls are uninterested in each other Genital stage Exam 1 study guide Initiated at puberty Primary erogenous zone Adult genital regions Libido kicks in and starts pleasure urges o Strengths and criticisms of Freud’s theory o Strengths First comprehensive theory of human behavior and personality Freud’s observations set the direction for subsequent personality theory and research First system of psychotherapy Freud’s techniques have become standard tools for many therapists Promoted important psychological concepts o Criticisms Writers argue that Freud’s ideas are not original Freudian ideas appear in literature that predates Freud’s work Hypotheses generated from the theory are not testable No way to prove interpretations Didn’t report his messups. Only reported positive results Disagreements with the points of emphasis and tone of Freud’s theory Didn’t talk about anything after puberty The seven techniques and their details. Dreams Provide id impulses with a stage for expression Trained psychoanalysts can identify common dream symbols Manifest content What actual is in the dream Latent content How psychoanalyis interprets dream Road to ther unconcious Type of wish fulfillment to express unconcious desires Projective tests: Assesses unconscious material by asking test takers to respond to ambiguous stimuli Identifying objects, telling a story, or drawing a picture Example: Inkblot test Free association Used to temporarily bypass the censoring mechanism employed by ego Puts you in a relaxed state so the ego doesn’t feel threatened and can expose strange, uncensored ideas Most important according to Freud Exam 1 study guide Freudian slips: Misstatements or slips of the lounge May represent unconscious associations Hypnosis Allows the hypnotist/therapist to bypass the ego and get directly to unconscious material Drawback Not everyone is responsive How Freud first started his studies with unconscious material Used to prove that there was an unconscious. People were saying random things they wouldn’t normally say. Something was going on below the surface Accidents Intentional actions stemming from unconscious impulses Resistance Deliberate effort by the unconscious mind to cover threatening unconscious material Example: If I was mad at my friend, so I went and wore her favorite pair of jeans to a party and accidently ripped a hole in them. Freud would argue those were my id impulses coming to the surface. Making her hurt like she hurt me When people start resisting that means you’re close to tapping into the unconscious (according to Freud) Symbolic behavior Daily behaviors can be interpreted as symbolic representations of unconscious desires Poses no threat to the ego Example: If a boys mom really liked daisies. When he got mad at her he went a bought a “welcome mat” with daisies on it and took great pleasure in stomping the dirt off his shoes before he walked in the house. That’s his way of releasing anger Dreams took up a large aspect of our time so you can assume there will be quite a few questions regarding them from chapters 3 and 4. o Dreams Provide id impulses with a stage for expression Trained psychoanalysts can identify common dream symbols Manifest content o What actual is in the dream Latent content o How psychoanalyis interprets dream Road to ther unconcious Type of wish fulfillment to express unconcious desires Exam 1 study guide o Dream Interpretation Notion that dreams contain hidden psychological meaning Individual’s dreams provide clues about what’s in individual’s unconscious Used by therapists from different perspectives as a therapeutic tool Questions addressed in the research What do people dream about? Why do people dream? Dream contains images or evokes emotions that people feel must mean something Why would I dream about something for no reason? Dreams are not random, has some kind of purpose. usually have something to do with daily occurrence in our lives Traditional Freudian therapist suggests that objects and people in a dream are symbols Sexual symbols Modern psychologists argue its not so much symbolism but rather your unconscious preoccupations with different struggles you deal with on a regular basis Recurrent dream Occurs because conflict expressed in the dream is important yet remains unresolved Occurs due to the anxiety people experience during the day Usually have some kind of threat to them o Function of Dreams Allow the symbolic expression of unconscious impulses Provide a safe and healthy outlet for expressing unconscious conflicts Unconscious impulses cant be suppressed forever, dreams allow them to surface while ego rests Psychoanalytics relevant research Techniques to measure the unconscious o Dreams Provide id impulses with a stage for expression Trained psychoanalysts can identify common dream symbols Manifest content o What actual is in the dream Latent content o How psychoanalyis interprets dream Road to ther unconcious Exam 1 study guide Type of wish fulfillment to express unconcious desires o Projective tests: Assesses unconscious material by asking test takers to respond to ambiguous stimuli Identifying objects, telling a story, or drawing a picture Example: Inkblot test o Free association Used to temporarily bypass the censoring mechanism employed by ego Puts you in a relaxed state so the ego doesn’t feel threatened and can expose strange, uncensored ideas Most important according to Freud o Freudian slips: Misstatements or slips of the lounge May represent unconscious associations o Hypnosis Allows the hypnotist/therapist to bypass the ego and get directly to unconscious material Drawback Not everyone is responsive How Freud first started his studies with unconscious material o o Used to prove that there was an unconscious. People were saying random things they wouldn’t normally say. Something was going on below the surface o Accidents Intentional actions stemming from unconscious impulses Resistance Deliberate effort by the unconscious mind to cover threatening unconscious material Example: o If I was mad at my friend, so I went and wore her favorite pair of jeans to a party and accidently ripped a hole in them. Freud would argue those were my id impulses coming to the surface. Making her hurt like she hurt me When people start resisting that means you’re close to tapping into the unconscious (according to Freud) o Symbolic behavior Daily behaviors can be interpreted as symbolic representations of unconscious desires Poses no threat to the ego Example: o If a boys mom really liked daisies. When he got mad at her he went a bought a “welcome mat” with daisies on it and took great pleasure in stomping the dirt off his shoes before he walked in the house. That’s his way of releasing anger Exam 1 study guide What is the purpose of humor and in what way is it used as a defense. o Aggressive jokes allow the expression of impulses ordinarily held in check Allowed to say unconscious impulses without punishment o Research indicates that laughter is an effective means to combat daily tension and stressful events o Hostile humor may reduce tension How do we measure defense mechanisms o Interpreting responses to Rorschach inkblots or to stories o Using responses to Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) picture cards Essentially all of the facts regarding hypnosis, how it differentially effects people and why. o Hypnosis Induction procedure in which people are told about being hypnotized and are suggested to perform certain tasks Tasks range from simple ones used in hypnosis research to entertaining performances of stage hypnosis o Applications of Hypnosis Performing dental work without the aid of painkillers Used by police investigators to help witnesses remember crime details Psychotherapists use it for dealing with a wide variety of client problems o Different Views on Hypnosis Psychoanalytic Theorists Cognitive and Social Theorists o Hypnosis taps an o Reject the notion that aspect of the human hypnotized people operate mind that is otherwise under an altered state of difficult to reach awareness o Participants o Assert that things people do experience an altered under hypnosis can be state of explained in terms of basic consciousness, like psychological processes sleeping o Neodissociation Theory Psychoanalytic view on hypnosis Deeply hypnotized people experience a division of their conscious mind Hypnotized part enters a type of altered state Exam 1 study guide Another part remains aware of what is going on during the hypnotic session Acts as a hidden observer o Sociocognitive Theories of Hypnosis Challenged the notion that hypnosis involved a state of consciousness different than being awake Client is just reacting to what they’re being told to do Concepts of expectancy, motivation, and concentration are used to account for hypnotic phenomena Example: o Hand in the water experiment o If someone were to tell you the water is supposed to be a decent temperature and you should be able to last “x” amount of minutes, you’ll wont go in expecti it to be freezing or scalding hot (on the other hand if someone would’ve told you it was going to be one of those extremes you’d expect it to be very painful and be hesitate to even submerge your hand). And since they said you should be able to last a certain amount of time you have motivation to last that long. o Sociocognitive theorists: Criticized hidden observer demonstrations o Sociocognitive Theories of Hypnosis Argued that the psychoanalytic position sometimes becomes circular Countered unusual behavior under hypnosis with demonstrations of the same phenomena without hypnosis Challenged the accuracy of the participants’ descriptions Were skeptical of participants’ reports concerning posthypnotic amnesia o Hypnotic Responsiveness Varies amongst individuals Achieved by: o Defining the situation as hypnosis o Securing cooperation and establishing trust before beginning Freud observed that: o Hypnotizing neurotics is difficult o Insane are completely resistant to hypnosis Predicted by an individual’s ability to become immersed in a role Absorption o Personality trait that predicts hypnotic responsiveness o High scores indicate ability to become: Highly involved in sensory and imaginative experiences More responsive to hypnotic suggestions Hypnotic Responsiveness Exam 1 study guide o Important variables affecting hypnotic responsiveness Attitude Motivation Expectancy Know differences between projective tests and what each entails. o Rorschach inkblot test Predicts behavior from responses to inkblots Designed by Hermann Rorschach Not valid or reliable o Mainly used as a starting point if at all If there’s a common theme the psychoanalysis can interpret and determine unconscious desires. o Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Test takers are asked to tell a story about a series of ambiguous pictures Designed by Henry Murray o Human Figure Drawing test Measures intelligence and important personality constructs Used as an indicator of psychological problems in children o If all the figures were disturbed or unhappy could indicate something going on at home or some kind of mental disorder
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