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SOC 255, Midterm Moloney Study Guide

by: jasmine Notetaker

SOC 255, Midterm Moloney Study Guide SOC 350

Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Sociology > SOC 350 > SOC 255 Midterm Moloney Study Guide
jasmine Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes are an outline of what will be on the midterm including notes from class TED Talks.
Sociology Mental Health
Dr. Mairead Moloney
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by jasmine Notetaker on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 350 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. Mairead Moloney in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Sociology Mental Health in Sociology at University of Kentucky.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
Sociology Mental Health & Illness Midterm Study Guide Overview of Perspectives, Measurement and Prevalence of Mental Illness SOC 255 Sociological Perspectives on Mental Health & Illness - Mental Health: the ability to cope with daily stressors and the ability to maintain meaningful relationships with others. - occurs on a continuum. - the absence of disease and disorder. - EXAMPLE: could be sad because of a death in your family resulting in poor mental health but has no affect on mental illness. - EXAMPLE:American culture makes everyone believe, we can become anything we want. However, realistically, we rarely change our social status we are born into. - What determines mental health? 1. Socio-economic status (SES)- measured by looking at an individuals wealth, income, & education. 2. Social Inclusion 3. Exposure to Discrimination and/or violence - Mental Illness: medically diagnosed illness that results in significant impairment of an individuals cognitive, affective or relational abilities. - cause may be biological, social or developmental. - EXAMPLE: depression, anxiety, trauma, etc. 1. less emphasis on internal biological dysfunction. 2. more emphasis on social processes. - EXAMPLE OF SOCIAL PROCESSES: 1. SES ———> Depression (or) SES<————> Depression 2. SES <—————- schizophrenia schizophrenia is a brain disorder that makes it difficult to realize the reality abnormally. This can prevent you from getting /maintaining a job. - What determines mental illness? (Social Factors:) - poverty - family - social support - unemployment (poorest mental health) - How do sociologist measure mental disorder? - research takes place in schools, neighborhoods, NOT clinics (in natural settings) - sociologist use general scales that measure mental distress and NOT mental illness. -EXAMPLE: CES-D most common survey to measure mental health. 20 questions that ask you how you felt the past week. -Socially, What determines mental illness? 1. Social Integration: involves the closeness of relationships. - its a fundamental cause of well being. - having more contacts with your church, friends, school and just being involved show a correlation with low suicide rates. 2. Social Stratification: involves interactions featuring differences in power, status and resources. - ones that are wealthy, high status, and believe everyone is equal have better health than those with sharp limitations to there wealth. 3. Inequality - societies with low levels of inequality = high levels of mental health - societies NEED DIVERSITY 4. Cultural Values: - religious people = less distress 5. Cohort Membership: - birth cohort = a group of people born in a particular time and place. - they share social and historical experiences. - members of different generations have diverse rates of psychological well being. - EXAMPLE: What are some challenges of your cohort? Our cohort seems to be more stressed due to keeping up with life, school, work, bills, etc. which is showing an increase in suicidal rates & depression. - EXAMPLE: Our generation is the most mentally ill. - Cross Cultural Differences: - Depression -Anxiety -Alcoholism - Social Phobias - 20% ofAmericans reported having anxiety disorder & 10% reported having depression. - ONLY 2% of Chinese reported having BOTH. - 11% of children haveADHD inAmerica. - Kentucky is #1 with 1 in 5 children havingADHD. Prevalence of Mental Illness - Class Notes -Prevalence: is the proportion of people in a population who have a particular disease at a specified point in time, or over a specified period of time. - 25% of people affected by mental disorders at some time in their life (world wide). - 26.2% of adults reported symptoms that would qualify them for a DSM-IV diagnosis of mental disorders. - 26.2% 12 month prevalence - 46.4% lifetime prevalence - Anxiety disorders highest in the United States comparing to mood disorders and personality disorders. - Stats for United States: - anxiety disorder: Within 12 months- 18% of population Within lifetime - 29% reported - Mood disorders: Within 12 months- 10% Within lifetime - 21% - Personality Disorder: Within 12 months- 9 - 15% Within lifetime - stable - Within LIFETIME, prevalence rate: (chance a person will have a disorder) - 46.4%; ANY disorder - 27.7%; 2 or more disorders - 17.3%; 3 or more disorders -TED TALK:Andrew Solomon: Depression, the Secret we Share -Andrew Solomon led a TED talk, discussing the affects of depression and how it can change ones life. - The treatments for depression is a disgrace; there not effective, extremely expensive, numerous side effects. - 50 years ago nothing could have been done for depression. - People get confused with depression, grief and sadness. -grief is reactive. Eventually it will resolve itself. -depression isn't sadness. -if you lose someone, 6 months later if you get sad just by thinking about that lost but are able to function then thats grief. However, if you're unable to function when that loss is thought of after so much time has pasted then thats depression. Psychological Approaches to Mental Illness -twins and adoptive studies strongly suggestive of genetic component in schizophrenia - 30 - 40% in MZ twins - 6 - 15% in DZ twins -And depression in 20 - 40% in MZ twins -What else do families share besides genes? - SES - Parenting style - coping mechanisms - exposure to viruses - exposure to toxins - Every human trait is based on NOT just heredity, but the environment in which it is expressed. - EXAMPLE: Consider the interaction between biological theories of mental disorder and the social construction of diagnostic criteria. **Look at PsychologicalApproaches to Mental Disorders Wksht Stress, Coping and Structural Strain - Three dominant theories of mental illness: - stress theory, structural strain theory and labeling theory - stress/stressors (definition by book): anything thats puts wear and tear on the body, usually noxious environmental stimuli. - stress/stressors (by Moloney): environmental, social, mental or internal demand that requires the individual the readjust their behavior. - stress has negative effects on health. - What are the different types of stress? 1. Daily Hassles 2. Life Events 3. Chronic Strains - Who Suffers the Most? - gender and SES play a role in the stress experience. - People of low SES do NOT suffer more negative life events. - People of low SES do suffer more chronic strains (chronic strain- ongoing difficulties). -EXAMPLE: OF CHRONIC STRAINS: living in overcrowded conditions, having family arguments, having little money to buy necessary food,clothes and medicine. - Brown and Harris found that chronic strains were almost as important as sever negative events in predicting depression. -Research showed that negative events and chronic strains also predict the onset of schizophrenia, anxiety attacks, and milder states of depression and generalize distress (Thoits). -Stress theory: psychological theory that attempts to explain behavior as a predispositional vulnerability together with stress from life experiences. -Limitations of stress theory - it cannot explain individual cases of psychological disorder. (cannot explain why this person and not that one became mentally ill). -theory better suited to explaining group differences in psychological problems. - EXAMPLE: explains why lower class people higher risk at having a mental disorder than someone higher class. -Coping: - coping resources: things drawn upon in time of stress. - EXAMPLE: social support - Coping mechanisms seen in daily basis: praying, treating/rewarding yourself - Coping strategies: behavioral or cognitive attempts to manage situational demands that one perceives as exceeding one’s ability to adapt. - problem focused - emotional focused -Structural Strain Theory: -Is Coping Effective? Only if… 1. social integration: better health outcomes, but not stress buffer. 2. Perceived support: better health outcomes, is a buffer. 3. having a significant other proven stress buffer.


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