Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide CJ 300
Popular in Survey of Criminology Theories
Popular in Criminal Justice
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Hendrixson on Thursday March 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CJ 300 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Diana Dolliver in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 508 views. For similar materials see Survey of Criminology Theories in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/26/15
Cl 300 Exam 3 Study Guide Control Theories of Crime 0 Classical School 0 Control Theories 0 Ask a different question regarding crime Instated of trying to answer quotwhy people commit crimequot theories ask quotwhy people do not commit crimequot 0 Therefore what must be explained by criminologists ask conformity or compliance to social norms 0 Different types of social control Formal Informal Features 0 Assumes the motivation to break rules and commit crimes is evenly distributed across society 0 Therefore offender do NOT differ from nonoffenders Motivation is human nature We are all born inherently bad 0 Crime and deviance must be causes by variation on social controls that people have over their deviant impulses Formal Informal 0 Control theories are NOT theories of criminal motivation but rather noncriminal compliance Ea yln uences o Emile Durkheim 1897 Sociologist Social control in emerging modern societies 0 Humans have the power of re ection Human can reach beyond necessities for life and re ect on socially created desires like having wants 0 Therefore we have no naturally occurring restraints over our desires and quotwantsquot 0 Our wants and greed are limited by our own imagination What is the key to happiness then 0 Connect individual to larger social structure 0 quotWe are normal being only to the extent that we are social beingsquot Durkheim 1925 Moral discipline 0 Social regulation Regulation lies in society our social connection and our social institutions such as friends family school etc 0 Therefore crime is a normal element of society 0 Early Control Theories of Crime 0 Albert Reiss Jr 1951 Chicago School scholar Delinquency as the Failure of Personal and Social Controls Took ideas into criminology world CI 300 Exam 3 Study Guide 0 Assumes delinquency is naturally occurring Formal and informal control are necessary Which are the mist important Informal 0 Family Ful ll needs economically String emotional relationships 0 Communities Collectiveness o How to reduce crime lies in the level of acceptance of or submission to social institutionsgroups that control our bad behavior 0 F Ivan Nye 1958 Most comprehensive early control theory of crime Deviant motivations are taken for granted Most important institution is family lst social institution we engage in 0 Provide most intense emotional relationshipsattachments 0 Walter Reckless 19605 Containment Theory Includes deviant motivation provided by different quotpushesquot psych and quotpullsquot social Inner containment Selfcontrol Outer containment Social environment 0 Family friends law etc 0 Social Control Theory 0 Travis Hirschi 1969 Akers39 arch nemesis Calls in quotSocial Bondingquot Theory Did not invent SCT o In uenced by early control theorists but was criticized late for stealing previous researchers39 ideas 0 This theory eclipsed ALL OTHER control theories 0 What restrains people from naturally wanting to commit crime ie our natural inclinations are the social bonds formed between people 0 In other words what control deviant impulses is the connection we have with conventional social groups 0 Deviance and crime are more likely when the bind is not fully developed 0 4 speci c elements Attachment Affective element Extent to which we have established disappointment 0 Don t want to mess up Afraid if losing the food graces of our close friends and family members 0 Close emotional ties to noncriminals Cl 300 Exam 3 Study Guide 0 Who are we having all these attachments to 0 Most practical element Commitment 0 Material element Highlyprized objects experiences or aspirations we risk losing when we commit crime 0 What do we have to lose Involvement Temporal time ordered element 0 Time and energy 0 What takes up most of our time o What were you doing before that led up to the crime Belief Moral element Legitimacy of laws and rules 0 Do we believe in the moral legitimacy of the law or rule o If you do not believe that laws are legit you do not care fyou break the law Don t need to have all 4 All 4 elements matter in terms of controlling behaviors but they can try to explain why people do not commit crime 0 lnterrelated Elements Each had the ability to impact the other 0 Both good and bad 0 This means you strengthen one of the 4 elements What about operationalizing the 4 social bond elements 0 Attachment 0 Parental supervisiondiscipline o Attitudesurveys Commitment 0 Actionsaspirations Involvement o How many hours per day performing actions Belief 0 Gauge moral center 0 Empirical Validity General support for the 4 bonds more or less Krohn and Massey 180 fund mildmoderate support in general 0 Findings vary based on crime type Unexpected ndings Delinquents still have delinquent peers Type of parents matters 0 Social bonds matter less that type of people being bonded with Cl 300 Exam 3 Study Guide 0 Critics of this theory and all control theories argue that those theories are not measuring anything different from other criminological theories 0 Self Control Theory 0 O O O O From 1969 until 19990 Social Control Theory reigned supreme Travis Hirschi joined forces with Michael Gottfredson 199 A General Theory of Crime Instead of 4 elements of social control there is only one which is self control Selfcontrol means the capacity to resist immediate grati cation Low selfcontrol vs high selfcontrol Low 0 Engage in crime 0 High 0 Conform Where do we learn it from Selfcontrol is developed during childhood When does it become more or less set 0 Cannot change personality after age of 8 or 10 Crime then occurs when a person has 2 things Natural sanctions Parenting Hirschi all but completely dismissed his original 1969 theory Restraint is NOT found in the relationship between a person and society Selfcontrol theory is meant to be a quotgeneral theory of crimequot Moves somewhat away from general assumptions of control theo es Assumptions Selfcontrol is the quotmagic bulletquot The construct of selfcontrol is composed of 6 characteristics lmpulsivity Riskseeking Simple tasks Physical activities Selfcentered Volatile temper Maturation does not occur over time o If it does it does not impact propensity to commit crimes Successful Socialization high selfcontrol 4 necessary conditions 0 Care 0 Child has proper basic necessities Monitoring 0 Parental supervision Recognizing 0 Bad behavior and correcting it Cl 300 Exam 3 Study Guide Correcting 0 Now and not later Is any one of the above 4 conditions are missing then it could lead to the continued existence of low selfcontrol o What does quotcrimequot mean then Low selfcontrol quotHuman weaknessquot Do crimes or deviant behavior take skill Effort Predetermination Not properly socialized before age 8 Concerns o No 0 LongTerm Costs of Crime Costs or penalties of crime or deviant behavior are called sanc ons 4 types of sanctions Physical o No human intervention 0 Naturally occurring Moralsocial o Informal social sanctionscontrols Politicallegal 0 Formal social sanctionscontrols Religious 0 Supernatural o Varies by religion 0 Explanations of Crime Then why do we have the agecrime curve 0 Problems 0 Social artifact Social bonds have no in uence of criminal involvement 0 Has a spurious relationship GampH1990 focus on quotanalogous behaviorquot in addition to crime 0 What are some examples 0 Deviant behaviors Smoking drinking under age etc 0 Testing the Theory Low selfcontrol cannot cause low selfcontrol How can we avoid this tautology The behavioral approach 0 DUI studies related to low selfcontrol Akers The cognitiveattitudinal approach Grasmick et al 1993 0 Lots of support in literature despite tautological criticisms o Concerns ls low selfcontrol just another word for crime C 300 Exam 3 Study Guide Ceteris paribus All things being equal 0 Can explain crimes that require skill Gottfredson and Hirschi39s 2004 modi cation 0 Social control selfcontrol Policy implications 0 Can39t add to control 0 All have to do with parenting LifeCourse Theory of Crime 0 AKA AgeGraded informal social control theory 0 Robert Sampson and John Laub 1993 o Stays more true to Hirschi39s 1969 Social Control Theory in that delinquency occurs when the individual39s bond to society is broken 0 Based on the recognition that there is no single cause or risk factor to explain ALL crime and violence Instead there are multiple pathways to crime and delinquency Tries to explain the agecrime curve 0 This theory focuses on Trajectories or pathways through life Transition or quotturning pointsquot 0 BUT the focus is not just on the individual and their life experiences Also considers macrolevel events and historical contexts o 2 key difference between LTC and Social Control Theory quotSocial capitalquot 0 Instead of quotbondsquot accumulation in society Instead ofjust juveniles Sampson and Laub focus on crime across life 0 What impacts our pathways Ties to family friends school impulsivity but what else Psychological factors positive and negative When can we identify our trajectories Environmental factors 0 From birth 0 Biological factors 0 Home environment 0 Cumulative disadvantage 0 Positive or negative 0 ADD 0 Impulsive o Sampson and Laub 1993 were in uenced by the Gleuck39s research in the19595 Identi ed 3 main turning points 0 Good education Maintaining a good job 0 Having a good marriage Life events bonds crimedelinquency o AdolescentLimited and LifeCourse Persistent Theory Terry Moffitt 1993 branched off of Sampson and Laub O O C 300 Exam 3 Study Guide 0 Not a separate theory just tries to explain ageOcrime curve39s components Different groups of offenders each with different etiologies causes of crime Robin39s Paradox Most antisocial adults were antisocial kids but not as adu s 0 AL and LCP Approach Etiology LCP o Neuropsychological de cits and disadvantaged environment 0 AL 0 Maturity gap and social mimicry Can LCP be rehabilitated No ALs mimic the LCP so what can we do Decrease mimicry Why do ALs stop offending o Grow out of it 0 Policy Implications LifeCourse Theory 0 Increase bonds and capita on society 0 How 0 Turning points AL and LCP Theory LCP o Properly socialize from childhood 0 Prevent neuropsychological de cits by providing prenatal care and improve home life 0 AL 0 Reduce maturity gap Social Disorganization Historical Roots 0 France in the 1700s and 18005 French Revolution 1789 In 1820 France begins collecting crime stats Suddenly the stats pointed out certain hotspots o This was during the same time period as the classical school movement 0 Adolphe Quetelet 1830s Found patterns in the crime stats that contradicted Bentham and Becca a Youth poor people males and the uneducated 0 Maybe there are differences between offenders and everyone else 0 C 300 Exam 3 Study Guide 0 AndreMichel Guerry 1830s Superimposed geographical maps of French cities with demographic information and found that crime wealthy areas 0 Spatial Distribution of Crime 0 This built momentum for the Positive School Offenders ARE different from nonoffenders BUT the focus was on spatial distribution of crime 0 Spatial distribution Observations 0 Chicago School Human ecology natural behavior Environmentalcriminologists Chicago School 0 In the US HUGE population growth in major cities Using crimemapping techniques Chicago school theorists found that more crime was happening in urban areas rather than rural o This disproved Lombroso39s because causes of crime were NOT found in the individual but offenders STILL differed from nonoffenders Structural Urban Ecological Studies 0 Birthplace was the Chicago School 1920519405 0 Robert E Park and Ernest W Burgess 19205 The urban environment is analogous to natural ecological environments of plants and animals Linked the growth of a city to natural ecologist competition 0 The quotnatural environmentquot Park and Burgess studied was Population explosion linked to immigration Increased heterogeneity in cultures religious beliefs and ethnicity 0 Urban sociologists at the University of Chicago wanted to understand the effected of rapid social changes Mesolevel studies 0 Park and Burgess 1925 hypothesized that when cities grow they typically extend outwards o This creates the concentric zones Eachlevel Central Business District 0 Zone of transition 0 First residential area Modest Houses and Apartments 0 Detached Homes single families 0 Proper suburbs commuter zone 0 Basis for Social Disorganization Theory 0 Clifford R Shaw and Henry D McKay 1942 Students of Park and Burgess at Chicago Collected information on delinquent boys in Chicago Began collecting data in 1921 C 300 Exam 3 Study Guide 0 Placed pins on the concentric zone map and found that Zone with highest crime rate was the zone of transition Zone with lowest crime rate was the proper suburbs What happened when kids moved out of zone 2 0 Better homes education and jobs less crime etc 0 Did ethnic composition of Zine 2 matter No 0 Replicated this study in Philadelphia Boston Cleveland and Richmond and found the same results 0 Crime is NOT caused by biological inferiorities 0 Crime is NOT caused by the city being corrupt and pathological Social Disorganization Theory SDT o What causes crime then Characteristics of society 0 In other words crime has nothing to do with the types of people living the neighborhoods Poverty heterogeneity residential mobility are NOT causes of crime Cultural transmission 0 Measuring quotsocial disorganizationquot Collective ef cacy How can we measure this Unfortunately that is not how the theory has been traditionally testes Instead Social class Heterogeneity Residential mobility o What happened next to SDT Post WorldWar II 0 City planning 0 Highway construction 0 Fair housing laws Gentri cation Changed the way cities grew Momentum was lost for SDT for decades 0 Modern Updates to SDT SDT research didn39t pick up steam until the 19805 Human ecological studies of crime have evolved slowly between the 1940s and today 0 Continued to study neighborhoods 0 Local social tied based ion physical proximity which refers to collective ef cacy Hung up on link between poverty race and crime Bursik and Webb 1988 conducted a followup study of Chicago 0 Was cultural transmission still occurring in Zone ll between the 19505 and 1970s Cl 300 Exam 3 Study Guide 0 19505yes 0 19605 and 19705 no Crime rates were responsive to who moved in 0 Civil rights and desegregation What happened to neighborhoods during desegregation 0 Before Mostly white Low crime rates 0 During Hugh crime rates 5050 white and black 0 After Low crime rates Mostly black Sampson and Groves 1989 victimization study Tried to rectify problem with studies 0 Measured community factors like family disruption gangs residential mobility etc ALSO measured collective ef cacyinformal social controls like friendship networks after school programs adult intervention with problem children 0 Findings 0 Mots support from informal social control Sampson et al 1997 0 Found the same ndings as Sampson and Groves 1989 Scholars in the 19805 added psychological elements to SDR Examined the impact for fear of crime neighborhood fear 0 quotBroken windowsquot concept Findings of these studies 0 Physical deterioration does NOT lead to more crime 0 Fear of crime does impact collective efficacy More recently 19905today scholars have tried to measure the counterpart to collective efficacy why 0 quotSocial capitalquot 0 How does this differ from collective efficacy 0 Doesn39t require the measure of social intervention Steenback and Hipp 2011 Underlying mechanism is the inability of residents to organize against threats disorder 0 What did they nd 0 Past evidence means future disorder 0 Concerns for SDT Research has also found that neighborhoods in Zone 5 can also experience disorganization Some aspects of SDT are at risk for making tautological arguments C 300 Exam 3 Study Guide So do neighborhoods HACVE to be homogenous to be stable 0 Race and SES relationships to crime 0 No 0 Organize as a community Links to control theories and deterrence in more recent studies 0 Policies and Programs Based on SDT The Chicago Areas Projects CAP Began in the 190305 with Shaw and McKay Mobilize local Informal social organization among lawOabiding citizens Overcome the in uence of delinquents by providing more opportunities for associating with noncriminals Other related goals 0 Trash pickup sanitation etc 0 Effective Overall yes Crime no SDTrelated polices 0 Community oriented policing 0 Restorative Justice 0 After school programs 0 Neighborhood watch
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