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Marketplace > University of Miami > KIN 212 > KIN 212 SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY TEST 1 2 3 STUDY GUIDES
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These notes cover all topics in detail and includes thorough class notes and examples. Complete study guides for exams 1, 2 and 3.
Elements of Sports Psychology
Brian Arwari
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Date Created: 08/31/16
CHAPTER ONE: INTRO Two objectives in sports psychology: 1. Understand how psychological factors effect physical performance a. Example: Basketball player whose physical performance is hindered by pressure and nerves 2. Understand how physical activity effects psychological factors, health and well being a. Example: running helps reduce anxiety Clinical vs. educational sport psychology - Clinical: licensed psychologists who specialize in treating athletes with eating and emotional disorders as well as substance abuse - Educational: trained and teach in skill acquisition, specialize in physical education, kinesiology; help with issues such as anxiety, performance issues, arousal, adherence, etc. Study vs. experiment - Study: observe or asses a situation in a natural environment; confounding variables come into play o Correlational studies - Experiment: when you have an experimental group, a control group, and independent variable and a dependent variable o **Advantage of experiment= better able to determine cause and effect relationships Methods of knowing in order of decreasing accuracy: 1. Scientific Method 2. Systematic Observation 3. Single Case Study 4. Shared public experience 5. Introspection 6. Intuition CHAPTER TWO: PERSONALITY Personality Structure - Personality: characteristics that make a person unique - Triangle diagram starting from the bottom: o Psychological core: the most basic and deepest attitudes, values, interests, motives and self worth of a person—the “real” person (constant and internal)  i.e. a person’s religious values o Typical response: the way one typically adjusts or responds to the environment (social environment)  i.e. happy or shy o Role-related behavior: how one acts in a particular situation (external and dynamic)  i.e. as a student, friend or parent - Models of personality: o 1. Psychodynamic approach: behavior is determined by several unconscious, constantly changing factors that often conflict with one another  Freud says we do not make mistakes; our unconscious causes us to do these things  We don’t miscalculate steps on stairs but we call someone the wrong name  Idea of the unconscious= part of what you wanted to do  Only approach that explains why we do things we didn’t want to do o 2. Trait (genetic) approach: behavior is determined by relatively stable traits that are fundamental units of personality  these traits predispose one to act in a certain way, regardless of the situation  determined by genetics o 3. PEN model: psychoticism, extroversion, and neuroticism (with these 3 you can make any combo)  Introverts have high levels of brain arousal; gravitate more towards alcohol (depressant)  Extroverts have low levels of brain arousal; gravitate more towards cocaine  Paradox between drinking and the way we act: drinking is a depressant that lowers your arousal levels and brings you into the extrovert area; you begin to act in a way that will bring you to optimal level but if you drink too much your level will be so low and far away from the optimal that your body won’t be able to compensate and you’ll pass out.  Ascending reticular system: adrenaline junkies get more bored than introverts who like to read  People use behavior to affect physiology: i.e. walking into the sun when cold or putting the music loud to not fall asleep at the wheel o 4. Situational approach: behavior determined largely by a situation or environment  the situation is a more important determinant of behavior than particular personality traits  “Following the script”  everything we do is scripted; people will act in accordance to what is surrounding them  Zimbardo Prison example  Asch line experiment: boy conforms  Script rupture: eating chips to stop a fight  Elevator experiment o 5. Interactional approach: behavior is determined by both the person and the situational factors as well as by their interaction  majority of contemporary sports/ exercise psychologists favor this approach Trait vs. State - Trait: a typical style of behavior; constant - State: the situations effect on behavior; “right now” feeling that can change moment to moment Morgan’s iceberg profile: - Morgan’s mental health model shows that successful athletes exhibit greater positive mental health than do less successful athletes - Elite athletes have more vigor but also have higher levels of tension/ depression o This is due to the high pressure and the fact that any injury can end their career Relationship between personality, self esteem and exercise - Type A behavior patterns are associated with cardiovascular disease and appear to be altered via exercise o Exercise mellows out Type A people - Exercise and increased fitness appear to be associated with increases in self esteem, especially in individuals with lower self esteem (because they have more room to improve) - Cognitive and mental strategies are among the skills and behaviors that athletes use in competitions o Although they’re not personality traits in the traditional sense, cognitive strategies reflect the behavior aspect of personality and interact with personality characteristics - Both quantitative and qualitative cognitive strategy measures have shown to differentiate between more or less successful athletes o Overachieving high school athletes scored higher on coachability, concentration, coping with adversity, and total cognitive strategy over the average or underachieving athletes CHAPTER THREE: MOTIVATION Motivation - Motivation: the direction and intensity of the effort o Direction refers to whether an individual seeks out, approaches or is attracted to situations o Intensity refers to how much effort an individual puts forth in a situation o Direction and intensity are closely related Views of Motivation: what we attribute it to 1. Participant or trait-centered view: blaming it on internal factors a. “You did not get an A because you did not try hard enough because you are lazy” 2. Situation-centered view: based on the specific situation that you are in a. Example: Bill Gates’ son does not have the same opportunities as a boy who grew up in the ghetto 3. Interactional view: combination of both participant and situational Five Guidelines for Building Motivation 1. Both situations and traits motivate people 2. People have multiple motives for involvement a. Example: young guy at the gym is probably trying to get ripped to get more girls versus an old guy at the gym is probably trying to lower his cholesterol b. Motives change over times c. Motives are not the same across cultures d. People may be motivated to join a gym for: health reasons, weight loss, fitness, self challenge and to feel better e. People may be motivated to continue going to the gym because of: the enjoyment, like the instructor, like the type of activity or for social factors 3. Change the environment to enhance motivation a. Provide both competitive and recreational opportunities b. Adjust to individuals within the group 4. Leaders influence motivation directly and indirectly 5. Use behavior modification to change undesirable participant motives Achievement motivation vs. competitiveness - Achievement motivation: is a person’s orientation to strive for task success, persist in the face of failure, and experience pride in accomplishments o Self-comparison of achievement - Competitiveness: is a disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others. o Social evaluation or comparison Theories of achievement motivation: - Need achievement theory: people base things on probability; people need to feel like its reachable or attainable o Similar to incentive theory: low probability of success even if its low risk, high reward “its not going to be me” - Attribution theory: how people explain their success and failures o Stability, Locus of Causality, Locus of Control o Stability: can you count on this even happening regularly or when you need it to happen  Internal: increase expectation of success  External: decrease expectation of success o Locus of Causality: what or who is causing this to happen?  Internal: increase shame or pride  External: decrease shame or pride o Locus of Control: are you the person that is in control of the event?  In one’s control: increase motivation  Out of one’s control: decrease motivation - Achievement Goal Theory: o 1. Outcome goal orientation: comparing performance with a defeating others o 2. Task goal orientation: improving relative to one’s own past performance  if you keep improving you’ll eventually win o 3. Social goal orientation: judging competence in terms of affiliation with the group and recognition of being liked by others  people want to be socially recognized  do things for social recognition  When people say “I want to be a musician” they actually mean “I want to be Justin Bieber” High achievers vs. low achievers - High achievers: o High motivation orientation to achieve success o Low motivation orientation to avoid failure o Focus on pride of success o Attribute success to: stable, internal and controllable factors o Attribute failure to: unstable, external, incontrollable factors o Usually adopt to task goals (comparison against one’s own performance) o Believe they are competent and good o Like challenges perform well in evaluative situations - Low achievers: o Low motivation orientation to achieve success o High motivation orientation to avoid failure o Focus on shame and worry that may result in failure  Example of Anwari in little league o Attribute success to external, unstable, incontrollable factors o Usually adopt outcome goals (comparing themselves to the group) o Performance is low in evaluative situations CHAPTER FOUR Arousal - Arousal: is a blend of of psychological and physiological activation varying in intensity and along a continuum o How awake your whole system is; how energized you are  Can be good or bad arousal o Arousal fluctuates throughout the day; even when you sleep; if you wake up on a down swing of arousal, you’ll wake up in a shitty mood - Voluntary arousal motivation: o Skydiving o Watching horror movies - Involuntary arousal motivation: o Disney’s sidewalks are red to make the grass look greener o The Dark Knight has the music specifically measured to arouse at certain points o “Scream” example of success Anxiety - Anxiety: a negative emotional state with feelings of worry, nervousness, and apprehension associated with activation arousal of the body - Cognitive and somatic states work hand in hand when your thoughts and physiological state are in synchrony o Unusual situation when not in synchrony: when at the gym you are physiologically aroused (heart beating and perspiration) but you are cognitively not aroused because running is boring - Measure arousal and anxiety o Physiological signs: heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, biochemistry o Redbull example: It will convince your body that it is dying so that it releases reserved energy Stress - Stress: a substantial imbalance between physical and psychological demands placed on an individual and his or her response capability under conditions in which failure to meet demands has important consequences o Putting body on overdrive o Stress can be taxing on your body where you are writing a paper until 4 am or you are at the grove until 4 am o Your body goes into fight or flight mode your brain knows you are not in actual danger but your body doesn’t know the difference  Stress makes you stronger, faster, quicker but its only good for a few minutes o Stress process: Environmental demand  individual perception of threat physical/ psychological response  consequences (outcome) - Sources of stress and anxiety: o Situational Sources:  Event importance:  Reward  Punishment: i.e. typist given an electric shock now has high stress and anxiety to press it again  Uncertainty: Pavlov  Pavlov says all mental suffering comes from having a situation where you have both good and bad presented  It is not the nature of the punishment but the uncertainty  Example of circle, ellipse and in between o Personal sources:  Trait anxiety  Self-esteem  Social physique anxiety: equinox example Arousal/performance theories and graphs: - Drive theory: the degree of arousal increases as the quality of performance increases o The presence of others enhances performance on simple or well learned skills and inhibits performance on complex or unlearned skills - Inverted U theory: optimal arousal is somewhere in the middle o Example: when you shocked the typist, arousal went up too high and now they are too scared to perform - Individualized zones of functioning (IZOF): depends on the person and situation o Arousal levels differ in:  Golfer about to put  Football player about to score a touchdown o Different levels of arousal are required in the same game  Example: basketball player needs a different level of arousal when:  Running around the court  Shooting a free throw - Catastrophe model: momentum o Example: if Trump Iowa and New Hampshire, he will probably win the race because of the momentum build up o Example: Soccer world cup Germany won 7:1. Brazil cannot say “We are just as good of a team as Germany so we can score 5 goals in 45 minutes too.” It does not work that way because those goals were scored due to momentum so they will not be able to do those 5 goals in the last 45 minutes - Reversal theory: how arousal affects performance depends on an individual’s interpretation of his or her arousal level (cognitive theory) o Arousal can be interpreted as pleasant (excitement) or unpleasant (anxiety) o Example: Capuchin Monkey fairness experiment all relative based on his interpretation of the food o Example: if you break your leg, it could be bad or good depending on situation; if you were in an accident then breaking a leg is good compared to other injuries Anxiety direction and intensity - Understanding anxiety-performance relationship, you need to consider both the intensity (how much anxiety one feels) and the directions ( a person’s interpretation of anxiety as facilitating or debilitating to performance) - Developing cognitive skills and strategies helps people view anxiety as facilitative Significance of arousal- performance views: - Arousal is multifaceted - Consists of: o Physical activation of arousal o Interpretation of arousal - **It is doubtful that the optimal level of arousal is always at the midpoint of the scale - Arousal and state anxiety are not always a bad thing just depends on interpretation - Self-confidence and enhanced perceptions of control are critical to perceiving anxiety as facilitative - Some optimal level of arousal leads to peak performance, but optimal levels of physiological thoughts (worry) are not the same - Interaction of physiological activation and arousal interpretation is more important than actual levels of each - “Psyching up” strategies should be used with caution because can be hard to recover from a catastrophe - Athletes should have well practiced self-talk, imagery, relaxation, and goal setting skills for coping with anxiety Social facilitation theory: the presence of others enhances performance on simple or well learned skills or inhibits performance if skills are complex or unlearned. - Home field advantage during a regular season - Home field disadvantage during play off o Championship choking as a result of performer self- consciousness EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 5 Definitions of competition and cooperation: Competition: a social process that occurs when rewards are given to people for how their performance compares with the performance of others during the same task or when participating in the event o Limits the amount of rewards given/ distributes them based on performance o Darwin’s theory of survival of the fittest relates to this Cooperation: a social process through which performance is evaluated and rewarded in terms of the collective achievement of a group of people working together to reach a particular goal o No person gets left behind or you all pay Studies on competition and cooperation Triplett’s cyclists: cyclists were faster in competition than alone racing against a clock when racing each other they are faster and better Deutsch’s puzzles: o Competition: group students were self- centered, directed efforts at beating each other, had closed communication and exhibited group conflict/ distrust  Fix each engine individually and each person gets $300 o Cooperation: group students communicated openly, shared information, developed friendships, and solved more puzzles  30 people get assigned one engine and each person get $10 o Conclusion: Cooperation is better; usually when task is more complex o Competition is neutral; whether it leads to aggression or cooperation depends on the social environment and the way performers view competition.  Can be positive source of motivation to improve and refine skills Prisoner’s Dilemma: (competition/cooperation paradigm) if you mix people who want to cooperate with people who want to compete, everyone ends up competing o Related to Nash Game Theory o Related to class curve and test taking o Example of Split or Steal Summer camp: competition can be reduced through cooperative efforts to achieve superordinate goals Common attributes between competition and cooperation Competition and Cooperation as complementary means: o A sense of mission o Strong work ethic o Use of resources o A strong preparation ethic o A love of challenge and change o Great teamwork Component structure of games Means is teammates, ends is competitors Competitive means- competitive ends: ex. King of the hill, 100 yard dash, track meet Cooperative means- competitive ends: ex. Soccer, basketball Cooperative means- cooperative ends: ex. Keeping a volleyball from hitting ground Cooperative means- individual ends: ex. Helping each other individually improve Individual means- individual ends: ex. Calisthenics, cross country skiing Principles for Cooperative Games - Most skills can be learned better through cooperative games - Maximize participation, opportunities to learn sport and skill - Do not keep score - Maximize opportunity for success - Give positive feedback CHAPTER 6 Two principles of reinforcement (also called feedback or behavioral theory) Reinforcement: is the use of rewards and punishment, which increase or decrease the likelihood of a similar response occurring in the future - If doing something results in a good consequence (ex. Reward), people tend to repeat the behavior to achieve additional positive reinforcement - If doing something results in an unpleasant consequence (ex. Punishment), people tend not to repeat the behavior to avoid more negative consequences Difficulties in applying reinforcement - People react differently to the same reinforcement - People are unable to repeat desirable behavior - People receive different reinforces in different situations Timing/scheduling of reinforcement - Early learning: in the beginning, it is important to reinforce people immediately and continuously; people need to feel like they’re making progress - Learned skill: once the skill is learned, you need intermittent reinforcement o Gambling is intermittent reinforcement Positive / negative reinforcement ratio - 80:20 or 5:1 - Positive punishment should be most predominant Problems with punishment - Punishment can arouse fear of failure - Punishment can act as a reinforcer - Punishment can create an unpleasant learning environment - Make sure to punish the behavior not the person - Be consistent by giving everyone the same type of punishment for breaking similar rules Shaping - Any behavior can be broken down into a sequence of similar actions - All behaviors we know have been shaped - Example: something as complex as heart transplant surgery is in reality a long sequence of simple tasks - Major ideas behind shaping: once the behavior is mastered, there is no difference between people who learned it quickly or had a “natural talent” and the people who had a more difficult time learning it o Example of walking as toddlers now indistinguishable - Book Bounce argues that there is no such thing as natural talent in sports because sports consist of unnatural behaviors o Example of drawing progression o Andre Agassi: hated tennis, felt like no natural talent, but now is #1 Exposure: the more an action is repeated, the better it will be performed - Example: sleeping pills and anti-depressants are given to help you get use to something (i.e. depressed phase) and then help you move on the the next phase of your life so the more you actively engage in social activity, the less depressed you will be, the less you will need the pills Backwards chaining - Begin the performance of a skill with the last step, then add the second-to-last step and so forth until we arrive at the first step of the skill - Overshaping: over preparing for a skill so that when you use it in competition it will seem easier by comparison Intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation - Intrinsic motivation: strive inwardly to be competent and self- determining in their quest to master the task; do things for internal rewards o Internal reward: the satisfaction of restoring an old car o Internal punishment: shame - Extrinsic motivation: doing something for the reward not for the task itself; main object is to earn an outside reward or avoid outside punishment o External reward: money, star sticker o External punishment: getting grounded Motivation process: on slides but don’t need to know? Factors that influence motivation - Social factors: o Success and Failure o Focus on Competition o Coaches behavior - Psychological factors: o Need for competence, autonomy, relatedness How intrinsic and extrinsic motivation relate to one another - Research shows that being paid for working on an intrinsically interesting activity can decrease a person’s intrinsic motivation for the activity - Lepper and Greene study: Nursery school kids and drawing; expected and unexpected rewards expected reduces intrinsic motivation Cognitive evaluation theory - How rewards are perceived is critical in determining whether intrinsic motivation increases or decreases - Functional significance of the event: o Controlling aspects: rewards perceived to control a person decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas rewards that contribute to an internal locus of causality increase intrinsic motivation o Informational aspects: rewards that provide information and positive feedback about competence increase intrinsic motivation, whereas rewards that suggest the person is not competent decrease intrinsic motivation Difference between group and team - Team: Two or more people who interact and exert mutual influence on each other and share the following characteristics: o collective sense of identity o distinctive roles o structured modes of communication o group norms o synergy Three theories of team development - Linear perspective: o Forming: familiarization, forming interpersonal relationships, develop team structure o Storming: rebellion, resistance to the leader and interpersonal conflict o Norming: solid group structure and cooperation, conflicts are resolved o Performing: channeling of energies for team success - The Cyclical perspective: o Development of teams is similar to the life cycle- birth, growth and death o Emphasis is on the terminal phase of the team’s existence o As the team develops, it psychologically prepares for its own breakup o Especially for groups and teams that last 10-15 weeks - The Pendular Perspective: o Shifts occur in interpersonal relationships during the growth and development of teams o Teams do not progress through linear phases o Stages of team development  Orientation  Differentiation and conflict  Resolution and cohesion  Differentiation and conflict  Termination Team Structure: - Group roles: involve behaviors required or expected of a person occupying a certain position - Formal roles: are dictated by nature and structure of the organization (i.e. coach, captain, instructor) - Informal roles: evolve from the group’s dynamics or interactions among team members (i.e. enforcer, mediator) - Role clarity and role acceptance are critical for team success Modifying group norms: - The source of the communication is critical in modifying norms— more credible, better liked, similar, attractive, high-status, powerful individuals are more effective persuaders - Positive team norms are important to establish Types of support: - Social support: mutual respect and support enhance team climate; appraisal information, reassurance, cooperation, reduce uncertainty, improves comm. o Listening support o Emotional support o Emotional-challenge support o Reality-confirmation support o Task-appreciation support o Task-challenge support o Personal-assistance support Steiner’s model of productivity: - Actual productivity = potential productivity: Losses are due to faulty group processes - Losses result from motivation and coordination - Implications: role of the coach o Increase relevant resources through training, instruction, and recruiting o Reduce process losses through enhancing cohesion and emphasizing individual contributions to the team - The greater the need for cooperation and interaction in a task, the more the importance of individual ability decreases and team productivity becomes more important Ringlemann effect/social loafing: - Ringlemann: it is the phenomenon by which individual performance decreases as the number of people in the team increases - Social loafing is when individuals within a group or team put forth less than 100% effort due to loss of motivation o An individual’s output cannot be independently evaluated o A comparison against group standards is not possible o The task is perceived to be low in meaningfulness o Individual’s personal involvement is low Conditions that increase social loafing - Other individuals contributing to the collective effort are strangers - Teammates or coworkers are seen as high in ability - Individual team members perceive their efforts as redundant - The individual thinks he is competing against a weaker opponent How to eliminate social loafing: - Emphasize importance of individual pride and unique contributions - Increase indentifiability or individual performance - Determine specific situations in which social loafing occurs - Divide teams into smaller units Task cohesion/social cohesion: - Task cohesion: group commitment to work towards certain goal - Social cohesion: trusting each other CHAPTER 10 Content and relational aspects of communication: - Content: what is said - Relational: how we say it - Text: what you say - Subtext: what you really meant to say The communication process 1. Decision to send a message about something 2. Encoding of the message by sender 3. Channel through which it is transmitted to receiver 4. Decoding of the message by receiver 5. Internal response by the receiver to the message Proxemics: is the study of the use of space; used in educational, architectural, commercial and transportation settings Types of communication: - Verbal: should be clear and concise, right time and place, create trust with receiver - Nonverbal: physical appearance, posture, gestures o 50-70% is nonverbal comm o harder to hide - Interpersonal: at least two people - Intrapersonal: self-talk Active supportive listening: ask questions, paraphrase, attend to main and supporting ideas, acknowledge and respond, give appropriate feedback, pay attention to both verbal and nonverbal comm key: mentally prepare to actively listen Breakdown in the communication process: - when there is breakdown in comm, people usually think fault lies with other person - in reality, a failure at any of the 5 stages of the comm process will result in breakdown Confrontation: - although confrontation (face-to-face discussion among people in conflict) is often seen as negative, when properly used, it is part of effective comm - do not confront when angry, only when in control of emotions/ can express constructively The sandwich approach: if you are correcting someone that is doing something wrong, put correction in between two positive statements Test 3 study guide CH. 12 Anxiety self awareness - Increase your awareness of your psychological states before you can control your thoughts and feelings - Once you are aware of your optimal arousal, you can employ arousal regulation (reduction, maintenance, induction, strategies) - How individuals cope with anxiety is more important than how much anxiety they experience - Elite athletes see their anxiety as facilitative rather than debilitative Somatic, cognitive and multimodal anxiety reduction techniques Somatic - Progressive relaxation: Learn to feel the tension in your muscles and then let go of the tension. Over the course of time, people are able to identify the different levels of tension. - Breath control: When you are under pressure and tense, your breathing is short, shallow, and irregular. When you are calm, confident, and in control, your breathing is smooth, deep, and rhythmic - Biofeedback: Becoming more aware of your autonomic nervous system and learning to control your physiological and autonomic responses by receiving physiological feedback not normally available Cognitive - Relaxation response teaches individuals to quiet the mind, concentrate, and reduce muscle tension by applying the elements of meditation. - Autogenic training focuses on producing warmth and heaviness to produce a relaxed state. Multimodal (SIT) - An individual is exposed to and learns to cope with stress (via productive thoughts, mental images, and self-statements) in increasing amounts, thereby enhancing his or her immunity to stress o Stress inoculation: shaping and exposure for stress o Training for a high pressure environment o Start off with small stressor and gradually increase stressor Steps of stress inoculation training 1. Prepare for the stressor (“It’s going to be rough; keep your cool.”) 2. Control and handle the stressor (“Keep your cool since he’s losing his cool.”) 3. Cope with feelings of being overwhelmed (“Keep focused; what do you have to do next?”) 4. Evaluate coping efforts (“You handled yourself well.”) Hypnosis stages IHWP - 1. Induction - 2. Hypnotic - 3. Waking - 4. Posthypnotic - Lower arousal to a very low point but you’re still awake - The more open individuals are to receiving suggestions, the more likely they are to benefit from suggestions given under hypnosis Matching hypothesis An anxiety management technique should be matched to a particular problem - Cognitive anxiety should be treated with mental relaxation - Somatic anxiety should be treated with physical relaxation - If unsure which anxiety, use multimodal technique - Specific type of social support should be matched to specific anxiety problem experienced Coping categories - Coping: Coping is a process of constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands or conflicts appraised as taxing or exceeding one’s resources - Problem-focused: efforts to alter or manage the problems that are causing stress o (e.g., time management, problem solving) o Information gathering, pre-competition and competition plans, goal setting, time management skills, problem solving, increasing effort, self-talk, adhering to injury rehab - Emotion-focused: Regulating the emotional responses to the problem that causes the stress o (e.g., through relaxation, mediation) o Meditation, relaxation, wishful thinking, reappraisal, self- blame, mental and behavioral withdrawal, cognitive efforts to change the meaning of the situation - Use problem-focused coping when stressful situations can be changed; use emotion-focused coping when situations are not amenable to change. Withdrawal coping When looking at long-term variables (e.g., satisfaction, continued participation), withdrawal/avoidance coping produced a negative relationship while active coping produced positive relationship Corrective experiences Athletes make a conscious decision to engage in the behavior that is of concern, which can reduce anxiety and correct past mistakes - Example: if your child falls off bicycle, you need to get them right back on it to leave them with a good last experience Coping with Emotions - Vicarious learning: Modeling appropriate behaviors makes it more likely that behavior will be produced. - Self-analysis: Monitor emotions in sport and thus increase self- awareness. - Learned resourcefulness: Resourceful individuals realize that coping skills can apply to different aspects of life. - Autism summer camp - Learned helplessness: Impotence that generalizes to other situations. CH. 13 Definition and basics of imagery Imagery: is a form of simulation that involves recalling from memory pieces of information stored from experience and shaping those pieces into meaningful images - Involves creating or recreating an experience in your mind - Involves all senses: visual, kinesthetic, auditory, tactile, olfactory - Imagery combined with other psychological strategies enhances performance and other psychological variables such as confidence and coping - The kinesthetic sense is particularly important for athletes. Functions of imagery Where: Athletes employ imagery more in competition than in training When: Athletes use imagery before, during, and after practice, outside of practice, before, during, or after competition, and for injury rehab Why: For motivational and cognitive functions What: Aspects- surroundings, the positive or negative character of images, the senses involved, the perspective (internal vs external) Imagery perspective Internal perspective: visualizing the execution of a skill from your own vantage point External perspective: visualizing yourself from the perspective of an outside observer Neither is always best Four theories of imagery 1. Psychoneuromuscular theory - Imagery programs muscles for action - Imagery facilitates the learning of motor skills because imagined events innervate the muscles as physical practice of the movement does; they strengthen neural pathways - Video of weird golf swing: there are two different files in your head when not in front of ball, can swing perfectly 2. Symbolic learning theory - Imagery helps us understand movement patterns - Imagery functions as a coding system (as mental blueprints) to help people understand and acquire movement patterns - Shot put video with steps: list of steps to encode in your brain, learning steps 3. Bioinformational theory - Images are made of stimulus and response propositions - It is critical to imagine not only stimulus propositions but also response propositions - “If this happens, I am going to do this” 4. Psychological skills hypothesis - Imagery develops and refines mental skills and reduces anxiety - Imagery enhances feelings of confidence, reduces anxiety levels, and increases concentration - When you are learning the skills, you’re learning other things too like concentration, focus, thinking under pressure Attention-arousal set theory: Imagery functions as a predatory set that assists in reaching optimal arousal Psychological skills hypothesis: Imagery enhances feelings of confidence, reduces anxiety levels, and increases concentration. Motivational function: Imagery serves a motivational function. 2 keys to effective imagery Vividness: Use all the senses to make images as vivid and detailed as possible - How real can I make this in my mind? - Exercise: Imagine being at home, imagine a positive performance of skills, imagine a best performance Controllability: Learn to manipulate your images so they do what you want them to do - Exercise: Imagine controlling a performance, imagine controlling your emotions, imagine controlling a performance against a tough opponent CH. 14 Self-confidence definition: The belief that you can successfully perform a desired behavior Dispositional and state self confidence Dispositional self confidence: The degree of certainty individuals usually have about their ability to succeed State self confidence: The belief of certainty that individuals have at a particular moment about their ability to succeed Self-fulfilling prophecy: Expecting something to happen actually helps cause it to happen Negative self-fulfilling prophecy: Psychological barrier whereby the expectation of failure leads to actual failure Benefits of self confidence - Arouses positive emotions - facilitates concentration - affects the setting and pursuit of challenging goals - increases effort - affects game strategies - affects psychological momentum - affects performance Optimal level of self confidence - Optimal confidence involves being so convinced that you’ll achieve your goals that you strive hard to do so - Lack of confidence or self-doubts create anxiety, break concentration, and cause indecisiveness - Overconfidence (false confidence) causes you to prepare less than you need to in order to perform 4 stages of how expectations influence outcomes 1: Bias Coaches form expectations based on personal cues (gender, race, body size, etc) and performance information Problems occur when inaccurate expectations (too high or low) are formed - Example: the teacher thinks you are dumb b/c from NJ (bias) 2: Behave according to bias Coaches’ expectations influence their behavior regarding the frequency and quality of coach-athlete interactions, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the type and frequency of feedback - Example: you won’t ask questions or go to office hours because you know teacher thinks your dumb (act according to bias) 3: Performance affected by behavior Coaches’ behaviors affect athletes’ performance by causing low- expectancy performers to perform more poorly because of less reinforcement, less playing time, less confidence, and attributions to low ability - You won’t do as well on test (it is that behavior that causes the change) 4: Bias confirmed because of performance Athlete’s performance confirms the coaches’ original expectations Performance results feed back into stage 1 of the coaches’ expectations and athlete performance process - Example: teacher says, “I told you he wasn’t smart!” - you think it’s the bias causing the change but it’s the behavior Self Efficacy Sources Self efficacy theory: how we generalize our feelings of accomplishment; related to learned resourcefulness Performance accomplishments: Accomplishments are the most dependable source. Successful experiences raise the level of self- efficacy while failure reduces efficacy Vicarious experiences (modeling): Seeing others/modeling influences efficacy (Bobo doll experiment, chimp video) Verbal persuasion: From oneself and others can enhance feelings of self-efficacy Imaginal experiences: Individuals can generate beliefs about personal efficacy or lack of efficacy by imagining themselves or others behaving effectively or ineffectively in future situations Physiological states: When they are associated with aversive physiological arousal, poor performance, and perceived failure Emotional states: moods CH. 15 Subjective vs Objective goals Subjective goals: general statements of intent such as having fun or doing your best Objective goals: Attaining a specific standard of proficiency on a task, usually in a specified time Process Performance and Outcome Goals Outcome goals: Focus on a competitive result of an event ex. Beating someone - can facilitate short-term motivation but often lead to anxiety before and during competition Performance goals: Focus on achieving standards of performance or objectives independently of other competitors-usually making comparisons with one’s own previous performance - performance and process are more precise than outcome goals and less dependent on behavior of others - performance and process are useful before or during competition Process goals: Focus on the actions an individual must engage in during performance to execute or perform well - process= technique Why Goal Setting Works Top three goals for athletes: improving performance, winning, enjoyment Indirect thought process view: Goals influence performance indirectly by affecting psychological factors, such as anxiety, confidence, and satisfaction Direct mechanistic explanation: Goals… Direct attention to the important elements of the skill, mobilize performers’ efforts, prolong performers’ persistence, and foster the development of new learning strategies Goals influence psychological states: Athletes who set performance (rather than outcome) goals have less anxiety and more confidence and satisfaction Principals of Goal Setting - Set specific goals - Set moderately difficult but realistic goals - Set long- and short-term goals (long term first) - Set performance and process goals as well as outcome goals - Set practice and competition goals - Record goals - Develop goal achievement strategies - Consider participants’ personalities and motivations - Foster an individual’s goal commitment - Provide goal support - Provide evaluation of and feedback about goals When using shaping to reach goals, you have to learn the most in the beginning (reinforce a lot in the beginning) and later on start spacing out the steps (set them up for intermittent reinforcement) Common Problems in Goal Setting - Convincing students, athletes, and exercisers to set goals - Failing to set specific goals - Setting too many goals too soon - Failing to adjust goals - Failure to recognize individual differences - Not providing goal follow-up and evaluation


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