HP200 Midterm 1 Study Guide!
HP200 Midterm 1 Study Guide! HP200
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael Wang on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HP200 at University of Southern California taught by Dr. Bluenthal in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Health Promotions in Health Promotions at University of Southern California.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
1 Introduction to Health Promotions (HP200) Midterm #1 Study Guide There are all the terms you need to know for the exam. Know general details and ask yourself constantly the “why” question i .e. Why did he list this down? Good Luck! Let me know if you have any questions! 1.Philodoxy One who loves his own opinion; an argumentative or dogmatic person. 2. Philosophy Love of knowledge 3. Health as multidimensional: Hea lth – “i ynamic state or condition of the human organism that is multidimensional in nature, a resource for living, and results from a person’s interaction with and adaptations to his or her environment” 4. Death rate/Mortality rate 5. Morbidity rate Morbidity refers to the state of being diseased or unhealthy within a population. 6. Cognitivebased philosophy (target, goals, methods, conceptualization of HPDP) focuses on the acquisition of content & factual information to inform healthrelated decisionmaking. Better information leads to better health decis onmaking 2 7. Decisionmaking philosophy (target, goals, methods, conceptualization of HPDP) emphasizes critical thinking and lifelong learning through case studies or scenarios. Role playing with youth on how to discuss condom use with a potential sex partner. 8. Epidemiology the study of the distribution and determinants of healthrelated states or events in specific populations, and the application of this study to control health problems 9. Population Population Health is defined as the health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of such outcomes within the group. *These groups are often geographic populations such as nations or communities, but can also be other groups such as employees, ethnic groups, disabled persons, prisoners, or any other defined group 10. Wellness “an approach to health that focuses on balancing the many aspects, or dimensions, of a person’s life through increasing the adoption of health enhancing conditions and behaviors rather than attempting to minimize conditions of illness” always a positive quality (as opposed to illness being negative) is visualized as the integration of the spiritual, intellectual, physical, emotional, environmental, & social dimensions of health to form a whole “healthy person 11. Epidemic These terms refer to the frequency, size (number of cases) and geographic spread of diseases (both infectious and chronic). So diabetes might be regarded as endemic, an epidemic or even a pandemic for our purposes. 12. Life expectancy the average number of years remaining to a person at a particular age and is based on an specific age cohort. Best measured at birth 13. Health field concept based on the general theory of social health models 3 14. Primary, secondary, & tertiary prevention 15. Risk factors Those inherited, environmental, & behavioral influences “which are known (or thought) to increase the likelihood of physical or mental problems/ characteristics, which increase the probability of health problems Types: Modifiable (changeable or controllable) Nonmodifiable (nonchangeable or noncontrollable) Categories of Risk Factors: –Demographic (age, gender, race, etc.) Example: Older age is a risk factor for dementia Inherited Example: Sickle cell –Environmental Example: Sun exposure is a risk factor for skin cancer –Behavioral –Example: Highsugar diet is a risk factor for diabete 16. Leading causes and actual causes of death Leading Cause of Death:Heart Disease, Cancer, Lung Disease Actual Cause of Death: Tobacco, Unhealthy diets , Alcohol Consumption Global Perceived vs Actual Cause of Death Perceived: 4 HIV/AIDS Starvation Diet Malnutrition Actual: Heart Disease 17. Modifiable vs. nonmodifiable risk factors –Modifiable (changeable or controllable) –Nonmodifiable (nonchangeable or noncontrollable) 18. Communicable vs. noncommunicable diseases Communicable Disease: diseases caused by biological agents and are transmissible from persontoperson Noncommunicable diseases: diseases that cannot be transmitted from an infected person to a healthy one 19. Communicable disease model *Vector is carrier *Know how this model can apply to the Black Death Plague Vector is the Rat. Think about vector as the delivery system. The bacteria resided in the flea, making the flea the host. Agent, or microbe that causes the disease (the “what” of the Triangle) 5 Host, or organism harboring the disease (the “who” of the Triangle) Environment, or those external factors that cause or allow disease transmission (the “where” of the Triangle) 20. Chain of infection model 21. Multicausation disease model 6 22. HPDP as a sciencedriven field (Health Sciences, Biological Sciences, Behavioral and Social Sciences) Health promotions and Disease prevention is the study of the detriments of health and disease. The study and implementation of programs to promote health and prevent disease 23. Infectious diseases –HIV , Dengue Fever, Hepatitis A, B, & nfluenza, easles, B, STDs, Chlamy Syphil s 24. Chronic Disease –Asthma – Chronic renal disease– Diabete Glaucoma– Hypertension– Heart disease–Cancer–Stroke 25. Years of potential life lost [YPLL] – Key measure of premature mortality Difference between 75 years of age (was 65 years of age until 1996) and age at death 26. Disabilityadjusted life years [DALY] 7 One DALY can be thought of as one lost year of "healthy" life. The sum of these DALYs across the population, or the burden of disease, can be thought of as a measurement of the gap between current health status and an ideal health situation where the entire population lives to an advanced age, free of disease and disability. DALYs is calculated through the Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) x Years Lived with Disability (YLD) Years lived with Disability where: ● I = number of incident cases ● DW = disability weight ● L = average duration of the case until remission or death (years) A disability weight is a weight factor that reflects the severity of the disease on a scale from 0 (perfect health) to 1 (equivalent to de th) 27. Healthrelated quality of life subjective measure of health Measured by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 4 questions: •Would you say that in general your health is excellent, very good, good, fair or poor? •Now thinking about your physical health, which includes physical illness and injury, how many days during the past 30 days was your physical health not good? •Now thinking about your mental health, which includes stress, depression, and problems with emotions, how many days during the past 30 days was your mental health not good? •During the past 30 days, approximately how many days did poor physical or mental health keep you from doing your usual activities, such as selfcare, work, or recreation? 28. Evidencebased practice practice that is based on systematically finding, appraising, and using evidence as the basis for decisionmaking when planning health education/promotion programs 29. Populationbased approaches how to best product to the population, get the model or constructs to work. 30. Empowerment social action theory that measures how people are able to take mastery of their health outcomes 8 31. HPDP activities based on trial and error basically most models... 32. Urban mortality penalty How living environment impacts health on a long term. 33. Development of a state and national programs to promote health 34. Old Testament/Torah 35. 1850 report of the sanitary commission of Massachusetts –1850, Shattuck’s Report of Sanitary Commission of Massachusetts Report of a general plan for the promotion of public and personal health, devised, prepared and recommended by the Commissioners appointed under a resolve of the legislature of Massachusetts, relating to a sanitary survey of the state 36. Healthy People 2000 –Is the nation’s health promotion and disease prevention agenda –A roadmap to improve health using a 10 year plan –Comprised of three parts –Part I – History, Determinants of health model, How to use a systematic approach, Leading Health Indicators (LHI) –Part II – Two goals (Increase quality and years of healthy life, Eliminate health disparities), & 467 objectives in 28 focus areas –Part III –Tracking of progress 37. Healthy People 2010 –Could assess progress of 281 of the objectives 9 38. Health education philosophies/approaches Health Education: “any combination of planned learning experiences based on sound theories that provide individuals, groups, and communities the opportunity to acquire information and the skills needed to make quality health decisions” 39. Continuum theories use an approach that identifies variables that influence action & combines them into a prediction equation. Health Belief Model (HBM) Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) 10 40. Stage theories are comprised of an ordered set of categories into which people can be classified, & which identifies factors that could induce movement from one category to the next. Stage theories have 1) definition of stages, 2) ordering of stages, 3) common barriers to change within stage 4) different barriers between stages Transtheoretical Model (TTM), Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) 41. Behavior change philosophy (target, goals, methods, conceptualization of HPDP) focuses on modifying unhealthy habits through behavior contracts, goal setting, and self monitoring. 42. Patient protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) •Expands Medicaid to all up to 133% of the federal poverty threshold •Health Insurance Exchange with Approved Health Benefit plan •Subsidies 133% and 400% of the federal poverty threshold •Estimated 35 million Americans Approximately 24 to 28 million people enrolled through various mechanisms in the first year 43. Leprosy extremely infectious bacterial disease that causes facial disfigurement 44. Bubonic plague/black death •The agent is a bacteria •It is native to rodent fleas – fleas are the vector •Rodents and fleas are the host •It can be fatal in rodent subpopulations •It spread to all parts of Eurasia and North Africa through flea bites •Multiple changes in the environment lead to the Black Death epidemic in the 1300’s 45. Cholera a bacteria disease that causes dehydration and severe diarrhea , usually caused by infected water. 46. Miasmas theory 11 miasma theory (also called the miasmatic theory) held that diseases such as cholera, chlamydia, or the Black Death were caused by a miasma (μίασμα, ancient Greek: "pollution"), a noxious form of "bad air", also known as "night air 47. Philosophy of symmetry Health has physical, emotional, spiritual, & social components; all of equal importance 48. Holistic philosophy “man is essentially a unified integrated organism” 49. Freeing/functioning philosophy focuses on freeing people to make best health decision for them based on their needs and interests– not necessarily for society. Aims to “not blame the victim.” Strengthsbased approach fits with this philosophy 50. Eclectic health education philosophy focuses on an adapting approach that is appropriate for setting 51. Theory: 12 a set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that present a systemic view of events or situations by specifying relations among variables in order to explain and predict the events of the situations. 52. Concepts primary elements of theories or building blocks of theory. 53. Constructs a concept developed, created, or adopted for use with a specific theory Gets on closer to the operational definition Takes a number of variables to make a construct (A question you ask someone), and would take a couple of them to create a construct 54. Variables the operational(practice use) form of a construct, How a construct will be measured 55. Measures steps taken in the model 56. Model a mixture of ideas and concepts that draws upon a number of theories to help people understand a specific problem in a particular setting or context 13 57. Needs assessment What a person really needs to be healthy 58. Behavioral/lifestyle factors How behavior/lifestyles affect personal lifestyle factors 59. Risk vs. protective factors How those behaviors turn into risk factors 60. Environmental influences How intrapersonal influences affect health outcomes. 61. Determinants of health –Gestational endowment GENES (30%) –Social circumstances education, economic status, etc… (15%) –Environmental conditions toxins, microbial agents both natural and human made(5%) –Human behavior diet, exercise, etc…(40%) Medical care (10% 14 62. Genetic, health system, social circumstances, environmental conditions, human behavior (lifestyle) •Any two humans are 99.5% identical •Genetic variations are typically associated with geographic location •Nonetheless, racial labels may obscure biomedically relevant variations •Many of the drawbacks of genomic data are due to sociopolitical interpretation and economic context. 63. Theories of behavior change –Relative advantage of new behavior over old –Trialability, degree to which new behavior can be tried without complete adoption –Compatibility with existing norms –Observability of benefits to change –Simplicity of the new change; is it complica ed 64. Planning models direction for models that have “action plans” 65. Precedeproceed Part of planning model , best used and known Assessment / Implementation/ Did it work •begin by identifying the desired outcome, to determine what causes it, & then design an intervention to reach the desired outcom 66. MATCH Multilevel Approach To Community Health •Applied when behavioral & environmental risk & protective factors for disease / injury are known & general priorities determined •Includes ecological planning – levels of influence 67. Intervention Mapping Based upon the importance of planning programs that are based on theory & evidence 68. SMART – Social marketing Assessment Response Tool • is a social marketing planning framewor 69. Generalized model for program planning (GMPP) General Model of planning for health promotions 70. Intrapersonal level of influences on behavior change 15 Individual behavior that affects personal health 71. Interpersonal level of influences on behavior change assume individuals exist within, and are influenced by, a social environment. The opinions, thoughts, behavior, advice, and support of people surrounding an individual influence his or her feelings and behavior, and the individual has a reciprocal effect on those people 72. Community level (institutional, community, and public policy factors) This group of theories includes three of the ecological perspective levels institutional (e.g., rules & regulations), community (e.g., social networks & norms), & public policy (e.g., legislation) Theories associated with these factors include theories of community organizing and community building 73. Intrapersonal Theories see social capital theory 74. Health belief model (and key constructs) “addresses a person’s perceptions of the threat of a health problem and the accompanying appraisal of a recommended behavior for preventing or managing a problem Constructs of the Health Belief Model: Perceived susceptibility Perceived seriousness Perceived barriers Perceived benefits Cues to action Selfefficacy 16 17 75. Theory of planned behavior (know each of the pieces) 76. Transtheoretical Model (know the stages) •Has four major constructs – 1) Stages of change (this is why some call it the “Stages of Change Model”), 2) Processes of change, 3) Selfefficacy (Individual’s self belief that he or she can change) 4) Decisional balance 77. Health Action Process Approach Describes behavior change over time Has Two Stages: Motivation to change & selfregulatory processes– and five stages: intention, planning, initiative, maintenance, & recovery 78. Social Cognitive Theory describes learning as a reciprocal interaction among an individual’s environment, cognitive processes, and behavior Learning through reinforcement 79. Diffusion Theory This theory provides an explanation for the diffusion of innovations (something new) in populations. Explains the pattern of adoption of the innovations. •Bellshaped curve 18 80. John Snow’s contribution to public health Solved the Cholera Case in London , proved miasmas theory wrong. Shifted science towards the germ theory 81. Leviticus First written code of public health 82. Middle ages •Middle or Dark Ages (500 1500 A.D. ) –Political and social unrest; many health advances lost –Overcrowding, sewage removal problems, lack of fresh, clean water –Christianity was widely adopted; personal hygiene not practiced –Great epidemics, i.e., leprosy & bubonic (black) plague –Many theories for disease; many superstition 83. Renaissance •Renaissance (rebirth) (A.D. 1500 – 1700) –Science emerged as legitimate field & replaced superstition; progress was slow –Still much disease & plague; medical care rudimentary –Barber–surgeons; bloodletting –English royalty lived better; hygiene in all was lacking –Invention of printing press; microscope discovered; epidemiology studied –16th century in Italy; public health boards instituted to fight plague 84. Social security act –Social Security Act of 1935 beginning of federal government’s involvement in social issues –Medicare; health insurance for the elderly –Medicaid; health insurance for the poor 85. Medicare act provided care for elderly 65+ 86. Medicaid act provided care for those unable to pay 19 87. Multilevel intervention multi level prevention (current goals of health promotions) 88. Precontemplation and contemplation Action, maintenance, relapse, termination Part of the transtheoretical model 90. Precaution adoption process model Explains how people come to the decision to take action, & how they translate that decision to action Most useful when a deliberate action is required, e.g., screening or immunization 91. Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion (ELM) Designed to help explain how health messages, aimed at changing attitudes, are received, processed, and retained by people. Attitudes formed via two routes of persuasion: peripheral or central Elaboration refers to the amount of cognitive processing related to the type of route. Peripheral routes require minimal thought, rely on superficial cues and tend to not have long lasting impacts on attitudes Central routes involve thoughtful consideration and typically lead to long lasting changes in attitudes 92. InformationMotivationBehavioral Skills Model (IMB) Behavior determined by information, motivation, and behavioral skill. Information include both formal and informal sources. Motivation includes both personal and social motivations to act. Behavioral skill or selfefficacy to act on information and motivation. Research methods may be used to determine information deficits, motivations, and behavioral skills in a population 20 93. Social network theory web of social relationships that surround people beneficial effects of supportive networks on health status 94. Social capital theory the relationships and structures within a community, such as civic participation, networks, norms of reciprocity, and trust, that promote cooperation of mutual benefit –Bonding – type that brings people together (religion, club membership) –Bridging – type that brings together previously unconnected people (coalitions) –Linking – type that brings people together across hierarchal social strata (boss and employee collaboration 95. Community readiness model •Like individuals, communities are at various stages of readiness for change •Nine stages 1) No awareness, 2) Denial, 3) Vague awareness, 4) Preplanning, 5) Preparation, 6) Initiation, 7) Stabilization, 21 8) Confirmation/Expansion, 9) Professionalis 96. MATCH (multilevel approach to community health) 97. MAPP – Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships Community Assessment, raise awareness among community members. Steps: Visioning Four MAPP assessments Identify Strategic Issuesnatfm Formulate Goals and Strategies Action (Evaluate , Plan, Implement) 98. US Public Health Service –Marine Hospital service developed into U.S. Public Health Service 99. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Conducts.. –Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) –Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 1946, Communicable Disease Center was established (now called Centers for Disease Control & Prevention) (CDC 100. National Institutes of Health Conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) –National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) –National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) –National Health Care Surveys (six surveys dealing with ambulatory care, hospitals, & longterm care) 101. 1798 Marine Hospital Services Act Created the US Department of Public Health Services 102. Water casting 22 A Renaissance method of practice, physicians look at patient’s urine samples. 103. CDCynergy (CDC) •Developed initially for public health professionals at CDC with responsibilities for health communication •Developed for health communication but can be used with all health promotion planning 104. Confirmation bias “Seeing is believing” 105. Greek, Roman, Indian, Egyptian contributions to health •India had signs of sanitation 4,000 years ago –Healthcare is the Smith Papyri (1600 B.C.) – surgical techniques –Public Health is the Code of Hammurabi that described laws pertaining to health practices (physician fees) •Egyptians (30001500 B.C.) –Primitive medicine due performed by priestphysxicians –Known for personal cleanliness •Hebrews (around 1500 B.C.) –Extended the Egyptian hygienic code –Formulated probably the world’s first hygienic code in the biblical book of Leviticus •Greeks (1000400 B.C.) –1st to put emphasis on disease prevention –Balance among physical (athletics), mental (philosophy), and spiritual (theology) –Asclepius – god of medicine –Hygeia – power to prevent disease; more prominent –Panacea – ability to treat disease –Hippocrates (460377 B.C.) –the first epidemiologist and father of medicine –Hippocratic oath is still used today •Romans (500 B.C. A.D. 500) –Accepted many ideas of Greeks including those related to health and medicine –Emphasis on community health (e.g. sewer & aqueduct systems) –Appreciation for hygiene & had system of public & private baths –Developed first hospital –Public medical service & private medical practice –Study of anatomy & practice of surgery 23 106. Socioecological model (macro, meso, micro, microbiological) Religion would be Macro (social structure) Church would be meso (social institutions) Quiz #1 1. (False) The absence of disease best reflects current thinking on health 2. (False) Politics has little or no influence on the health moving urban setting industrial accidents 24 3. (True) Deaths among young people disproportionately impact life expectancy measures for groups and countries 4. (True) A short list of events that can impact life expectancy include war, infectious disease epidemics , and access to quality health care. 5. (True) Social institutions (schools, marriage) are one level of analysis in the the social ecological model. Quiz #2 1.) T, Prior to our modern era, disease prevention and health promotion was often closely related to religious beliefs 2.) F, Noncommunicable diseases can be spread between people 3.) T, Tobacco is the leading actual cause of death a.) Poor Diet, Alcohol Consumption Firearms, Car Accidents *Know first 5 of them 4.) F, Having a risk factor for a disease means that you will get it 5.) T, Any two people are 99.5% genetically identical
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