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AU / Biology / BIOL 1020 / What is the ph level of an acid rain?

What is the ph level of an acid rain?

What is the ph level of an acid rain?


School: Auburn University
Department: Biology
Course: Principles of Biology
Professor: Zhong
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: PrinciplesofBiology, organicmolecules, and Carbohydrates
Cost: 25
Name: Biology 1020-Week 2 notes-Chapter 4 and Chapter 5:Carbohydrates-Dr. Sundermann
Description: These are the class notes for week 2 on all of Chapter 4: Organic Molecules and on Chapter 5: Carbohydrates.
Uploaded: 08/31/2016
9 Pages 123 Views 1 Unlocks

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We also discuss several other topics like What are the significant events in the battle of san romano?

Don't forget about the age old question of What elements make up cho, pro, fat?


  • Living organisms use buffers to resist changes in ph.
  • Buffers are weak acids and weak basis
  • Most life is around ph ~ 6.8-7.4 : ph cannot vary very much w/o causing life threatening situations.
  • Acid Rain is below ph 5.6 w/ it mostly around 1.5-4.2
  • Normal rain is somewhat acidic w/ a ph of 5.6
  • Acid rain lowers the ph of streams, lakes, can damage vegetation.
  • Gasoline → nitrogen oxide }   gets released into the atmosphere and                        
  • Coal oil → sulfur oxide }          may be carried thousands of miles by

                                                                the wind and the react w/ water and falls  We also discuss several other topics like What does joint stability mean?

                                                     back to earth as acid rain→nitric acid  

                                                     and sulfuric acid. Don't forget about the age old question of What makes a writer master of their trade?

CHAPTER 4: Introduction to organic chemistry

We also discuss several other topics like What is another term for a collection of data?

              - Organic Molecules - must contain carbon and hydrogen. Don't forget about the age old question of When is an ode sung or delivered?

                  - Inorganic Molecules are molecules that do not contain Carbon or Hydrogen

            Carbon : very versatile why?

                             - Valence # of 4 and 4 valence electrons which is why it is so versatile.

            Hydrocarbon: molecules that have just carbon and hydrogen

                             -there is a lot of energy b/w the bond b/w carbons + hydrogen

1. Alkanes: C and H, only single bonds

               - smallest alkane in the world is CH₄ called methane

               - next smallest alkane is an ethane C₂H₆

              - C3H3 is propane

               - C₄H₁₀ is butane

2. Alkenes: have carbon, hydrogen and/or more double bonds.

   -there are examples of an “unsaturated carbon”

3. Alkynes: have triple bonds along w/ carbons + hydrogen

                  H – C = C – H ← smallest alkyne




1.) -Functional Groups: also can be called radical groups.


 2.)  -Aldehyde Group(Carbonyl Group)

Ketone Group (Carbonyl)

                             - double bonded carbon to oxygen w/ carbon groups connected to  

                                   that carbon

                                  - cannot be the first or last

         - polar

         - found in some sugars

   ︎  - world’s smallest ketone has to nave 3 carbons

4.) Ester (Carbonyl)

         -found in some fat molecules



5.) Carboxyl Group(Carbonyl)




    - found in some acids(organic acids)

     - carboxylic acids

         - polar  

                                           Methanoic acid

                                       (formic acid)→fire ants


 Organic acids are a lot weaker than inorganic acids


   -contain + typically 2 hydrogens NH₂



   -found in amino acids


7.) Phosphate Group  

 ︎ ︎ ︎ ︎ ︎found in: ︎ ︎ ︎ ︎ ︎  ︎ ︎ ︎ ︎ ︎ ︎ ︎ ︎ ︎ ︎ ︎ ︎ ︎ ︎   ︎ ︎-phospholipids ︎

                                            - nucleic acids: nucleotides  

                                          -a charged molecule

8.) Sulfhydryl Group

          -contains sulfur and hydrogens

         -found in some protein

9.) Methyl Group

     -only carbon with 3 hydrogens (CH3)

         - can give a molecule some non polar properties

 CHAPTER 5: Macro Molecules

         - 4 classes of macromolecules

       1.) Carbohydrates              

           2.) Lipids

          3.) Proteins

          4.) Polynucleotides


•Monomers: building blocks of the big molecules(polymers)

• Monomers are joined together (Monomer + Monomer)

            - to form a bond you must remove H2O

               → this is called a dehydration reaction or a synthesis b/c you are making


            - you must add H2O to the reaction to break a polymer


            Polymer——→ monomer + monomer

               → this is called a Nydrolysis reaction

           → Also called a digestion


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