HNES 250, test 1 study guide
HNES 250, test 1 study guide HNES 250
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by nicole ugelstad on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HNES 250 at North Dakota State University taught by Elizabeth Hilliard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
HNES 250 Test Review: Chp 1,2,&3 The test will consist of 50 multiple choice questions Chapter 1 Convert pounds to ounces and to kg and grams 1lb = 16oz 1kg = 1000g 1oz = 30g 1000g = 1kg 1kg = 2.2 lbs Examples of macronutrients and micronutrients? Macro = Carbs, lipids, and proteins. Micro = Vitamins and Minerals What elements make up CHO, Pro, Fat? CHO = carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Lipids: Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sometimes nitrogen Protein: Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen Be able to calculate kilocalories from a meal given the amount of CHO, Pro, fat, and alcohol CHO 4kcal/g Protein 4kcal/g Lipids 9kcal/g Alcohol: 7kcal/g Be able to calculate percent of calories from a given macronutrient in a menu item…given the amount of CHO, Pro, and fat in a menu item What is the difference in the AMDR, RDA, AI, UL, and EAR? AMDR: Acceptable Macronutrient Distrubution Range RDA: Recommended Dietary Allowance 98% of healthy population AI: Adequate Intake UL: Tolerable Upper Intake Level EAR: Estimated Average Requirement 50% of healthy population EER estimated energy requirement Different types of research studies Animal studies: Researchers feed animals special diets that provide or omit specific nutrients and then observe any changes in healthy behavior. Casecontrol study: researchers compare people who do and do not have a given condition such as a disease, closely matching them in age, gender, and other key variables so that differences in other factors will stand out. Observational Studies: Studies to indicate possible relationships between factors Clinical trials: tightly controlled experiments in which an intervention is given to determine its effect on a certain disease or health condition. (medications, nutrition supplements, controlled diets, and exercise programs) Characteristics of quality research studies Randomized trials, single and double blind experiments, 30 or larger, Identify reliable sources of nutrition information Governmental agency, college researches, people with accredited degrees Energy density vs. nutrient density? Energy density = high calorie, low nutrients. Nutrient density = low calories, lots of nutrients What is the body’s main form of stored energy? Carbohydrates in the form of glycogen What can we learn from the agouti mice study? Nutrition impacts us in ways we may not see til much later Chapter 2 What is required on a food label? How many kcalories are the DV based on? 1. A statement of identity: common name of product or appropriate identification 2. The net contents of the product: weight/volume 3. Ingredient list (common names, in descending order by weight) 4. Name and address of food manufacturer, packer, or distributor 5. Nutritional information. 2000 calorie diet What are the differences between the current Nutrition facts panel and the proposed nutrition facts panel. Serving size and servings per container Calories and calories from fat per serving List of nutrients Percent daily values Footnote (lower part of panel) Who regulates food labeling in the US? FDA; USDA (Dairy and meat) What are the Dietary Guidelines for Americans? What do they recommend (foods and nutrients to include and limit) 1. Balance calories to maintain weight: low sodium, limit foods and beverages high in sugar, limit fat but don’t eliminate. Alcohol, no nutrients, restrict intake. 2. Consume more healthful foods and nutrients: increase fruits and vegetables, make half of foods whole grains, choose fat free or low fat milk, choose protein foods that are lower in solid fat, choose foods that provide an adequate level of dietary fiber as well as nutrients. 3. Follow healthy eating patterns Prepared foods (convenience and fast foods) are usually high in what nutrients? Sodium, fat, calories, high energy density The pictorial view of the US dietary guidelines is what shape? A plate What are discretionary calories in MyPlate? The leftover calories you have after you reach your nutritional value goal From lecture What is Fruit and Veggies More Matters? What does it recommend? Eating at least 5 or more fruits and vegetables From lecture What is the DASH diet? What does it recommend? Low sodium, lowers blood pressure. What are structure function claims on a label? "fiber maintains bowel regularity," or "antioxidants maintain cell integrity." Ingredient that maintains healthy function – supposedly What are the definitions of for the methods of processing grains? Be able to determine they type of bread that is a whole grain. Refined: uses only the endosperm Enriched: addition of nutrients to flour: iron thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, etc. What are the components of a healthy diet? Adequacy: sufficient energy, all essential nutrients (iron, fiber), Nutrient density (high and empty) Balance: energy, no such thing as “ideal” food item, foods rich in one nutrient should not be consumed at the expense of food rich in other nutrients, no such thing as ‘good’ and ‘bad’ foods, resist over and undereating Nutrient density vs energy density. How do nutrient dense foods help you meet your nutritional needs? Nutrient density: foods that provide the highest level of nutrients for the least amount of calories (energy) Energy Density: a lot of calories, very little nutrients If you eat healthier you will naturally eat less because your body will be more satisfied Chapter 3 Why do we eat? What is the difference between appetite and hunger. Appetite: psychological desire to consume foods Hunger: physiologic sensation that prompts you to eat How do blood glucose levels affect hunger? When we have not eaten for a while our blood glucose levels fall, prompting a change in the levels of insulin and glucagon. This chemical message is relayed to the hypothalamus, which then prompts us to eat in order to supply our bodies with more glucose What hormones are responsible for maintaining blood glucose levels? Insulin and Glucagon What organ triggers us to want food? Brain, hypothalmus How does our body signal satiety? Once one has eaten and the body has responded accordingly, other centers in the hypothalamus are triggered, and the desire to eat is reduced. What is the difference between digestion and absorption? digestion large food molecules are broken down to smaller molecules, mechanically and chemically. Absorption: What are the accessory organs of digestion? Tongue, salivary gland, pancreas, liver, gallbladder Where does digestion begin…how? Digestion begins during the cephalic phase where we think about food. Hunger and appetite work together to prepare the GI tract to digest food What are enzymes? Peristalsis? Chewing? Chyme? Enzymes: small chemicals usually proteins that act on other chemicals to speed up bodily processes but are not changed during those processes Peristalis: waves of squeezing and pushing contractions that move food, chime, and feces in one direction through the length of the GI tract Chewing: moistens food and mechanically breaks it down into pieces small enough to swallow Chyme a semifluid mass consisted of partially digested food, water, and gastric juices What macronutrients begins digestion in the mouth? Salivary amylase starts the digestion of carbohydrates in the mouth and this digestion continues until the food reaches the stomach Where (what part of the small intestine) does most absorption take place? Jejunum In what organ does most of the water absorption occur? Large intestine What is cholecystokinin – what does it do? It is produced by the small intestine (duodenum and jejunum) and it stimulates secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes, stimulates gallbladder contraction; slows gastric emptying What does the pancreas and liver produce that aids in digestion? Pancreas manufactures hormones that are important in metabolism. Insulin and glucagon, two hormones necessary to regulate the amount of glucose in the blood, are produced by the pancreas, the liver will regulate glucose levels and store glucose as glycogen What roles does the pancreas have in digestion? Manufactures, holds inactive forms, secretes digestive enzymes. Secretes bicarbonate into the duodenum What process does the body use to break down food? Hydrolysis: a chemical reaction that breaks down substances by the addition of water What does gastrin do? Stimulates secretion of HCl and pepsinogen, stimulates gastric motility, and promotes proliferation of gastric mucosal cell What is bile? Where is it produced? Where is it stored? How does it help with digestion and absorption? a greenish fluid that is sent into the duodenum where it breaks down lipids to make them more accessible by digestive enzymes,, liver, gallbladder What is the difference between the circulatory and lymphatic systems? What nutrients do they carry? Circulatory: blood travels to all of our tissues to deliver nutrients and other materials and to pick up waste products. Most nutrients and waste products are transported. Lymphatic: most lipids and fat soluble vitamins are transported What is GERD? What causes it? How is it treated? a permanently damaged esophageal sphincter or esophagus which allows for easier entrance of stomach acid into the esophagus. Gastroesophageal reflux disease. identifying problem foods, eating smaller meals, waiting 3 hours to lie down after meals, elevating the head of the bed, antacids, and stopping things like smoking and losing weight What is celiac disease? What is the dietary treatment? A digestive disease that severely damages the lining of the small intestine and interferes with the absorption of nutrients.Excluding all forms of wheat, rye, and barley is the dietary treatment as this causes it. What causes peptic ulcers? The bacterium Heliobacter pylori This study guide is not meant to include every question on the test, but to help in reviewing the major points in the material covered.
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