Test 2 study guide
Test 2 study guide HNES 250
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by nicole ugelstad on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HNES 250 at North Dakota State University taught by Elizabeth Hilliard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
Study Guide HNES 250 – Exam 2 There are 50 multiple choice questions each worth 2 points. The test is over chapters 4, 5, and 6. It covers your lecture notes and text chapters. Chapter 4 What monosaccharides make up sucrose, maltose, lactose? Lactose: glucose, galactose Maltose: 2 molecules glucose Sucrose: glucose, fructose Compare kcalorie content of table sugar verses honey Sugar: 49 Honey: 64 What is an oligosaccharide and what are some examples? Complex carbohydrates that contain 310 monosaccharides. Raffinose (found in beans, cabbage, brussels sprouts, broccoli, and whole grains) and stachyose (beans and legumes) Sources of fiber – soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber: dissolves in water, found in citrus fruits, berries, oat products, and beans Insoluble fiber: those that don’t typically dissolve in water. Generally found in whole grains and many vegetables. Secretions found in the mouth that helps digest carbohydrates Chewing, and amylase Technique used by endurance athletes to increase glycogen stores. Endurance athletes can increase their storage of muscle glycogen from two to four times the normal amount through a process called glycogen or carbohydrate loading. What is insulin and where is it made? Hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to increased blood levels of glucose. Facilitates uptake of glucose by body cells What is the glycemic index? Rating of the potential of foods to raise blood glucose and insulin level What are the benefits of increasing fiber in your diet? Reduced risk of colon cancer, help prevent hemorrhoids, constipation, diverticulosis, heart disease, weight loss, type 2 diabetes. What does a diet high in sugar cause? Tooth decay What are sugar alcohols? What products would you find them in? Some alternative sweeteners. Mannitol, sorbitol, isomalt, xylitol (sugarfree gum, mints, etc. What are the similarities and differences between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes? Both are insulin “errors.” Type 1 is when the body cant produce enough insulin, type 2 = body not responsive enough. What is lactose intolerance? How would that differ from a milk allergy? Lactose cannot be digested due to lack of lactase. Milk allergy is when the body “attacks” the proteins in the milk. What is PKU? Phenylketonuria. Genetic disorder that prevents breakdown of AA phenylalanine. Where does chemical digestion of carbohydrate begin? In the mouth: amylase What are amylases? Enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch into sugars. Chapter 5 Risk factors for heart disease Chloesterol (chol and LDL) sat and trans fat, high fat milk, chocolate Be able to evaluate a lipid profile to determine risk for heart disease using the American Heart Association guidelines <200HDL/200239/240> <100/LDL/130159/190> Mg/DL HDL> 60 What is ketosis and what type of diet would cause it? Elevated lvls of KE in body. Low carb diet, high fat diet. What are the 3 classes of lipids? Triglycerides (a molecule consisting of three fatty acids attached to a three carbon glycerol backbone), phospholipids (a type of lipid in which a fatty acid is combined with another compound that contains phosphate; unlike other lipids, phospholipids are soluble in water), and sterols (a type of lipid found in foods and the body that has a ring structure; cholesterol is the most common sterol that occurs in our diets) What type of lipid is most common, both in the food we eat and how we store fat? 18 carbon fatty acid triG How are triglycerides classified? Classified by chain length, saturation, shape Define saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fats. Give examples of foods which have each. Saturated fat (fatty acids that have no carbons joined together with a double bond; these types of fatty acids are generally solid at room temperature. Found in coconut oil, palm kernel oil, butter, cheese, whole milk, cream, lard, and beef fat). Monounsaturated fatty acids are usually liquid at room temperature. (olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, and cashew nuts), polyunsaturated fatty acids. Liquid at room temp. (include cottonseed, canola, corn, and safflower oils. What are trans fatty acids? Why should you avoid them? What indicates a food contains trans fats? “Hydrogenated” they are like saturated fats. Examples of omega3 fatty acids. Why are they beneficial? Linolenic (omega 3) lowers trig and BP What are sterols? How are they beneficial to us? Cholesterol is a sterol. HDL is beneficial, it carries cholesterol away from the liver. Where does our body store fat for later energy use? Adipose tissue How does eating a very low fat diet affect vitamin absorption? Fat carries fat soluble vitamins What affects our cholesterol levels in our blood? Saturated and trans fat Where does chemical digestion of lipids begin? Small intestine, mouth (amylase) What are lipases? Enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids) What hormones work with lipid digestion? cholecystokinin. any of several peptide hormones that stimulate the digestion of fat and protein. Chapter 6 How are amino acids distinguished form one another? What differences does that make? rgroups, differ in interaction Know the essential amino acids. Histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, valine, phenylalanine, tryptophan What is the difference between transamination and deamination? Transamination as the name implies, refers to the transfer of an amine group from one molecule to another. This reaction is catalyzed by a family of enzymes called transaminases. Actually, the transamination reaction results in the exchange of an amine group on one acid with a ketone group on another acid. Deamination is also an oxidative reaction that occurs under aerobic conditions in all tissues but especially the liver. During oxidative deamination, an amino acid is converted into the corresponding keto acid by the removal of the amine functional group as ammonia and the amine functional group is replaced by the ketone group. The ammonia eventually goes into the urea cycle. What is the byproduct of deamination? How does that affect fluid status? When does deamination occur? Deamination = aa broken down and stripped of nitrogen, makes ammonia. Deamination occurs with excess protein intake. Less fluid retained. How are 2 amino acids joined together? What byproduct is formed? Peptide bonds, proteins What is a complete protein? All essential AA in about same amount How are proteins denatured? Acid/heat/physically What is the PDCAAS score? What foods will have higher and lower scores? Good proteins for digestability Be able to calculate protein needs for an individual (sedentary vs athlete) .8g/kg (lbs/2.2x.8) Vegetarian classifications…what do they eat? What are complimentary proteins? A food that is the “other half to make complete proteins. • Lactoovovegetarians eat both dairy products and eggs; this is the most common type of vegetarian diet. • Lactovegetarians eat dairy products but avoid eggs. • Ovovegetarian. Eats eggs but not dairy products. • Vegans do not eat dairy products, eggs, or any other products which are derived from animals. What nutrients are of most concern for vegetarians? Complete proteins, vitamin B12 Differences between marasmus and kwashiorkor? Marasmus is chronic, kwashiorkor is acute (sagging tummy) How do you correct PEM? Protein Energy Malnutrition What are examples of diseases associated with genetic abnormalities? Sick cell anemia What is Nitrogen Balance? When might a person be in positive or negative nitrogen balance? Positive: athletes, puberty Negative: kwashiorikor, weight loss, sick What is PKU? Phenylketonuria: A birth defect that causes an amino acid called phenylalanine to build up in the body. Where does chemical digestion of protein begin? Protein digestion occurs in the stomach and the duodenum through the action of three main enzymes: pepsin, secreted by the stomach, and trypsin and chymotrypsin, secreted by the pancreas. What are proteases? an enzyme that breaks down proteins and peptides.
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