HNES 250 test 3 study guide
HNES 250 test 3 study guide HNES 250
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by nicole ugelstad on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HNES 250 at North Dakota State University taught by Elizabeth Hilliard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
HNES 250: Study Guide for Exam 3 (Chp 78910) Chapter 7 What is the difference between catabolism and anabolism? When does each occur? o Catabolism: the breakdown or degradation of larger molecules to smaller molecules. Disease is often dominated by catabolism, with more tissue being broken down than repaired o Anabolism: the process of making new molecules from smaller ones. Fetal and childhood growth represents a net anabolic state, because more tissue is formed than being broken down What part of the cell produces most of our energy? What energy producing pathways occur in different parts of the cell? o Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol, little energy o Mitochondria contains most metabolic function, most building of ATP o Other cells that lack mitochondria (red blood cells) can rely on less efficient energyproducing processes that can occur in their cytoplasm What metabolic pathways can glucose, lipids and triglycerides follow, either for producing energy or storing energy, and what are the intermediates in each pathway? o Glucose can be phosphorylated then: Can be stored in the liver as glycogen Can be metabolized in the liver for energy or used to make other glucose containing compounds Can be stored in muscle as glycogen Can be converted to fatty acids and stored as triglycerides, primarily in adipose tissue o Glucose glucose 6phosphate 2 Glyceraldehyde 3phosphate 2 pyruvate (with lack of oxygen pyruvate converted to lactate (lactic acid)) (in presence of oxygen, pyruvate is converted to acetyl coA o Triglyceride glycerol pyruvate (can be converted to glucose or Acetyl CoA). What is lactic acid and the cori cycle and when does our body use it? o Cori cycle: metabolic pathway in which lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves to the liver and is converted to glucose, which then returns to the muscles and is metabolized o Lactic acid is produced from pyruvate in anaerobic conditions Define deamination? Beta oxidation? Glycolysis? Gluconeogenesis? o Beta oxidation: a series of metabolic reactions that oxidizes free fatty acids, leading to the end products of water, carbon dioxide, and ATP o Deamination: the removal of an amine group from an amino acid o Glycolysis: a sequence of chemical reactions that converts glucose to pyruvate o Gluconeogenesis: the synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors such as glucogenic amino acids and glycerol What hormone signals glucose uptake by the cells? o Insulin How does our body store glucose? o In liver as glycogen or in muscles o In adipose tissue as triglycerides How many kcal in alcohol verses lipids? o Alcohol: 7 o Lipid: 9 What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and how do you avoid it? o Fetal exposure to alcohol during pregnancy, causes mental retardation, AVOID ALL AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL What are the 2 pathways for metabolizing alcohol and when does our body use each? o In people with low to moderate intakes, alcohol is oxidized first into an acetaldehyde by the action of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) then the acetaldehyde is oxidized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) into acetate. Last acetate is readily converted into Acetyl CoA o In people who chronically abuse alcohol, an alternative pathway the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS) becomes important for oxidizing the increase levels of alcohol Chapter 8 What nutrient deficiency causes WernickeKorsakoff syndrome? Pellagra? Scurvy? o WernickeKorsakoff syndrome: thiamine deficiency o Pellagra: Vitamin B3 (Niacin) o Scurvy: prolonged deficiency of vitamin C What is the primary role of Bcomplex vitamins? o Facilitate energy production in the body What mineral aids in glucose uptake? o Chronium. Chronium is vital in regulating carbohydrate metabolism by enhancing insulin function for proper use of glucose in the body. What is the function of iodine? o The trace mineral, iodine, is a vital component of hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are responsible for a number of important functions in your body, including growth, metabolism, reproduction, nerve and muscle function, regulation of body temperature and blood cell production. What is TPP? o Thiamin pyrophosphate: require for pyruvate dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of pyruvate to acetylCoA. Also coenzyme in metabolism of branched chain AA’s Food sources of riboflavin? Niacin? Thiamin? o Riboflavin: bran cereal, beef liver, yogurt, musherooms, milk, spinach, cottage cheese, chicken, pork ribs, eggs o Niacin: whole grain total cereal, beef liver, chicken breast, Halibut, duck, tuna, salmon, pasta sauce o Thiamin: whole grain, oat bran, pork, ham, bagel, peas, tuna, black beans, spaghetti, rice What amino acid in involved with making niacin? o tryptophan Which vitamin is used to treat high cholesterol levels? o If most of your excess cholesterol is made by your body, B vitamins such as niacin and pantethine have evidence to support their use What function does pantothenic acid play in the energy cycle? o Metabolized into coenzyme A and acyl carrier protein. Both are essential in the synthesis of fatt acids, while coA is eesential for fatty acid oxidation, ketone metabolis, and the metabolism of carbohydrate and protein. What is goiter? What causes it? o Enlargement of thyroid glandlack of iodine Which foods are the highest sources for Bvitamins? o Meat, Chapter 9 Body fluid composition and need difference between varying ages and genders. o 60% of an adult’s body weight ¾ weight lean tissue ¼ of the weight of fat o Less body water in females, obese, elderly (50% or less) What organ is mainly involved with fluid balance? o Hypothalamus, What is a diuretic? o Makes you pee Be able to calculate water needs using the 2 methods discussed in class. o 2535 cc(mL)/kg o 11.5ml/kcal Side effects of a high sodium diet? o Hypernatremia, water retention (edema), high blood pressure (HTN) (not a problem if heaty and kidneys are working well, but is for people with heart and kidney disease) MAY INCREASE CA LOSS IN URINE Differences and similarities between the primary roles and food sources of sodium and potassium? o Sodium: primary fluid balance regulator, found in processed foods Acid base balance Transmission of nerve signals Helps in muscle contraction Absorption of glucose and other nutrients o Potassium: found in fresh foods Major positively charged electrolyte in intercellular fluid Muscle contraction Transmission of nerve impulses Helps maintain healthy BP levels o Generally, the less an item is processed, the higher levels of potassium. The more an item is processed, the more sodium is in it. Higher potassium intake and lower sodium intake contribute to lowering hypertension. Where do we get most of the sodium in our diet? Chloride in our diet? o Sodium: processed foods o Chloride: table salt, soy sauce, moderate amounts in meats, milks, eggs. Abundant in processed foods Characteristics of phosphorus? Where is it stored in our body? o Majornegatively charged electrolyte in intracellular fluid o Maintains fluid balance o Bone formation o Component of ATP o Genetic materials DNA & RNA o Component of cell membranes, phospholipids o MEAT, MILK, EGGS Dehydration – who is most at risk? o Sick people, traumatic injuries, exercise, environments, pregnancy, breastfeeding, diuretics What is bioavailability? What determines it for vitamins and minerals? o it refers to the proportion of a nutrient that is absorbed from the diet and used for normal body functions. Some vitamins and minerals need to be taken together, while others shouldn’t. Some of these vitamins and minerals do not Differences between fat soluble and water soluble vitamins? Major and trace minerals? o Water soluble vitamins are absorbed through blood o Fat soluble vitamins require bile for absorption How does percent water weight affect physical performance? o 1% WW loss = thirst o 2% = increased thirst, loss of appetite, discomfort o 3% = impatience, decreased volume o 4% = nausea, slowing of physical work o 5% = difficulty concentrating, apathy, tingling extremeties o 6% = increasing body temperature, pulse and respiration rate o 7% = stumbling, headache o 8% = dizziness, labored breathing o 9% = weakness, mental confusion o 10% = muscle spasms, indistinct speech o 11% = kidney failure, poor circulation due to decreased blood volume Chapter 10 What are the major sources of antioxidants? How do they stabilize free radicals? o Antioxidant vitamins work independently by donating their electrons or hydrogen molecules to free radicals to stabilize them and reduce the damage caused by oxidation o Vitamin E: safflower oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil, some nuts and seeds are good sources What diseases are linked to free radical damage? o Heart disease, cancers, diabetes, cataracts, alzheimers, parkinsons Function and food sources of vitamin E? Why does someone with heart disease need to be concerned with supplementing Vitamin E? o Vitamin E: safflower oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil, some nuts and seeds are good sources o Overintake seems to be linked with higher rates of heart failure Deficiency disease of Vitamin C? o Scurvy What vitamin increases absorption of nonheme iron and what are the food sources for it? o Most fruits and vegetables contain vitamin C, so pairing your sources of nonheme iron with produce increases iron absorption. Red peppers, broccoli, grapefruits and oranges are among the richest sources of ascorbic acid, so opt for these fruits and veggies whenever possible. Who needs to increase their consumption of vitamin C over the RDA? What are good sources? o Smoking, traumatic injury, surgery, burns, or use of oral contraceptives. o FRESH fruits and vegetables What is lycopene, flavonoids, and polyphenols? Why are they important? o Polyphenols are natural compounds found in most of the fruits and vegetables we eat on a daily basis. Also known as secondary plant metabolites, polyphenols are classified into two groups: nonflavonoids and flavonoids. o Flavonoids are a group of plant metabolites thought to provide health benefits through cell signalling pathways and antioxidant effects. o Lycopene from the neoLatin lycopersicum, the tomato species, is a bright red carotene and carotenoid pigment and phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables This study guide is not meant to include every question on the test, but to help in reviewing the major points in the material covered
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