HNES 250 – final review
There are 75 multiple choice questions on the final exam. About 25% are from old material and 75% is from text chapters 11, 12, 13, & 14 and notes that we covered in class. This study guide is not meant to include every question on the test, but to help in reviewing the major points in the material covered.
∙ Chapter How many kcalories in fat, protein, carbohydrates, & alcohol? o Fat: 9
o Protein: 4
o Carb: 4
o Alc: 7
∙ What percentage of total energy intake should be furnished by Fats? CHO? Pro? o Fats: 20-35%
o CHO: 45-65%
o Pro: 10-35%
∙ What are Daily Values? Where are they used?
o Daily values (DVs) are the daily dietary intake standards used for nutrition labeling ∙ What is the most highly fortified/enriched food on the market today?
∙ What is the primary site for absorption of nutrients?
o Small intestine/microvilli
∙ What is the difference between soluble and insoluble fiber. What are good food sources of each?
o Soluble fiber: dissolves in water, found in citrus fruits, berries, oat products, and beans
o Insoluble fiber: those that don’t typically dissolve in water. Generally found in whole grains and many vegetables.
∙ What are the effects of a high sugar diet? If you want to learn more check out alexa bankert
o Tooth decay
∙ What is the primary storage form of carbohydrates in the body?
o Glucose, adipose tissue
∙ What makes a lipid more saturated or less saturated? What are characteristics of fats that are more saturated?
o Saturated fat (fatty acids that have no carbons joined together with a double bond; these types of fatty acids are generally solid at room temperature. Found in coconut oil, palm kernel oil, butter, cheese, whole milk, cream, lard, and beef fat). Monounsaturated fatty acids are usually liquid at room temperature. (olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, and cashew nuts), polyunsaturated fatty acids. Liquid at room temp. (include cottonseed, canola, corn, and safflower oils. We also discuss several other topics like a binding price ceiling creates
∙ Characteristics of cholesterol? What foods are high in cholesterol?
o Cholesterol is a sterol. HDL is beneficial, it carries cholesterol away from the liver.
∙ What is a desirable lipid profile for heart health?
Total cholesterol <200
∙ Which food groups are the best source of protein?
o All foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts, and seeds are considered part of the Protein Foods Group. ∙ Why does an egg have a BV of 100?
o A BV of 100% indicates complete utilization of a dietary protein, body can use all ∙ What are the side effects of a high-protein, low-carb diet?
o Lots of nitrogen discharge
∙ What is glycolysis? TCA cycle? Electron Transport System? Gluconeogenesis? o Glycolysis: breakdown of glucosepyruvate
o TCA: oxidize acetate
o ETS: ATP synthesis
o Gluconeogenesis: glucose synthesis from glycogen/pyruvate/etc. If you want to learn more check out david yarnelle
∙ What nutrients can be converted to body fat and stored as adipose tissue? o Carbs, alcohol, fats
∙ What nutrient is present in the highest amounts in most foods?
∙ Which carotenoid acts as an antioxidant that is converted to vitamin A in the body? o Beta-carotene
∙ Which food groups are the best source of Vitamin A?
o Liver, dairy, and fish
∙ Which food groups are the best source of Vitamin C?
o Citrus fruits
∙ What is bone remodeling…why is it important?
o The process by which bone tissue is recycled. Keeps bones healthy
∙ What is the best way to measure bone density?
o Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA) X
∙ What minerals are found in our bones?
o Phosphorus, calcium
∙ Characteristics of osteoporosis? Who is at greatest risk?
o Elderly women at greatest risk. Characterized by weak/brittle bones
∙ Why is maintaining blood calcium important? If you want to learn more check out dq1 guide
o Muscular contraction
o Hypocalcemia: refers to low blood calcium concentration. Clinical signs of this disorder reflect increased neuromuscular excitability and include muscle spasms, tetany and cardiac dysfunction If you want to learn more check out if a firm needs additional capital from equity sources once its retained earnings breakpoint is reached, it will have to raise the capital by issuing new common stock. false: firms raise capital from retained earnings only when they cannot issue new commo
o Hypercalcemia: indicates a concentration of blood calcium higher than normal. The normal concentration of calcium and phosphate in blood and extracellular fluid is near the saturation point; elevations can lead to diffuse precipitation of calcium phosphate in tissues, leading to widespread organ dysfunction and damage ∙ What hormone controls blood calcium levels?
o Parathyroid hormone
∙ Which foods are the best sources of calcium?
o Dairy and peas
∙ What are the best sources of vitamin D? Who is at risk for vitamin D deficiency? o Sunlight (food sources: salmon, milk) those who live in areas (like seattle) that don’t have a lot of sunlight consistently
∙ What disease is caused by a deficiency of vitamin D?
∙ What helps with absorption of Magnesium?
o Fiber reduces, protein enhances
∙ What is fluorosis?
o Staining and pitting of teeth We also discuss several other topics like What is data broker?
∙ What impairs/enhances iron absorption?
o Impairs: phytates, fiber, soy products, whole grains and nuts, oxylates, spinach, calcium and phosphorus, milk, supplements, EDTA, food additive, tannic acid, tea, coffee, nuts.
o Enhances: MFP factor, vitamin C, citric acid, lactic acid, HCL, sugars
∙ What is the most common deficiency world wide?
∙ What is MFP? Why is it important?
o Meat, fish, poultry. Increases non heme absorption
∙ What body processes use zinc?
o Metabolism, night vision, sex maturation, hormone activity, cell replication, etc. ∙ What are 2 ways the body gets vitamin K?
o Food: spinach, liver. Gut produces: 10-15%
∙ What are the primary functions of vitamin K?
o Blood clotting – synthesis of bone protein osteocalcin
∙ What vitamins are produced from intestinal bacteria?
o For example, in humans, enteric bacteria secrete Vitamin K and vitamin B12, and lactic acid bacteria produce certain B-vitamins. Germ-free animals may be deficient in vitamin K to the extent that it is necessary to supplement their diets. 2. ∙ What do B12 and folate have in common?
o Water soluble
∙ Why was folate fortification added to our cereals? (To decrease the incidence of________) o (to decrease the incidence of NTD/nural tube defect)
∙ What diseases are caused by a B12 deficiency? Iron deficiency? Folate deficiency? o B12: pernicious anemia
o Iron: iron deficiency anemia
o Nural tube deficiency, folate deficiency anemia
∙ What is IF? Why is it important?
o Intrinsic factor – depicts how much B12 can be absorbed
∙ Good food sources of vitamin B12.
o Animal products, fortified cereals
∙ What is Body Mass Index? What BMI ranges are associated with increased mortality rates? What are the advantages and limitations to BMI?
o BMI = weight (KG) / height (m2) OR BMI = 2x(weight (lbs) / height (in2)) o Bad = higher than 30, lower than 18.5
∙ What are other methods of assessing body composition and fat distribution? o
∙ If a person is overweight or obese, does it make any difference where they carry their extra weight? If so, what are they?
o Intraabdominal fat increases risk of heart disease and stroke. Lower body fat is harmless.
∙ Weight loss recommendations regarding restricting calories and increasing physical activity? How many kcalories = 1 pound?
o 3500 kcal
∙ What is BMR…what percent of our total kcalorie needs can be attributed to BMR? What can we do to increase our BMR?
o Basal metabolic rate need to stay alive. 60-70%
o Be taller, or pregnant
∙ What is Thermic effect of food?
o Energy due to the processing – how much it would take to digest
∙ What is the set point theory?
o Set-point theory suggests that body weight is regulated at a predetermined, or preferred, level by a feedback control mechanism
∙ What is leptin?
o A hormone that can reduce food intake
∙ What affects food satiety?
o Protein and fiber = high
∙ What is the female athlete triad?
o A syndrome in which eating disorders (or low energy availability),
amenorrhoea/oligomenorrhoea and decreased bone mineral density (osteoporosis and osteopenia) are present
∙ What is the minimum amount of exercise recommended to maintain a general level of health based on the Institutes of Medicine? (include the minimum physical activity level lose weight and maintain weight loss)
o Lose- 150 min a week.
o Maintain- 60 min a day
∙ What are the physiologic changes resulting from exercise?
o Lower body fat, happy (endorphins)
∙ What is leisure – time physical activity?
o Any activity not related to a person's occupation; including competitive sports, recreational activities, and planned exercise training
∙ What is Target Heart Rate?
o 50-80% of maximal heart rate