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CMST 233

by: Ary Spilkin

CMST 233 Cmst 233

Ary Spilkin
CSU Chico

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About this Document

This chapter covers culture and gender within communication
Founding of Interpersonal Communication
Michelle Givertz
Study Guide
Culture, Gender, communication
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ary Spilkin on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Cmst 233 at California State University Chico taught by Michelle Givertz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
8/30/16 CMST 233 Givertz- Textbook Notes – Chapter 3 Culture and Gender Culture is a powerful influence and can affect not only how we express ourselves but also how we interpret and react to interpersonal behaviors of others Gender- also another powerful influence Other aspects such as ethnicity, age and socioeconomic status can influence communication *Culture: the system of learned and shared symbols, languages, values and norms that distinguish one group of people from another -Culture is a property of people as opposed to a property of countries, ethnicity or economic classes -Culture is determined by who we were raised by, where we were raised as well as the symbols, language, values and norms of that area *Society: a group of people who share symbols, language, values, and norms *In-group: a group of people with whom one identifies *Out-group: a group of people with whom one does not identify -Immigrants experience more high stress during their first year in their new homeland -This is referred to as culture shock; the jarring reaction we are in highly unfamiliar situations *Ethnocentrism: systematic preference for characteristics of one’s own culture -Culture is learned- this process if called enculturation *Ethnicity: an individual’s perception of his or her ancestry or heritage *Nationality: an individual’s status as a citizen of a particular country A symbol is something that represents an idea -Words are symbols Ex.) The U.S. flag, a bald eagle and “The Star-Spangled Banner” are symbols Language allows for written and spoken communication and ensures that cultures and cultural ideas can be passed to future generations Values- a culture’s values are the standards for judging how good, desirable or beautiful something can be -Some values in the US include, equal opportunity and material comfort Norms- rules or expectations that guide people’s behavior in a culture -People shake hands and say “Nice to meet you” in North America *Co-cultures- groups of people who share values, customs, and norms related to mutual interests or characteristics beyond their national citizenship -Some co-cultures are based on shared activities or beliefs -Examples include, political activism or even fly fishing -Some co-cultures reflect differences in mental or physical abilities -Can be within your age group, religion, ethnicity, musical taste, sexual orientation, athletic interest or major of study: each group has their own beliefs, values, traditions and customs Social Media- can be a co-culture in which symbols, values, language and norms are in common; hashtags, jargon and memes People with culture differences don’t just communicate different, but can also think differently -Teenagers value independence while older adults may value family and community -They may speak the same language, but may use the language in different ways Communicating effectively with people from different cultures/co-cultures requires awareness of their behaviors and ways of thinking and that they are different to our own *Similarity Assumption: one’s tendency to presume that others think the same way he or she does *Individualistic Culture: a culture that emphasizes individuality and responsibility to oneself -Messages such as, “Be yourself”, and “You’re special” -These messages emphasize the importance of knowing oneself, becoming self-sufficient and being true to what you want in life *Collective Culture: a culture that places greater emphasis on loyalty to the family, workplace, or community that on the needs of the individual -Place a high value on duty and loyalty and do not see themselves as unique or special, but part of a group they belong to *Low-Context Culture: a culture in which verbal communication is expected to be explicit and is often interpreted literally -These cultures value expressing oneself, sharing personal opinions and persuading other to see thing’s a certain way -The US, Canada, Israel and most northern European countries are examples *High-Context Culture: a culture in which verbal communication is often ambiguous, and meaning is drawn from contextual cues, such as facial expressions and tone of voice -Taught to speak much less directly -Maintaining harmony and avoiding offending people is more important than expressing true feelings, and as a result people less in a less direct, more ambiguous manner and convey meaning through subtle actions such as facial expressions and tone of voice -Examples include Korea, the Maori of New Zealand and Native Americans -People raised in high-context cultures are more reluctant to say no, for fear or causing offense *Low-Power-Distance Culture: a culture in which power is not highly concentrated in specific groups of people -Raised to believe that even though some people are born with more advantages (money or fame), no one is inherently better than anyone else -Expect friendships and romantic relationships to be based on love rather than social status *High-Power-Distance Culture: a culture in which much or most of the power is concentrated in a few people, such as royalty or a ruling political party -Power is distributed less evenly and people are taught that certain people deserve to have more power than others and that respecting that power is more important than respecting equality -Expected to choose friends or romantic partners based on people within their social class Masculine Culture- people tend to cherish traditionally masculine values like ambition, achievement, and acquisition of material goods -Also prefer sex-specific roles for women and men Feminine Culture- people tend to value nurturance, quality of life and service to others; stereotypically feminine qualities *Monochronic: a concept that treats time as a finite commodity that can be earned, saved, spent, and wasted -Monochronic cultures think of time as valuable and do not like to waste it *Polychromic: a concept that treats time as an infinite resource rather than a finite commodity -Conceive time as more holistic, fluid and less structure -Instead of thinking of time as a finite commodity that must be managed and not wasted, they perceive it more flowing like a never-ending river *Uncertainty Avoidance: the degree to which people try to avoid situations that are unstructured, unclear, or unpredictable -People from these cultures are drawn to situations and people that are more familiar to them, and avoid risks, for fear of failure -They are also uncomfortable with differences of opinion and favor rules/laws that maximize security and reduce ambiguity *Communication Codes: verbal and nonverbal behaviors, such as idioms and gesture that characterize a culture and distinguish it from other cultures Idiom- phrase who meaning is purely figurative; we cannot understand the meaning by interpreting the words literally Ex.) “Break a leg”, means to have a good performance Jargon- specific form of idiomatic communication which often separates co-cultures, or language whose technical meaning is understood by people in that co-culture Gestures- movements, usually of the hand or arm which expresses ideas *Gender- influences who we are and how we act. It is the defining feature of our identity, shapes how we think, look and communicate -May include influences such as psychological gender roles, biological sex or sexual orientation *Gender Roles: a set of expectations for appropriate behavior that a culture typically assigns to an individual based on his or her biological sex -Three specific categories: masculinity, femininity, and androgyny *Masculinity: a gender role, typically assigned to men, that emphasizes strength, dominance, competition, and logical thinking -Traditional masculinity also tends to reject weakness, emotional expression and characteristics or behaviors which resemble women *Femininity: a gender role, typically assigned to women, that emphasizes expressive, nurturing behavior -Typically emphasizes empathy and emotional expressiveness, and an interest in having and raising children as well as attention to appearance -In the past, tradition discouraged women from pursuing an education and achieving their goals *Androgyny: a gender role distinguished by a combination of masculine and feminine characteristics -Androgynous does not mean that the person tries to look, act, or sound like the other sex and is not always related to sexuality Biological Sex- refers to being female or male rather than feminine or masculine -Transgender individuals experience this conflict -Intersex can be caused by delayed physical development or by hormonal problems *Sexual Orientation: a characteristic determining the sex or sexes to which someone is sexually attracted *Heterosexuality: a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in members of the other sex *Homosexuality: a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in members of one’s own sex -Some studies focused on the social influences of parents or other role models, whereas other studies emphasized physiological or genetic differences *Bisexuality: a sexual orientation characterized by sexual interest in both women and men *Asexuality: a sexual orientation characterized by a general lack of interest in sex -Researchers are not sure whether asexuality is a disorder or if it represents another sexual orientation -Asexuality is different than celibacy, which is abstinence from sex -Some asexual people do have sex Some researchers argue that women and men have different gender cultures which have their own distinctive culture with its own rules and values -Since these rules and values differ, gender clash can occur, or the experience of each sex not understanding one another *Expressive Talk- verbal communication whose purpose is to express emotions and build relationships *Instrumental Talk- verbal communication whose purpose is to solve problems and accomplish tasks A difference between powerful and powerless speech is linguistic violence- language that degrades and dehumanizes a group of people Women use more second and third person pronouns like “we” and “they” and make references to emotions when they talk -Also use more intensive adverbs such as “really” tall -Women speak in longer sentences than men do Men use self-references “I” statements and judgmental adjectives such as “good” or “worthless” -Also use more references to quantity such as informing that “something costs $200” *Nonverbal Communication- carried out without words to communicate Includes gestures, facial expressions and voice tone Touch and Body Movement Expresses warmth and intimacy and power and dominance -Masculine people maintain a greater amount of distance from other than feminine people Emotional Communication Stereotypes have us believe that women are more emotional than men are -Women express more positive emotions than men do -Women use more affiliation behaviors than men which demonstrate feelings of closeness to someone else- includes eye contact, happy facial expressions and head nods Affectionate Communication- includes behaviors we use to express love and appreciation for people whom we care for -There are different theories as to why women are more affectionate than men


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