Chapter 1 & 2 study guide
Chapter 1 & 2 study guide Psy 325
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia Notetaker on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 325 at Arizona State University taught by Whitney Hansen in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Physiological psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 08/31/16
Chapter 1: Origins of Behavioral Neuroscience Behavioral neuroscientists’ job is to explain the behavior in physiological terms. o They believe that the mind is a function performed by the brain o Must understand the psychological aspect of why a particular behavior occurs before understand what physiological events made it occur o They perform research on animals by performing research methods and findings of other neuroscientists to find their particular area of interest. Neuroscientist’s take empirical and practical approach to study the human nature Scientific explanation takes 2 forms: generalization and reduction o Generalization: A general conclusion based on many observations of similar phenomena (mostly psychologists) o Reduction: A phenomenon is described in terms of the more elementary processes that underlie it (mostly physiologists). Consciousness: The act of humans being aware of and can tell others about their thoughts, perceptions, memories and feelings. Drugs and brain damage affect consciousness bc it changes the structure or chemistry of the brain. Hypothesized to be a physiological function just like behavior. Consciousness and the ability to communicate go hand in hand. Communication: the expression of intentions to one another and to make requests of one another. Verbal communication make cooperation possible The ability to send and receive messages with other people enable us to send and receive our own messages inside our own head- To think and to be aware of our own existence. Split brains Humans who have undergone surgical procedures of particular sections of the brain show how disconnecting parts of the brain that are involved with perceptions and verbal behavior affect consciousness. Shows that the parts of the brain involved in verbal behavior may be responsible for consciousness. Surgery used to treat epileptic patients who suffer from seizures that can’t be treated with drugs o Nerve cells in 1 side of the brain become overactive and are then transmitted to the other side of the brain by the corpus callosum. Both sides then engage in activity and stimulate each other causing a seizure. A large bundle of nerve fibers that connects corresponding parts of 1 side of the brain with those of the other side. It enables the two hemispheres to share information so each side knows what the other side is doing and perceiving. o Cerebral hemisphere: The two symmetrical halves of the brain that constitute the major part of the brain. They receive sensory info from the other side of the body Control movements of the opposite side Surgeons discovered cutting of the corpus callosum greatly reduces the frequency of seizures. Surgeons discovered cutting of the corpus callosum greatly reduces the frequency of seizures. o The brain is sliced down the middle from front to back to expose the corpus callosum and then sliced in half. o After the surgery, the two hemispheres act independently- no longer share sensory mechanisms, memories or motor systems. o The left hemisphere that controls speech is affected the most. The right hemisphere of a patient can understand verbal instructions but can’t produce speech very well because only 1 side of the brain can talk about what is happening. o The right hemisphere experiences some differences Right hand controls left side of body; if reading a book, right side can’t read and puts book down that is held in left hand. o The olfactory system is the exception to the crossed representation of sensory information in split brain patients Left nostril=only the left side of the brain receives the sensation Right nostril= say they smell nothing even though the right side has perceived and identified the smell- can’t communicate with that it is. Effects of this surgery show evidence that conclude that we become more conscious of something only if info about it is able to reach the parts of the brain responsible for verbal communication (left hemisphere). If it doesn’t reach these parts of the brain, info doesn’t reach the consciousness associated with these mechanisms. Chapter 2: Structure and functions of cells of the Nervous system The brain is an organ located in the nervous system that has the primary function of movement of muscles and behavior o Brains are flexible (perceive, act, remember, and decide) enough that we behave in different ways to act accordingly in a situation because of the cells found in the nervous system. o Sensory neurons: A neuron that detects changes in the external or internal environment that sends information about these changes to the CNS. o Motor neurons: A neuron located within the CNS that controls the contraction of a muscle of the secretion of a gland o Interneurons: A neuron located entirely within the CNS; located in- between motor and sensory neurons. Local interneurons: form circuits w/ nearby neurons and analyze small pieces of info Relay interneurons: connect circuits from local interneurons in 1 region of the brain with those in other regions. Circuits of neurons throughout the brain perform functions such as perceiving, learning, remembering, deciding, and controlling complex behaviors. Nervous System: 2 divisons o Central Nervous System (CNS): The brain and spinal cord o Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Nerves and most sensory organs Neurons (nerve cells) o Responsible for processing and transmitting signals in the nervous system. o Send signals through a combination of chemical and electrical ways o Consist of: Soma (Cell body): Contains the nucleus and much of the machinery that provides the cell’s life processes. Dendrites: Branched like structure attached to the soma of a neuron. It receives info from the terminal buttons of other neurons Axon: Long, slender tube that is covered by a myelin sheath. It carries info known as action potential from the cell body to the terminal buttons. A brief electrical/chemical event that starts at the end of the axon next to the cell body and travels toward the terminal buttons where it reaches the point where the axon branches where it splits but still gives each branched dendrite a full-strength action potential. Terminal buttons: @ the end of dendrites. They release action potential messages that have been carried into the synapse junctions of 2 neurons and create a neurotransmitter that either excites or inhibits the receiving cells. This helps determine whether the axon connected to the receiving dendrite has action potential. o 3 types of neurons: Multipolar (most common in CNS): A neuron with 1 axon and many dendrites attached to soma Bipolar: A neuron w/ 1 axon and 1 dendrite attached to soma Unipolar: Neuron w/ 1 axon attached to its soma. Axon divides w/ 1 branch receiving sensory info and the other sending info to the CNS o Internal Structure: Membrane: The structure that defies the boundary of the cell that consists of a double layer of lipid molecules. A variety of protein molecules are embedded in the membrane that have special functions depending on when needed: Detect substances outside the cell (hormones) and pass info about these to the cells interior. Control access to the interior cell and what substances can enter and what cannot. Act as transporters carrying certain molecules into or out of the cell Cytoplasm: Jelly like substance that resides inside the cell that contains small specialized structures Mitochondria: An organelle inside the cytoplasm that breaks down nutrients (ex: glucose) and provides cell w/ energy to perform its functions. Known as the powerhouse of the cell. Contain their own genetic info and multiple independently Adenosine triphosphate(ATP): A chemical produced by Mitochondria that is used throughout the cell as an energy source when broken down. Nucleus: Found in the central region of the cell of contains chromosomes Chromosomes: Strand of DNA that has associated proteins found in the nucleus that carries functional genetic information through genes which synthesize one or more proteins o Important Protein features Cytoskeleton: Gives the neuron its shape by its makeup of various kinds of protein strands that are linked to each other and form a cohesive mass. Enzyme: Molecules that cause particular molecules to join together to split apart by controlling chemical reactions. Axoplasmic transport: The active process that propels substances along microtubules from 1 end of the axon to the other Microtubule: Long strands that have bundles of protein filaments arranged around a hallow core. Part of cytoskeleton. Involved in the transporting of substances from place to place within the cell. Supporting cells o Neurons are only ½ the volume of CNS. o The rest consists of variety of supporting cells that constantly supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons to support and protect them from dying GLIA (nerve glue): More numerous than neurons- 85% Buffer neurons physically and chemically from the rest of the body Surround neurons and hold them in place Control supply of nutrients Some chemical exchange messages with other neurons- insulate neurons from each other so that messages don’t get scrambled. Destroy and remove the leftover of neurons that are killed by disease or injury 3 important types of Glia cells: o Astrocytes (astroglia: star cell): provide physical support to neurons, provide nutrients, clean up debris within the brain by eating it (phagocytosis) and regulates chemical composition and release in the ECF. o Oligodendrocytes: Provide support to axons and to produce the myelin sheath that insulates most axons from one another. Sheath consists of series of segments each 1 mm long w/ small portion of uncoated axon b/t the segments known as the node of Ranvier o Microglia: Smallest of glial cells. Act as phagocytes and protect the brain from invading microorganisms in the immune system. Primarily responsible for the inflammatory reaction in response to brain damage Schwann cells: cells in the PNS that are wrapped around myelinated axons providing one segment of its myelin sheath per 1 axon and entire Schwann cell surrounds the axon. The Blood-Brain Barrier o A semipermeable barrier b/t the blood and the brain that is produced by the cells in the walls of the brain’s capillaries making it easier to regulate the composition of balance between substances in neurons and ECF that surrounds it. o Capillaries in CNS lack the small gap that is normally found between them that permit the free exchange of most substances b/t the blood plasma and ECF. o Some substances can cross, others cannot making it selectively permeable o Substances are actively transported through the capillary walls by special proteins o Area pastrema: Region of the medulla where the BBB is weak and poisons are detected in the blood resulting in initiation of vomiting. Communication within a neuron o Electrodes: A conductive medium that can be used to apply electrical stimulation or to record electrical potentials o Microelectrodes: A very fine electrode generally used to record activity of individual neurons. o Membrane potential: The electrical charge across a cell membrane that distinguishes the difference in electrical potential inside and outside of the cell. Acts as wall/barrier between ions inside and out of cell. o The message is sent down the axon that creates a brief change in the membrane potential known as resting potential: membrane potential of a neuron when it isn’t being altered by excitatory or inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. Usually -70 mV o A Stimulator is inserted that will either depolarize or hyperpolarize the ion depending on the charge in the axon leading to the sudden reversal of itself (negative becomes positive, positive becomes negative) and then returning to normal Depolarization: Reduction of the membrane potential of a cell from its normal resting potential (More positive-movement towards zero)) Hyperpolarization: Increase in the membrane potential the basis for conduction of information along an axon. (More negative, below resting) Action potential: The brief reversal of membrane potential that produces an electrical impulse that provides the basis for conduction of info along the axon. Threshold of excitation: The voltage level value that must be reached in the membrane potential that triggers an action potential The membrane potential: o The electrical charge is the result of a balance b/t 2 opposing forces Diffusion: movements of molecules from regions of high concentrations to regions of low concentrations Only at absolute zero do molecules stop moving otherwise they move about and run into eachother which causes a collison of the two to make movement either up or down Electrostatic pressure: Moves ions from place to place. An aqueous solution that of a material that ionizes, specifically a soluble acid, base or salt. Moves ions from place to place. Happens when some substances are dissolved in an aqueous solution and they split into two parts that have different electrical charge known as electrolytes which turn into ions when they decompose. Ions are categorized into 2 types: o Cation: Positive charged ion that are pushed away from regions with an excess of cations o Anion: negative charged ion that are pushed away from regions with an excess of anions o Concentration gradient: how much something is concentrated within a region o Ions differ in extracellular and intracellular fluid of the cell Potassium (K+) resides in ICF predominantly and is therefore diffused out of the cell but with electrostatic pressure it is brought back up to ICF where it resides to maintain balance. Sodium (Na+) resides in ECF predominantly and is therefore diffused inward of the cell where it has more negative charged ions that attract these ions. Uses the sodium-potassium transporters to maintain adequate levels by continuously pushing Na out of the axon. o Large number of protein molecules embedded in the membrane that is driven by ATP energy made in the mitochondria o Exchange Na for K pushing 3 Na ions out for every 2 K ions in. Chloride (Cl-) resides in ECF predominantly and is therefore diffused out of the cell but with electrostatic pressure it is pushed outward again to maintain balance. Organic anions (A-) reside in ICF ONLY o Ion Movement during Action potential 1) Absolute threshold is reached (action potential begins) triggers sodium channels (voltage dependent) open since the cell has now become depolarized by the reduction of membrane potential (-70 mV to +40 mV) Na+ comes in at a rapid rate by the forces diffusion 2) membrane of axon has less sensitive voltage dependent K+ channels need greater level of depolarization=open later by diffusion and move about membrane until sodium channels become refectory 3) Action potential peaks (1 msec) Sodium channels become refectory (blocked and unable to open until again at resting potential) Na+ can’t enter cell anymore 4) Inside of axon is now positive K+ is pushed out via electrostatic pressure Membrane potential returns toward normal value at resting value (-70 mV) K+ channels close fully 5) Membrane potential is normal Sodium channels reset so another depolarization can cause them to open again 6) Resting value is gradual for awhile to allow full closure of K+ channels Sodium-transporters remove Na+ ions that came in and retrieve K+ ions that were lost. Conduction of Action potential: o The movement of the message being sent down the axon that remains constant in size o Rate law (Rate of firing): the speed at how fast the AP is produced Variations of intensity and stimulus levels alter info being sent to the axon o All or none law: The action potential either happens or it doesn’t. o Saltatory Conduction: Myelinated axons that conduct AP by having it jump from 1 node of the Ranvier to another (the naked portion of an oligodendrocyte) Economic: Myelinated axons use less energy to maintain sodium balance since sodium-potassium transporters are lined along unmyelinated axons making it harder for Na+ to enter during AP Fast: Transmission b/t nodes is faster bc it jumps from node to node instead of through to reach a conduction. Communication B/T Neurons o Synaptic transmission: the transmission of messages from 1 neuron to another through a synapse. Message is carried down axon by NT’s that carry a postsynaptic potential (brief depolarization (decrease)/hyperpolarization(increase) of neuron regarding rate of firing Released by terminal buttons on dendrites Move across the fluid-like gap b/t terminal buttons and the membrane of neurons to create Synapses (can occur @ soma (axosomatic), axons (axoaxonic) & dendrites (axodendritic)) NTs attach at the binding site (receptor molecule) and display effects on cell postsynaptically Ligand: a chemical that attaches to binding site instead of the NT’s that are natural ligands o Structure of Synapse Dendritic spines: A small bud on the surface of a dendrite that a terminal button of another neuron forms a synapse Synaptic vesicles: Structures found in terminal buttons by fusion caused by AP that contain molecules of NT that will go into the presynaptic membrane where it is found most abundant Presynaptic membrane: Membrane where the NT is released from the membrane of a terminal button at the release zone Postsynaptic membrane: Membrane where the NT is received Synaptic cleft: space between the two membranes Postsynaptic receptors: receptor molecule in postsynaptic Neurotransmitter-dependent ion channels o Binding NT Postsynaptic receptors: receptor molecules in postsynaptic membrane that is the binding site for NT Neurotransmitter-dependent ion channels: An ion channel that opens when NT binds with receptor to allow certain ions to pass causing local membrane potential Direct-simple and fast (ionotropic receptor): A receptor that contains binding site for NT and 1 ion channel opens once it binds o Sensitive to Acetylcholine (contains Na+ channels) o When channels open, Na+ pushes in and depolarizes membrane Indirect-complicated and long( metabotropic receptor): Doesn’t open ion channel directly-chain of chemical events o NT binds w/ receptor to activate G protein since it is close in proximity o G-protein activation activates an enzyme o Enzyme stimulates production of second messenger o Second messenger sends signal through the cytoplasm attaching themselves to ion channels to open them o Postsynaptic potential Determined by the postsynaptic receptors and the ion channel that it opened Kept brief by reuptake and enzymatic deactivation Reuptake: Rapid removal of NT from synaptic cleft by terminal button. o NT contains transporter molecules that carry it from the synaptic cleft straight to the cytoplasm so that when an AP occurs, the terminal buttons release small amount of NT and then take it back Enzymatic deactivation: Destruction of an NT by an enzyme after it is released from terminal buttons to make it easier to activate receptors in the postsynaptic membrane o Done to substances that can’t activate receptors- ex: acetylcholine (NT responsible for muscle contraction) is destroyed by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase leaving it into acetate and choline and terminating the potential in the postsynapse. 3 major types of channels that are NT dependent Sodium (Na+)-EPSP Potassium (K+)-EPSP and IPSP because of the gradual fall back to resting value leaves behind K+ Chloride (Cl-)- Serves to neutralize EPSP. Opens depending on membrane potential of neuron o @ resting potential=stays that way o After previously being depolarized by nearby excitatory synapses, ion channels open in Cl- enters o Brings membrane potential back to resting value Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP): depolarization (more positive charges) in the postsynaptic membrane by an excitatory neuron that produces a local change in direction making the neuron fire faster and more likely to create AP if it reaches the Axon hillock (base) Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP): hyperpolarization (more negative charges) in the postsynaptic membrane by an inhibitory neuron that produces a Decrease the likelihood to generate a AP Neural integration: The interaction of effects of the excitatory and inhibitory synapses on a particular neuron o Auto receptors: metabotropic receptors that respond to the NT that they created themselves Regulate synthesis and the release of NT (internal processes) Usually inhibitory Chapter 3: Structure of the Nervous System o Neuraxis: the imaginary line drawn through the length of the CNS from the lower spinal cord up to the front of the brain. Used when describing directions on the body. Anterior: front Posterior: back Rostral: toward the beak Caudal: toward the tail Ventral: Front of the head (toward the belly) Dorsal: Top of the head and back ( Lateral: toward the side of the body Medial: toward the middle of the body Ipsilateral: Same side of the body Contralateral: opposite side of the body o 3 anatomical planes of the brain Transverse: creates cross sections (cut up and down to form rostral and caudal sections) Horizontal: Splits it into top and bottom Sagittal: left and right hemispheres o CNS Brain: large mass of neruons, glia and other supporting cells most protected organ of the body that is encased into a bony skull and floats on cerebral spinal fluid Receives blood and is guarded by the Blood brain barrier Spinal cord o PNS Nerves Peripheral ganglia o Meninges The protective sheath around the entire nervous system covered by tough connective tissues Dura mater: outside layer that is thick, tough and flexible
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