PY 352 Exam 3 Study Guide
PY 352 Exam 3 Study Guide 11505
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Thursday March 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 11505 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Andre Souza in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 274 views.
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PY 352 Exam 3 Chapter 7 Early Childhood Biology and Cognition START ON PAGE 175 1 Piaget s Preoperational Stage a b Piaget s preoperational stage goes from 27 years old Marked by extraordinary increase in representational or symbolic activity While acknowledging that language is our most exible means of mental representation Piaget did not regard it as a major ingredient in childhood cognitive change Piaget believed that sensorimotor activity leads to internal images of experience Piaget underestimated the power od language to spur children s cognition 2 Cognitive Representation a b e f Until age 3 children have trouble with dual representation Dual representation is ability of viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol Experiences with diverse symbols photos picture books make believe maps help preschoolers appreciate that one object can stand for another According to Piaget young children are not capable of operations mental actions that obey logical rules Rather their thinking is right and strongly in uences by the way things appear at the moment Abstract thinking is not well developed yet 3 Egocentrism a b Egocentrism is the failure to distinguish others symbolic viewpoints from your own Piaget s most convincing demonstration of egocentrism involves a task called threemountains problem Piaget regarded egocentrism as responsible for preoperational children s animistic thinking the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities such as thoughts wishes feelings and intentions Piaget argued that the egocentric bias prevents preschoolers from accommodating or re ecting on and revising their faulty reasoning in response to their physical and social worlds Threemountains problem example 4 Egocentrism Video a Looking at volcano b What do you see from each side c What do I see from where I am sitting 5 Inability to Converse a Conservation refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same even when their outward appearance changes b Preoperational children s understandings is characterized by centration c Centration is the idea that kids focus on one aspect of a situation neglecting other important features d Another feature of preoperational thoughts and irreversibility an inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and the reverse direction returns to the starting point e Preoperational children have difficulty with hierarchical classification the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences 6 Conservation Task Video a 2 rows of quarters when spread out one has more even though they are equal b 2 sticks when one is shifted one way it is longer even though they are equal c glass of blue water when poured one into a taller skinnier glass they look different although they are the same d Play dough atten and looks different even though equal e Gram crackers boy gets 2 smaller parts and thinks it is equal because women has two woman s are bigger 7 Logical Thoughts a On tasks that are simplified and relevant to their everyday lives breaking toys preschoolers do better then Piaget expected b Preschoolers seem to use illogical reasons only when grappling with unfamiliar topics too much information or contradicting facts that they cannot reconcile 8 Logical Thought Video a Little boy i Don hit glass with hammer it broke ii Don hit glass with feather did not break b Adult i Don hit glass with feather it broke 9 Sociocultural Theory a b Vygotsky s sociocultural theory stresses the social context of cognitive development Language broadens preschoolers participation in dialogues with more knowledgeable individuals within their cultures Piaget referred to children s utterances to themselves as egocentric speech re ecting his belief that young children have difficulty taking the perspectives of others Vygotsky believed instead that children speak to themselves for self guidance because language helps them think about their mental activities and behavior and select course of action Children s selfdirected speech is now called private speech As children get older and tasks become easier their selfdirected speech is internalized as silent inner speech 10 Social Origin of Cognition a b e Vygotsky believed that children s learning took place within the zone of proximal development ZPD is a range of tasks too difficult for the child to do alone but possible with the help of other adults Adult must engage in sca olding adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child s current level of performance Children gradually take the language of their dialogues with adults and make it part of their private speech which they use to organize their independent efforts Effective scaffolding varies among cultures 11 Information Processing a Information processing focuses on cognitive operations and mental strategies that children use to solve problems b In early childhood the components of executive functioning that enable children to succeed in cognitive challenging situations show impressive gains c These functions are attention impulse control coordination of information in working memory and planning d Attention improves considerably in early childhood as a result of steady gains in children s ability to inhibit impulses and keep their mind on a competing goal e During early childhood children become better at planning and thinking out a sequence of acts ahead of time and allocating attention according to reach a goal 12 Memory a Recognition memory in early childhood is good Recall the ability to generate a mental image of an absent stimulus much poorer Young children are not very good at using memory strategies deliberate mental activities that improve the chances of remembering The capacity to bind together stimuli supports an increasingly rich episodic memory memory for everyday experiences 13 Episodic Memory Video a 999 Why early childhood are so poor at episodic memory until the age of 5 Kids go to 2 different rooms with 4 containers same in each room Specific toy in one container in each room other 3 are empty Even when cued could not remember There is a gradual progression with age 5 year old They start to understand 14 Theory of Mind a b As representation improves children re ect on their own thought processes and begin to construct a theory of mind AT the end of the 1St year babies view people as intentional beings a milestone that opens the door to joint attention social referencing preverbal gestures and spoken language By age 3 children realize that thinking takes place inside of their heads and a person can think about something without seeing touching or thinking about it Around age 4 children say both beliefs and desires determine behaviors Evidence comes from games that test whether preschooler s realize that false beliefs ones that do not represent reality accuracy can guide people s actions 15 Theory of Mind Video a b c d Ability to appreciate someone elses point of view Empathy binds together a society Sophie 14 month old is on a road trip with her family They give her lollipops to eat and say no more after she eats 7 She covers her eyes after her 7th one believing if I cannot see them they cannot see mequot They will look for candy in the red box no theory of mind Chapter 8 Early Childhood Emotions 1 Emotional Development a b Between ages 2 and 6 children achieve a better understanding of their own and others feelings and emotional selfregulation improves They more often experience selfconscious emotions and empathy which contribute to their developing sense of morality By age 4 to 5 children correctly judge the causes of many basic emotions After age 4 children appreciate that both desires and beliefs motivate behavior theory of mind The more parents label emotions explain them and express warmth when conversing with preschoolers the better developed children s emotional understanding As early as 35 years old knowledge about emotions is linked to children s friendly considerate behavior willingness to make amends after harming another 2 Emotional SelfRegulation a By age 3 to 4 children can verbalize strategies for adjusting their emotional arousal to a more comfortable level Effortful control is vital in managing emotions in early childhood Warm patient parents who explain strategies for controlling feelings strengthen children s capacity to handle stress Preschoolers who experience negative emotion intensely find it harder to shift attention away from disturbing events The consequences of shame for children s adjusting may vary across cultures Parents who focus on how to improve performance rather than on the worth of the child induce more adaptive levels of shame and pride and greater persistence on difficult tasks 3 Empathy and Sympathy a The capacity for empathy is an important motivation of prosocial or altruistic behavior actions that benefit another person with no expected reward for the self In some children empathy does not lead to sympathy feelings of concern or sorrow for another s plight but instead escalates into personal distress Children who are sociable assertive and good at regulating emotion are more likely to help share and comfort others in distress When parents show sensitive empathetic concern for their preschoolers feelings children are likely to react with concern to the distress of others 4 Punishment a b Spanking Striking child with open hand on buttocks to modify behavior without causing harm 90 families admit to spanking 1314 year olds get spanked still 8 times a year Spanking is most popular in US h town d F5 gt9quot 6 month old is too young to be spanked they don t understand abuse Boys are spanked more than girls Parents are more likely to spank when they are angry depressed etc 85 said they wouldn t spank if they had a working alternative Spanking leads to antisocial depression and increased aggression etc Dr Elizabeth Geishoff spanking experiment Children that were spanked are 2x as likely to have alcohol abuse and anxiety problems Also more likely to have a lower IQ when they are older It is has an extreme negative correlation A child that is spanked at home is more likely to hit other children at school because his aggression is advocated at home More 36 year olds were hit the more they behaved badly Kids that are hit are more likely to have sexual problems later in life Also more likely to have delinquency participate in crime and be unemployed Parents that spank when it doesn t work instead of changing strategy they increase intensity 5 Gender Typing a Gender typing refers to any association of objects activities roles or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes Neither social learning theory nor cognitivedevelopmental theory adequately explain children s gender typing gender schema theory a third perspective that combines elements of the other two has gained favor Around age 2 children use gender words such as boy and girl appropriately and associate gender categories with certain activities and behavior Preschoolers actions in both play preferences and personality traits re ect their gender stereotyped beliefs Half or more of 34 year olds do not believe that gender stereotypes can be violated and mot 36 year olds do not want to be friends with a child who violates a gender stereotypes 6 Biological In uences a b Sex differences in behavior appear in many cultures around the world Certain ones make activity level and physical aggression female emotional sensitivity and preference for samesex playmates are widespread among mammalian species From an evolutionary standpoint males are genetically primed to compete for mates and females to rear children d Research indicates that sex hormones affect human play styles As a result preschoolers tend to choose samesex play partners whose interests and behaviors are compatible with their own e Environmental forces at home at school and in a community build on genetic in uences to promote vigorous gender typing in early ch dhood 7 Gender Roles Video a Age 2 know what gender they are b Always be a boy don t know what boys like though c Age 4 know what activities boys girls like to do 8 Kids on Gay Marriage Video a Older kids accept gay marriage more than little kids do b When little kids do not accept the gay marriage they are not sure why Chapter 9 Middle Childhood Biology and Cognition 1 Body Growth a In middle childhood 611ish children add about 23 inches and 5 pounds a year b Girls are shorter and lighter than boys between 68 but by age 9 everything is reverse c Girls have more body fat and boys have more muscle d During middle childhood bones of the body lengthen and broaden e Between ages 6 and 12 all 20 primary teeth fall out and become permanent teeth f Face lengthens and mouth widens 2 Health Issues a Effects of good nutrition and rapid development of the body s immune system protect schoolage children from disease b Poverty continues to be a predictor of ill health during school years c Nutrition i School age children need a well balanced diet to provide energy for learning and physical activity ii Malnutrition usually leads to physical and mental damage 3 Overweight and Obesity a Today 32 children are overweight and 17 are obese b Obesity is more than 20 increase over healthy weight based on the BMI body mass index c Overweight rate increase over Western countries d Overweight increases with age and 70 of affected kids become overweight adults 4 Causes of Obesity a Overweight children tend to have overweight parents b Identical twins are likely to share disorder but heredity only accounts for tendency to become overweight c Low SES in industrialized nations ethnic minorities likely to be obese i Family stress ii Lack of knowledge iii High fat good low cost food d Parents fail to help children regulate food intake e Obese children are more responsive to external stimuli associated with food and less responsive to internal hunger cues f Insufficient sleep goes with weight gain g Eating outside of home increases children food consumption and risk to gain weight h Psychological consequences of obesity i Negatively stereotyped and socially isolated in school ii Report more emotional social and school difficulties 5 Motor Development a Gross Motor Development i Running jumping and ball skills are more refined ii Motor skills re ect gains in exibility balance and agility iii Information processing contributes to motor performance iv Steady gains in reaction time b Fine Motor Development i Improves over school years ii Gains in writing and drawing 6 Sex Differences a Sex differences in motor skills become more pronounced b Girls better at fine motor skills and handwriting Also better at balance and agility c Boys better at gross motor skills d Boys advantage to muscle mass e Games with rules i Do not really care about rules as long as you are doing something ii Children spend less time engaged in informal play 7 Cognitive Development a Piaget s concrete operational stage extends from 7 to 11 years b Compared with early childhood thought is far more logical exible and organized c Children have the ability to pass conservation tasks which provides clear evidence of operations mental actions that obey logical rules e f They also demonstrate reversibility the ability to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction returning to the starting point Concrete operational children are capable of seriation the ability to order items along a quantitative dimension such as length or weight They can also seriate mentally an ability called transitive inference 8 Information Processing a b Working memory capacity continues to increase in middle childhood They observed improved performance on working memory tasks is supported by brain development and working memory benefits from enhanced speed of thinking Time needed to process information declines rapidly between ages 6 and 12 Children from low SES families are especially likely to score low on workingmemory tasks During the school years executive function undergoes its most energetic period of development Children handle increasingly difficult tasks that require the integration of working memory inhibition planning exible use of strategies and selfcorrection of behavior In middle childhood attention becomes more selective adaptable and planful Selective attention improves sharply between ages 6 and 10 with gains continuing throughout adolescence Older children are between at exibly adapting their attention to task requirements Planning improves greatly in middle childhood Memory strategies deliberate mental activities we use to store and retain information get better at middle childhood During middle childhood children s longterm knowledge base grows larger and becomes organized into increasingly elaborate hierarchically structured networks 9 Language Development a b Schoolage children develop language awareness which supports many complex language skills During the elementary school years vocabulary increases fourfold growing at a faster rate than in early childhood Children continue to benefit from conversation with more expert speakers and reading contributes enormously to vocabulary growth Schoolage children think about and use words more precisely than preschoolers As schoolage children learn to grasp multiple meanings of words they develop an understanding of metaphors and of riddles and puns Mastery of complex grammatical constructions also improves For example Englishspeaking children use the passive voice more frequently Improvements in pragmatics the communicative side of language occur as children s conversational strategies becomes more refined Children s narratives increase in organization detail and expressiveness gradually lengthening into a classic form in which events build to a high point and then resolve Many children grow up bilingual learning two or more languages An estimated 20 of US children 10 million speak a language other than English at home Children can become bilingual either by acquiring both languages at the same time in early childhood or by learning a second language after mastering the first A sensitive period for secondlanguage development exists Children who are uent in 2 languages outperform others on tests selective attention analytical reasoning and concept formation
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