Psychology 1000 Exam 1 study guide
Psychology 1000 Exam 1 study guide Psychology 1000
Popular in General Psychology 1000
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Holland on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 1000 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see General Psychology 1000 in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
Chapter 1 What’s the definition of psychology? o Scientific study of the mind and behavior What’s the empirical method? o Method or acquiring knowledge based on observation, including experimentation, rather than a method based only on forms of logical argument or previous authorities Why is psychology a social science? o No biological organism exists in isolation, and our behavior is influenced b our interactions with other What are the four goals of psychology, and what’s their order? o Describes behavior, explain behavior, predict behavior, control behavior What are nativism and philosophical empiricism, and what modern debate do they address? o Plato said certain knowledge is innate called nativism o Aristotle said all knowledge is acquired through experience called philosophical empiricism Whether if we are born in blank slave or not (nature and nurture) What are monism and dualism? o Monism Maintains the mind is a function of brain activity o Dualism Maintains the mind is distinct from the brain What’s phrenology, and what was the big problem with it? o Phrenology – asserted mental processes were localized to different brain areas What trend did phrenology and Paul Broca’s discovery represent in regard to the mindbrain relation debate? o Paul Broca discovered brain damage impaired specific brain functions (produce speech) What was structuralism, and what research technique did structuralists often use? o Understanding the conscious experience through introspection Ascertained the structure of the mind by revealing its individual components Date were collected through selfobservation of conscious experience called introspection What was functionalism? o Studied the purpose of mental processes in helping us adapt. (fits in environment) What’s psychoanalytic theory? o Emphasizes the importance of the unconscious and early childhood OR o Focus on the role of the unconscious in affecting conscious behavior What’s the unconscious? o Cannot be directly observed with the conscious minds, but it has its own process and deeply affects conscious thought. What were the criticisms of psychoanalytic theory that were mentioned in class? o Freud hold a dark view of human nature o The unconscious can’t be directly observed o Inferring unconscious influence is subjective, done retroactively. What is a major emphasis in Gestalt psychology? o Translation: Whole. Deals with the fact that although a sensory experience can be broken down into individual parts, how those parts relate to each other as a whole is often hat the individual respond to in perception. What were J.B. Watson’s criticisms of mental processes? o Study of consciousness was flawed because he believed that objective analysis of the mind was impossible. o Metal processes were subjective and vague. What’s behaviorism, and who was the most famous behaviorist (hint: he discovered operant learning)? o Focus on observing and controlling behavior OR o Advocates study only observable behavior B.F Sknnier (said free will is an illusion) What’s operant learning? o Behaviors frequency is contingent(肯肯肯肯肯) on its consequences. What’s humanism? o Perspective within psychology that emphasizes the potential for good that is innate to all humans. What is Abraham Maslow best known for doing? o Proposing a hierarchy of human needs in motivating behavior What therapeutic technique did Carl Rogers develop? o Clientcentered therapy in helping his clients deal with problematic issues that resulted in their seeking psychotherapy What two events spurred the cognitive revolution, and why did they do so? o Invention of the computer Provided a model for scientifically studying the mind o Noam Chomsky’s critique of verbal behavior Cost doubt on the idea that all behavior could be explained by learning. What’s cognitive psychology? o The study of thoughts and their relationships to behavior and experience (actions) What’s developmental psychology? o Scientific study of development across a lifespan What did Jean Piaget demonstrate with very young children? o Do not demonstrate object permanence. (The understanding that physical things continue to exist, even they are hidden from us. 肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯肯 What’s social psychology? o The study of the causes and consequences of social behavior What’s cultural psychology? o The study of the relationships between cultural and psychological processes With regard to cultural psychology, what’s the distinction between absolutism and relativism? o Males: large eyes, prominent cheekbones, large chine, big smile o Female: large eyes, small nose, small chin, large pupils, big smile What are clinical and counseling psychology? o Counseling psychology – a similar discipline that focuses on emotional, social, vocational and health related outcomes in individuals who are considered psychologically healthy o Clinical psychology – the area of psychology that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and other problematic patterns of behavior. What’s the American Psychological Association (APA)? o Professional organization representing psychologists in the U.S. o largest organization of psychologist in the world, its mission is to advance and disseminate psychological knowledge for the betterment of people Most psychologists have what kind of degree? o PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) or PsyD (Doctor of Psychology) Onethird of psychologists have what kind of degree? o MA ( Master of Arts) or MS (Master of Science) What are the two most common employment sectors for psychologists? o University and Hospital or Health service How many psychologists are there in the U.S., Europe, and Brazil, respectively? o 75%? What percentage of psychology Ph.D.’s did women earn in 2010? o 70% What percentage of psychology Ph.D.’s did minorities earn in 2010? o 24% What are the problems with a lack of diversity in the field of psychology? o Few perspectives contributing to the field o Minority individuals are deterred from entering the file, seeking therapy. Chapter 2 What are inductive and deductive reasoning? o Inductive Reasoning – empirical observations lead to new ideas o Deductive Reasoning – ideas are tested against the empirical world What’s the scientific method? o A procedure for finding truth using empirical evidence What are the four steps in the scientific method? o Developing an explanation, conducting research, interpreting date, correlational. What does the scientific way of knowing say about proving something vs. being confident in something? o We can never prove something, but can be confident in something What’s a theory? o Best understanding that we have of that part of the natural world (Hypothetical, explaination) What’s a hypothesis? o Testable prediction made by a theory or tentative and testable statement about the relationship between two or more variables. What’s falsifiability? o Able to be disproven by experimentation results What’s research? o Systematic inquiry aimed at discovering new knowledge What are the three common types of research mentioned in class? o Descriptive, correlation, experimental What’s archival research, and what are its pros and cons? o Using existing date like newspaper or research articles Pro: easy to do, fast Con: incomplete, poor quality data Be able to define demand characteristics. o Aspects of research setting that cause people to behave the way they think someone wants. What’s naturalistic observation, and what are its pros and cons? o Watching behavior as it naturally occurs Pro: avoiding demand characteristics. Con: researcher has very little control over subject behavior What’s survey research, and what are its pros and cons? o Asking a series of questions about behavior or mental processes Pro: easy, easy to college date (a lots of data) Con: reprehensive sample is required, accurate responses don’t always occur Know the difference between a sample and a population. o Sample – a subset of individuals selected from population o Population – which the over all search that the researchers are interested in. What’s a case study, and what are its pros and cons? o Indepth investigation of a small number of people Pro: yield a lot of date about those studied Con: resources intensive and if someone is too distinctive the date won’t generalize to others What’s correlational research, and what’s a correlation? o Relationship between two variables is determined o Correlation – relationship between two more variables What’s a positive correlation, and how is one represented mathematically? o Move in the same direction (.01,1) What’s a negative correlation, and how is one represented mathematically? o Move in the opposite direction ((.01,1) What’s a confounding variable? o May responsible for change X and Y What’s experimental research? o Involves manipulating one variable to measure the effect on another while controlling all extraneous variables. What’s an operational definition? o Description of how we will measure our variables, and it is important in allowing other understand exactly how and what a researcher measures in a particular experiment. What are singleblind and doubleblind studies? o Singleblind study – one of the groups (participants) are unaware as to which group they are in (experiment or control group) while the researcher who developed the experiment know which participants are in each group o Doubleblind studies – both the researchers and the participants are blind to group assignments. What’s the placebo effect? o It occurs when people’s expectations or beliefs influence or determine their experience in a given situation What are independent variables and dependent variables? o IV – manipulated or controlled by the experimenter o DV – what the researcher measures to see how much effect the independent variable had What’s the difference between an experimental group and a control group? o Experimental Group – gets the experimental manipulation – the treatment or variable being tested – CG does not Why do we include a control group in an experiment? o To be treated similarly to the EG What’s random assignment, and why is it used? o Method of experimental group assignment in which all participants to have an equal chance of being assigned to either group Reduce bias (weren’t certain group could be comprise only certain things. How do experiments allow us to infer causality? o Experiments have comparable group complete same procedure expect the level of IV, different behavior were caused by different IV What’s a frequency distribution? o Arrangement of scores showing how often each score occurs (normal) What are descriptive statistics and what are inferential statistics? o Descriptive (sample)– measures of central tendency describe date in the center of a distribution o Inferential – allow inferences about a population How do we define the mean, the median, and the mode? o Mean (sum) o Median – middle score o Mode – most frequently occurring score What’s the problem with the mean, and what’s often done to deal with this problem? o Very sensitive to extreme scores o What are measures of variability? o Show how much scores different one another What’s standard deviation, and what does a larger standard deviation indicate? o The average distance between score and mean After a researcher’s study confirms a hypothesis, what do other researchers often do? o Drawing conclusions. Allowed them to confidently state that it was valid What are reliability and validity? o Reliability – refers to the ability to consistently produce a given result o Validity – refers to the extent to which a given instrument or tool accurately measures what it’s supposed to measure What’s external validity? o It occurs in other contexts What’s informed consent? o Provides a written description of what participants can expect during the experiment, including potential risks and implications of the research. Why is deception sometimes used in psychological research, and what’s done to compensate for the use of deception? o To prevent participants knowledge of the exact research question from affecting the results of the study. Complete, honest information about the purpose of the experiment, how date collected will be used What’s the purpose of an Institutional Animal Case and Use Committee (IACUC)? o Committee of administrators, scientists, veterinarians, and community members that reviews proposals for research involving human participants Chapter 3 What’s the theory of evolution by natural selection? o States that organisms that are better suited for their environments will survive and reproduce compared to those that are poorly suited for their environment What are chromosomes and DNA? o Chromosomes – long strings of genetic (information) material o DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) helix shaped molecule made of nucleotide base pairs What’s a gene, and what’s an allele, and what are dominant and recessive alleles? o Gene – control or partially control a number of visible characteristics know as traits. o Dominant alleles – either from one parent (Bb) or both parents (BB) will always results in phenotype associated with dominant allele (whose phenotype will be expressed in an individual that possesses that allele) o Recessive alleles – allele whose phenotype will be expressed only if an individual is homozygous for that allele What are genotype and phenotype? o Genotype – genetic make up of that individual (Determined the interaction of genetic material supplied by parents) o Phenotype – individual’s inherited physical characteristics (each parent contributes half genetic informational carried by the offspring, resulting physical characteristics of the offspring) What’s the nervous system? o Composed of two basic cell types: glial cells and neurons What are neurons? o Serve as interconnected informational processors that are essential for all the tasks of the nervous system (cell in our brain) Know every part of the structure of a neuron and its function. o Soma – (cell body) contains the nucleus of the neuron. o Dendrites – serve as input sites where signals are received from other neurons o Axon – signals are transmitted electrically across the soma and down a major extension from the soma (carries messages from dendrites) o Terminal button – contain synaptic vesicles that house neurotransmitters, chemical messengers of the nervous system (receive messages and send them to other neuron) o Myelin sheath – coats the axon and acts as a insulator increasing the speed at which the signal travels (insulates the axon and speeds mess transmission) What’s the resting potential? o Between signals, the neuron membrane’s potential is held in a state of readiness. (when neuron not 肯 a signal) How is a neuron’s electrical charge changed from negative to positive? o A signal arriving at a neuron carries ions that make the neurons positive charge. What happens when a signal arrives at a neuron? o Make it positive charge What’s an action potential? o The electrical signal that typically moves from the cell body down the axon to the axon terminals. When does an action potential occur? o When action potential reaches terminal buttons, chemical signals released What’s the allornone phenomenon? o Phenomenon that incoming signal from another neuron is either sufficient or insufficient to reach the threshold of excitation. What effect do more intense stimuli have on neurons? o The more intense stimuli, produce more higher firing rates How do signals travel between neurons? o Signals reach terminal button cause release chemical across a synapse to adjacent neuron’s dendrites What are neurotransmitters? o Chemical massager that transmit information throughout nerves system What happens to neurotransmitters remaining at a synapse? o Not absorbed by dendrites are pumped back into terminal button called reuptake. What are psychotropic medications? o Drugs that treat psychiatric symptoms by restoring neurotransmitter balance Know the seven major neurotransmitters discussed in class and the psychological processes and behaviors with which they’re involved. o Acetylcholine – memory, muscle action (movement) effect on behavior: increased arousal, enhanced cognition o Betaendorphin – involved in pain, pleasure (Elevate mood). PEB: decreased anxiety, decreased tension o Dopamine – involved in mood, sleep, learning. PEB: increased pleasure, suppressed appetite o Gamaaminobutyric acid (GABA) – brain function, sleep. PEB: decreased anxiety, decreased tension o Glutamate – involved in memory, learning. PEB: increased learning, enhanced memory o Norepinephrine – involved heart, intestines, alertness. PEB: increased arousal, suppressed appetite o Serotonin – involved in mood, sleep. PEB: modulated mood, suppressed appetite. What are agonists and antagonists? o Agonists chemicals that mimic a neurotransmitter at the receptor site and strengthen its effects o Antagonist – blocks or impedes the normal activity of a neurotransmitter at the receptor What’s the central nervous system (CNS)? o Composed brain and spinal cord What’s the peripheral nervous system (PNS)? o Connects the brain and spinal cord to the muscles, organs and senses in the periphery of the body. (rest of the body What are the divisions of the PNS, and what do they control? o Somatic nervous systems controls voluntary activities relaying on information and CNS o Autonomic nervous systems control in activity control organs and glands What are the divisions of the autonomic nervous system, and what do they do? o Sympathetic systems prepares the body for stressful activities o Parasympathetic system returns body to normal resting state (day to day operations) What’s the fight or flight response? o Allows the body access to energy reserves and heightened sensory capacity so that it might fight off a threat or run away to safety. What’s an electroencephalogram (EEG)? o Recording the electrical activity of the brain via electrodes on the scalp (produces a graphical display brain’s EA) What’s computerized tomography (CT) scan? o Imaging technique in which a computer coordinates and integrates multiple xrays of a given area What’s positron emission tomography (PET) scan? o Involves injecting individuals with a mildly radioactive substance and monitoring changes in blood flow to different regions of the brain (displays a pic of brain at a given moment) What’s functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)? o MRI that shows changes in metabolic activity over time by tracking What’s transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)? o Disrupts brain activity to measure effects on functioning What’s the cerebral cortex? o Very uneven, characterized by a distinctive pattern of folds or bumps What brain structures are included in the hindbrain? o Cerebellum, medulla, pons What do the cerebellum, medulla, and pons control? o Cerebellum – controls balance, coordination, movement and motor skills o Medulla – controls breathing, heart rate, blood pressure o Pons – regulates brain activity during sleep What brain structures are included in the forebrain? o Hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala What do the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala control? o Hypothalamus – regulate temp, hunger, thirst, sexual behavior o Hippocampus – involves the creation of new memories o Amygdala – involves emotions, especially formation of emotional memories What’s a brain hemisphere, and what is meant by lateralized behavior? o Left or right half of the brain Behaviors more influenced by one hemisphere are lateralized. Generally speaking, what are the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes involved with? o Brain What’s the endocrine system? o Series of glands that produce chemical substances know as hormones Chapter 4 What is consciousness? o Individuals subjective experience of internal and external stimuli (awareness) What’s the problem of other minds, and why does it exist? o We never know if other people are also just acting like they have consciousness o Speaks the difficulty perceiving consciousness in other What are the four properties of consciousness? o Intentionality – direct consciousness o Unity – combine sensory info a coherent consciousness experience o Selectivity – capacity include object consciousness but not others o Transience – tendency consciousness to change focus What are the three levels of normal consciousness? o Minimal consciousness – low level awareness o Full consciousness – were fully aware of and can report our mental state o Selfconsciousness – were totally focused on ourselves. What do we know about whether animals can be selfconscious? o Animal has conscious too. What’s the dynamic unconscious? o An active system including hidden memories, deep instincts and desires, and the struggle to control those forces. How do we keep unacceptable thoughts in the unconscious, and what’s one way they can often slip out? o Repression keep unacceptable thoughts in the unforced o Freudian slip 肯肯 肯肯肯肯肯肯肯not an accident What’s the cognitive unconscious? o Includes mental processes we’re not aware of that influence behavior What’s a biological rhythm? o Internal rhythms of biological activity What’s a circadian rhythm? o Biological processes operating on a 24 hour cycle What’s homeostasis? o Tendency to maintain a balance, or optimal level, within a biological system Generally speaking, what are the effects of sleep deprivation? o Can results in decreased mental alertness and cognitive. (depressionlike symptoms) What are REM sleep and NREM sleep? o REM (rapid eye movement) – characterized by rapid eye movement and a high level of brain activity (awake, drowsy, released) o NREM – (non REM) – subdivided into very four stages of sleep. (period of sleep outside periods of REM sleep) Know the stages of NREM sleep and the brain waves that characterize each one. o Stage 1 sleep – transitional phase that occurs between wakefulness and sleep. Slow down respiration and heart beat State 1 sleep is associated with both alpha and theta wave. o Stage 2 sleep – the body goes into a state of deep relaxation. Theta waves still dominate the activity of the brain. o Stage 3&4 sleep – often referred to as deep sleep or slowwave sleep because these are characterized by low frequency up to 4Hz, high amplitude delta wave. Know the four sleep disorders covered in class. o Insomnia – difficulty falling or staying asleep o Sleep apnea – occurs when breathing cases during sleep o Somnambulism – occurs when person walk while asleep o Narcolepsy – characterized by the sudden onset of sleep What’s unconscious wish fulfillment theory? o Dreams content represents unconscious desires What are the manifest content and latent content of a dream? o Manifest content – the dreams actual content o Latent content – dreams hidden underlying meaning storyline. (Fueld:sex) What’s the activationsynthesis model? o Random electrical energy in the brain activates memories we experience as dreams What’s dreamsforsurvival theory? o We consider and reprocess important information during sleep Dreams content represents various everyday issues and desires What are psychoactive drugs? o Change our consciousness by changing the brain’s chemical message system Know the four important drug use terms. o Addiction – compulsive desire to use a drug o Tolerance – need to take large doses of a drug to achieve the affect o Dependency – need to take a drug to prevent withdraw symptoms o Withdraw – painful physical and psychological symptoms that occurs after drug use cessation What are physical dependence and psychological dependence? o Physical dependence Involves changes in normal bodily functions the user will experience withdrawal from the drug upon cessation of use o Psychological dependence – has an emotional, rather than physical, need for the drug and may use the drug to relieve psychological distress What do depressants do, and how do they produce their effects? o Reduce CNS (central nerves system) activity o Depressants are GABA agonists (transition) Alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates. What are some common depressants? o Serve as agonists of the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter system) Know the two theories discussed in class that attempt to explain the effects of alcohol. o Expectancy theory – our expectations about alcohol influence its effects o Alcohol myopia – alcohol makes us focus on prominent or conspicuous information What do opioids do, and how do they produce their effects? o Endorphin agonists (relive pain) What are some common opioids? o Opium, heroin, morphine, methadone, codeine What do hallucinogens do, and how do they produce their effects? o Alter sensation and perception What are some common hallucinogens? o LSD – serotonin agonists, mescaline – serotonin A, PCP and ketamine – glutamate antamate What does cannabis do, and how does it produce its effects? o Produces euphoria and wellbeing, though it can exacerbate negative anandamide Cannabis is an anadamide agonist (mood) What do stimulants do, and how do they produce their effects? o Increases CNS activity o Are dopamine and norepinephrine and non epinephrine agonist What are some common stimulants? o Cocaine, caffeine, metham phetamine (肯肯) What’s hypnosis? o State of extreme selffocus and attention in which minimal attention is given to external stimuli What’s meditation? o The act of focusing on a single target (breath, repeated sound) to increase awareness of the moment
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